Photo of Sue Kessner, MS, LPCC
Sue Kessner
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MS, LPCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
Welcome to Serenity Psychotherapy. Feeling Stressed? Overwhelmed by Challenges in your Life? Living life on life's terms is not always easy. The stresses of daily living often encroach on our happiness and serenity. Learning to have a solution focused and positive perspective on life's challenges through psychotherapy can change your life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance for you or your children, or you're ready to move in a new direction in your life, I can help you to free up your life!
Welcome to Serenity Psychotherapy. Feeling Stressed? Overwhelmed by Challenges in your Life? Living life on life's terms is not always easy. The stresses of daily living often encroach on our happiness and serenity. Learning to have a solution focused and positive perspective on life's challenges through psychotherapy can change your life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance for you or your children, or you're ready to move in a new direction in your life, I can help you to free up your life!
(415) 669-5836 View (415) 669-5836
Photo of Robert Carmignani, PhD, Psychologist
Robert Carmignani
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
In individual therapy I join with the patient to establish a relationship in which we will explore developmental relational issues that cause pain and suffering. Such issues begin as intense emotions, but they can be understood, accepted, and integrated. This process leads to healing and change. Life takes on new perspectives as the emotional self provides new information about the external and internal world that brings stability and vitality to the personality. The relationship between us deepens allowing us to explore the complex dimensions of personality that allow for growth and development unique to the individual.
In individual therapy I join with the patient to establish a relationship in which we will explore developmental relational issues that cause pain and suffering. Such issues begin as intense emotions, but they can be understood, accepted, and integrated. This process leads to healing and change. Life takes on new perspectives as the emotional self provides new information about the external and internal world that brings stability and vitality to the personality. The relationship between us deepens allowing us to explore the complex dimensions of personality that allow for growth and development unique to the individual.
(415) 639-9908 View (415) 639-9908
Photo of Michelle Shariat-Hansen, PsyD, Psychologist
Michelle Shariat-Hansen
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
If you are feeling overwhelmed and struggling to cope, seeking support can help you navigate stressors due to life transitions, relationships, depression, anxiety or trauma. I am so passionate about helping people identify obstacles and live a more fulfilling, balanced life. To facilitate this process, I provide support with respectful, non-judgmental listening to your personal concerns. My style is active and goal-oriented; I use encouragement, teach effective coping strategies and offer new perspectives and tools. I help clients through challenging situations to discover solutions to the issues that bring them to therapy.
If you are feeling overwhelmed and struggling to cope, seeking support can help you navigate stressors due to life transitions, relationships, depression, anxiety or trauma. I am so passionate about helping people identify obstacles and live a more fulfilling, balanced life. To facilitate this process, I provide support with respectful, non-judgmental listening to your personal concerns. My style is active and goal-oriented; I use encouragement, teach effective coping strategies and offer new perspectives and tools. I help clients through challenging situations to discover solutions to the issues that bring them to therapy.
(415) 968-6896 View (415) 968-6896
Photo of William Webster, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
William Webster
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
Not accepting new clients
Hello, I seek to support change in the areas of anxiety, trauma, depression, parenting, employment, and challenges that occur over the course of one's life.
Hello, I seek to support change in the areas of anxiety, trauma, depression, parenting, employment, and challenges that occur over the course of one's life.
(415) 943-2460 View (415) 943-2460
Photo of Andrew Copperman, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Andrew Copperman
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
I am a Certified Emotionally Focused Therapist for couples. In this therapy we re-frame and restructure the emotional experience you have with your partner. We help you move from conflict and disappointment to intimacy and love. We all want to be seen, heard and understood by our partner; to feel our loved one is accessible, responsive and engaged. This therapy, through experiential work in the sessions, accomplishes amazing shifts in the safety, closeness and love felt with your partner. My approach is highly interactive and experiential.
I am a Certified Emotionally Focused Therapist for couples. In this therapy we re-frame and restructure the emotional experience you have with your partner. We help you move from conflict and disappointment to intimacy and love. We all want to be seen, heard and understood by our partner; to feel our loved one is accessible, responsive and engaged. This therapy, through experiential work in the sessions, accomplishes amazing shifts in the safety, closeness and love felt with your partner. My approach is highly interactive and experiential.
(415) 237-2044 View (415) 237-2044
Photo of Dan O'Donnell, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dan O'Donnell
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
Problems with your teen or lack of purpose issues? I also work with adults, couples and families. As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and lead a life that is worth celebrating. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work together to better understand and resolve current challenges. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, Please call or email me for an individual, couples or family therapy consultation today
Problems with your teen or lack of purpose issues? I also work with adults, couples and families. As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and lead a life that is worth celebrating. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work together to better understand and resolve current challenges. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, Please call or email me for an individual, couples or family therapy consultation today
(707) 595-2303 View (707) 595-2303
Photo of Stacey Nelson, PhD, Psychologist
Stacey Nelson
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
Welcome to my practice! I'm a licensed psychologist who specializes in psychological, psychoeducational, and neuropsychological evaluations of children, adolescents, and adults. You may be seeking an evaluation for yourself or your child in order to clarify areas of concern, formulate a set of recommendations, and/or determine eligibility for accommodations either in school or for standardized testing. An evaluation can serve to help better understand your challenges, highlight your strengths, and help you reach your potential in a variety of life domains.
Welcome to my practice! I'm a licensed psychologist who specializes in psychological, psychoeducational, and neuropsychological evaluations of children, adolescents, and adults. You may be seeking an evaluation for yourself or your child in order to clarify areas of concern, formulate a set of recommendations, and/or determine eligibility for accommodations either in school or for standardized testing. An evaluation can serve to help better understand your challenges, highlight your strengths, and help you reach your potential in a variety of life domains.
(415) 532-8731 View (415) 532-8731
Photo of Mary Paige, PsyD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Mary Paige
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
I have been practicing as a psychotherapist since 1987 in San Francisco and Novato. My specialty has been working with people who have grown up with a narcissistic parent or who have married or is working for someone with this very difficult disorder. Out of this work, I have developed ways of working with the anxiety and depression that comes along with the destruction to self esteem. Of course, I have also worked with other issues that we humans have such as fertility problems, marital problems, body image and weight, sexuality, sexual preference and coping with loss, grief and loneliness.
I have been practicing as a psychotherapist since 1987 in San Francisco and Novato. My specialty has been working with people who have grown up with a narcissistic parent or who have married or is working for someone with this very difficult disorder. Out of this work, I have developed ways of working with the anxiety and depression that comes along with the destruction to self esteem. Of course, I have also worked with other issues that we humans have such as fertility problems, marital problems, body image and weight, sexuality, sexual preference and coping with loss, grief and loneliness.
(415) 799-9616 View (415) 799-9616
Photo of Jan Ardell, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jan Ardell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
If you have concerns for yourself or someone close to you, seeking my help may be just what you need. Sadness, worry, anger, confusion and self-doubt can spring from many sources. If these feelings continue long-term they rob you of energy and vitality and can impair your health. You do not need to struggle alone. Having a trusted professional with whom to collaborate can make all the difference. Working with a seasoned therapist can bring about improved clarity, peace of mind and greater happiness.
If you have concerns for yourself or someone close to you, seeking my help may be just what you need. Sadness, worry, anger, confusion and self-doubt can spring from many sources. If these feelings continue long-term they rob you of energy and vitality and can impair your health. You do not need to struggle alone. Having a trusted professional with whom to collaborate can make all the difference. Working with a seasoned therapist can bring about improved clarity, peace of mind and greater happiness.
(415) 868-4858 View (415) 868-4858
Photo of Elisha Ellis Madsen | Board-Certified Music Therapist, MME, MT-BC
Elisha Ellis Madsen | Board-Certified Music Therapist
MME, MT-BC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
Waitlist for new clients
Are you struggling with anxiety or self-doubt? Do you ever feel like your emotions control you? Constantly worried about the future or stuck in the past? Lost touch with your creative side (or perhaps you were never allowed to explore it in the first place?) You aren’t alone, and I want to help you feel grounded, confident, and more present in your own life. I’m Elisha: I specialize in music therapy for adults who want to ease anxiety, improve self-esteem, and reignite creativity through a holistic lens. My therapeutic approach is authentic, bold, intuitive, and creative. I am committed to anti-oppressive and inclusive practice.
Are you struggling with anxiety or self-doubt? Do you ever feel like your emotions control you? Constantly worried about the future or stuck in the past? Lost touch with your creative side (or perhaps you were never allowed to explore it in the first place?) You aren’t alone, and I want to help you feel grounded, confident, and more present in your own life. I’m Elisha: I specialize in music therapy for adults who want to ease anxiety, improve self-esteem, and reignite creativity through a holistic lens. My therapeutic approach is authentic, bold, intuitive, and creative. I am committed to anti-oppressive and inclusive practice.
(415) 236-5937 View (415) 236-5937
Photo of Lisa Pasquinelli, PhD, Psychologist
Lisa Pasquinelli
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
Not accepting new clients
When working with clients, I come from a strengths-based, positive psychology approach which allows you to recognize your own unique capacities and increase your positive mindset. I enjoy working with individuals who are struggling with a wide range of concerns helping you align with the truth of who you are. My goal is to help you engage in life through a meaningful relationship with yourself and others through releasing old thoughts and behavior patterns which are no longer serving you.
When working with clients, I come from a strengths-based, positive psychology approach which allows you to recognize your own unique capacities and increase your positive mindset. I enjoy working with individuals who are struggling with a wide range of concerns helping you align with the truth of who you are. My goal is to help you engage in life through a meaningful relationship with yourself and others through releasing old thoughts and behavior patterns which are no longer serving you.
(628) 666-0883 View (628) 666-0883
Photo of Sandra Devine, MSW, LCSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sandra Devine
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, BCD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My goal as a therapist is for you to feel supported and inspired. Our work together is directed towards balancing and healing your health and life issues. When you come in to see me, we start where your concerns are. You may come to recognize your pain as an opportunity to expand your insight and empowerment. As you increase your self-awareness, you become more whole. Frequently, your concerns are designed to focus your energy upon imbalances that need attention, so you can discover your innate strength and wisdom.
My goal as a therapist is for you to feel supported and inspired. Our work together is directed towards balancing and healing your health and life issues. When you come in to see me, we start where your concerns are. You may come to recognize your pain as an opportunity to expand your insight and empowerment. As you increase your self-awareness, you become more whole. Frequently, your concerns are designed to focus your energy upon imbalances that need attention, so you can discover your innate strength and wisdom.
(415) 347-5962 View (415) 347-5962
Photo of Laura J Cabanski Dunning, PhD, Psychologist
Laura J Cabanski Dunning
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
Are you anxious? Troubled? Stuck? I know how difficult it is to enjoy life when you feel trapped by stressful thoughts, feelings, circumstances, relationships. I work creatively with you as you work through difficulties and find new energy and inspiration in your life. We will work together to decrease your current distress as quickly as possible, while helping you to gain deeper insight and move forward positively in your life. I'll tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, utilizing a variety of strategies such as hypnosis, EMDR, mindfulness, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), stress management, relaxation, CBT.
Are you anxious? Troubled? Stuck? I know how difficult it is to enjoy life when you feel trapped by stressful thoughts, feelings, circumstances, relationships. I work creatively with you as you work through difficulties and find new energy and inspiration in your life. We will work together to decrease your current distress as quickly as possible, while helping you to gain deeper insight and move forward positively in your life. I'll tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, utilizing a variety of strategies such as hypnosis, EMDR, mindfulness, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), stress management, relaxation, CBT.
(415) 858-6264 View (415) 858-6264
Photo of Ann Kyser, PhD, Psychologist
Ann Kyser
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
Not accepting new clients
Dr. Kyser has extensive experience in Health Psychology, Behavioral Medicine, Chronic Pain Treatment, and Clinical Psychology. She is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Care Providers in Psychology based in Washington, DC. Dr Kyser has 30 years of experience in the field of clinical work. She has been trained in MBSR Chronic Pain, CBT, DBT, EMDR, ACT, PFACT, approaches to treatment. She values understanding the specific needs of her client and bases her treatment approach upon developing a trusting relationship, dependability,and a collaborative agreement to the goals of the therapeutic working relationship.
Dr. Kyser has extensive experience in Health Psychology, Behavioral Medicine, Chronic Pain Treatment, and Clinical Psychology. She is credentialed by the National Registry of Health Care Providers in Psychology based in Washington, DC. Dr Kyser has 30 years of experience in the field of clinical work. She has been trained in MBSR Chronic Pain, CBT, DBT, EMDR, ACT, PFACT, approaches to treatment. She values understanding the specific needs of her client and bases her treatment approach upon developing a trusting relationship, dependability,and a collaborative agreement to the goals of the therapeutic working relationship.
(415) 831-7624 View (415) 831-7624
Photo of Judith Levin, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Judith Levin
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
Whether you are familiar with therapy or considering exploring how a therapist may be able to assist you in meeting the challenges you face with courage and grace, I am here to help you move ahead. Every person I encounter has a unique and genuine seed at their core. This I will nurture to the best of my ability. Every person also faces difficulties that encourage growth and transformation. These I will support you to investigate and navigate skillfully. I have worked with many clients whose lives have been impacted by trauma, are experiencing relational difficulties, and people who feel they are not meeting their potential.
Whether you are familiar with therapy or considering exploring how a therapist may be able to assist you in meeting the challenges you face with courage and grace, I am here to help you move ahead. Every person I encounter has a unique and genuine seed at their core. This I will nurture to the best of my ability. Every person also faces difficulties that encourage growth and transformation. These I will support you to investigate and navigate skillfully. I have worked with many clients whose lives have been impacted by trauma, are experiencing relational difficulties, and people who feel they are not meeting their potential.
(628) 265-4768 View (628) 265-4768
Photo of Ro Loughran, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Ro Loughran
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949  (Online Only)
I offer a compassionate space to bring gentle attention to whatever needs tending in your life, so that you may heal and thrive. No matter how hopeless you feel, I will be your ally in strengthening your connection to your inner wisdom, clarity, courage, and confidence. I consider it a privilege to help you honor your deepest nature, amplify your strengths, and live the life that you want for yourself.
I offer a compassionate space to bring gentle attention to whatever needs tending in your life, so that you may heal and thrive. No matter how hopeless you feel, I will be your ally in strengthening your connection to your inner wisdom, clarity, courage, and confidence. I consider it a privilege to help you honor your deepest nature, amplify your strengths, and live the life that you want for yourself.
(415) 966-4285 View (415) 966-4285
Photo of Lisa Olson, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Lisa Olson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
Waitlist for new clients
Kindness and collaboration are effective approaches to treating anxiety, depression, and trauma. Whether you are feeling pain from old wounds, needing to change an unwanted behavior, or just wanting more happiness, together we can explore your needs and find solutions that work for you. I can help you discover how the best parts of your self can free you from the patterns that hold you back. I have years of experience working with individuals, families, and children. I provide compassionate, effective treatment for trauma, abuse, depression, anxiety, relationship issues and the challenges of parenting.
Kindness and collaboration are effective approaches to treating anxiety, depression, and trauma. Whether you are feeling pain from old wounds, needing to change an unwanted behavior, or just wanting more happiness, together we can explore your needs and find solutions that work for you. I can help you discover how the best parts of your self can free you from the patterns that hold you back. I have years of experience working with individuals, families, and children. I provide compassionate, effective treatment for trauma, abuse, depression, anxiety, relationship issues and the challenges of parenting.
(415) 200-4320 View (415) 200-4320
Photo of John Alilovich, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
John Alilovich
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Novato, CA 94949
Are you feeling overwhelmed, depressed or anxious? Are you struggling with confidently meeting life's obstacles? I have been able to help where others have failed. My 38 years in practice, training and life experience allows me to provide a warm and deeply caring connection which is necessary for healing. I am very interested in meeting you and assisting in your transformation to the happy, healthy, connected person you always hoped you would be. Over the years I have discovered that therapy is the beginning in having a truly authentic and happy existence. I can also assist you in developing a daily practice of mindfulness.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, depressed or anxious? Are you struggling with confidently meeting life's obstacles? I have been able to help where others have failed. My 38 years in practice, training and life experience allows me to provide a warm and deeply caring connection which is necessary for healing. I am very interested in meeting you and assisting in your transformation to the happy, healthy, connected person you always hoped you would be. Over the years I have discovered that therapy is the beginning in having a truly authentic and happy existence. I can also assist you in developing a daily practice of mindfulness.
(707) 229-0881 View (707) 229-0881
Barbara E Nova
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
After 30 years of doing psychotherapy with individuals and families, I am shifting to providing psychological assessments with children, teens, and adults. I currently have a waiting list for psychological assessments. My approach is thorough and affordable. Please call today for a free one-hour consultation.
After 30 years of doing psychotherapy with individuals and families, I am shifting to providing psychological assessments with children, teens, and adults. I currently have a waiting list for psychological assessments. My approach is thorough and affordable. Please call today for a free one-hour consultation.
(415) 991-3275 View (415) 991-3275
Photo of Susan Kenny, LMFT, SEP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Susan Kenny
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, SEP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Novato, CA 94949
I work as a Somatic Psychotherapist helping adults understand and regulate their nervous system. I am trained as both a Somatic Experiencing Practitioner and a Transforming Touch Therapist to help clients with developmental trauma as well as depression, anxiety, stress, and loss. I use a body based approach to understand sensations in the body, and my style is active, warm and empathic. I provide a safe environment to learn how to harness your inner resources, manage stress and emotions in both the mind and the nervous system, and help you create more balance and ease in you life.
I work as a Somatic Psychotherapist helping adults understand and regulate their nervous system. I am trained as both a Somatic Experiencing Practitioner and a Transforming Touch Therapist to help clients with developmental trauma as well as depression, anxiety, stress, and loss. I use a body based approach to understand sensations in the body, and my style is active, warm and empathic. I provide a safe environment to learn how to harness your inner resources, manage stress and emotions in both the mind and the nervous system, and help you create more balance and ease in you life.
(415) 408-6891 View (415) 408-6891

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 94949

50+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in 94949 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
81% Depression
79% Self Esteem
74% Relationship Issues
72% Trauma and PTSD
69% Coping Skills
59% Stress

Average years in practice

20 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

33% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
33% Other
29% Optum

How Therapists in 94949 see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
24% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 94949?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.