Therapists in 93313

Photo of Chanell Shavers, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Chanell Shavers
Marriage & Family Therapist
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Chanell Shavers, LMFT has been practicing for several years. She enjoys working with couples and individuals adults with depression, anxiety, and marital issues. She creates a safe place for all and welcomes the LGBTQ community. Some of her best work has been promoting self-confidence in men and women while helping decrease and manage depression.
Chanell Shavers, LMFT has been practicing for several years. She enjoys working with couples and individuals adults with depression, anxiety, and marital issues. She creates a safe place for all and welcomes the LGBTQ community. Some of her best work has been promoting self-confidence in men and women while helping decrease and manage depression.
(661) 463-7841 View (661) 463-7841
Photo of Amber Crume, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Amber Crume
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Amber Lee Crume, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 15 years of experience. My greatest hope is to help people achieve a greater sense of happiness and well-being. I love being a therapist and helping you learn more about yourself, your relationships, and new proven strategies and techniques to address life's most challenging obstacles. The process really does work!
My name is Amber Lee Crume, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 15 years of experience. My greatest hope is to help people achieve a greater sense of happiness and well-being. I love being a therapist and helping you learn more about yourself, your relationships, and new proven strategies and techniques to address life's most challenging obstacles. The process really does work!
(661) 727-7276 View (661) 727-7276
Photo of Ana Rivera, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Ana Rivera
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313  (Online Only)
Life can get difficult and throw various obstacles our way. At times, we may need a nonjudgmental and understanding person to help us through obstacles. Things may become blurry through the lens of depression, anxiety, and/or trauma. Nevertheless, we are all capable of growth and deserving of a life with meaning, hope, and a sense of belonging.
Life can get difficult and throw various obstacles our way. At times, we may need a nonjudgmental and understanding person to help us through obstacles. Things may become blurry through the lens of depression, anxiety, and/or trauma. Nevertheless, we are all capable of growth and deserving of a life with meaning, hope, and a sense of belonging.
(661) 690-4990 View (661) 690-4990
Photo of Georgina Kasih, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Georgina Kasih
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Georgina Kasih, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Southern California, and I work with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults and specialize in the areas of relationship issues, trauma, anxiety, grief & loss, ADHD, and ASD. I use Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Problem-Solving Therapy, CBT, Seeking Safety, and somatic therapy techniques, among many other strategies, to help my clients achieve their personal goals. My therapeutic approach is tailored specifically to the needs of my clients.
My name is Georgina Kasih, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Southern California, and I work with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults and specialize in the areas of relationship issues, trauma, anxiety, grief & loss, ADHD, and ASD. I use Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Problem-Solving Therapy, CBT, Seeking Safety, and somatic therapy techniques, among many other strategies, to help my clients achieve their personal goals. My therapeutic approach is tailored specifically to the needs of my clients.
(661) 690-0627 View (661) 690-0627
Photo of Lori Guidinglight, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Lori Guidinglight
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Passionate Professional Licensed Clinical Social Worker who provides therapy via remote to Individual Adults Ages 18 and up to help make the world a mentally healthier -one client at a time. Each client is unique, and I meet you where you are in the moment. I work with from a Strengths Based perspective integrating Body, Mind, and Spirit. I use aspects of several empirical based modalities such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MBCBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and more. Additionally, I am Polyvagal Informed.
Passionate Professional Licensed Clinical Social Worker who provides therapy via remote to Individual Adults Ages 18 and up to help make the world a mentally healthier -one client at a time. Each client is unique, and I meet you where you are in the moment. I work with from a Strengths Based perspective integrating Body, Mind, and Spirit. I use aspects of several empirical based modalities such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MBCBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and more. Additionally, I am Polyvagal Informed.
(661) 320-8629 View (661) 320-8629
Photo of Sandra Guillen, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Sandra Guillen
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Hi, my name is Sandra Guillen. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in the state of California and have a Master of Arts in Psychology with an emphasize in Marriage and Family Therapy degree from Chapman University.  I believe therapy is most beneficial when the client feels heard and supported. This is why I prefer a client center approach when practicing therapy. My focus is in trauma work to include PTSD and complex trauma.
Hi, my name is Sandra Guillen. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in the state of California and have a Master of Arts in Psychology with an emphasize in Marriage and Family Therapy degree from Chapman University.  I believe therapy is most beneficial when the client feels heard and supported. This is why I prefer a client center approach when practicing therapy. My focus is in trauma work to include PTSD and complex trauma.
(661) 768-1358 View (661) 768-1358
Photo of Javon Kemp, Licensed Professional Counselor in 93313, CA
Javon Kemp
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, PPS
Verified
1 Endorsed
Bakersfield, CA 93313  (Online Only)
I look forward to the opportunity to work with each of my clients and take part in their journey for recovery. I know that life’s valuables can sometimes be dropped when we are in survival mode. Sometimes life unfolds in some of the most confusing ways and we are forced to push our way through. I would consider it an honor to join you in your process of recovering the pieces of your life that were lost or misplaced during the shuffle. I have a passion for working with individuals who have challenges in the areas of anxiety, depression, trauma, self-harm, anger, and communication.
I look forward to the opportunity to work with each of my clients and take part in their journey for recovery. I know that life’s valuables can sometimes be dropped when we are in survival mode. Sometimes life unfolds in some of the most confusing ways and we are forced to push our way through. I would consider it an honor to join you in your process of recovering the pieces of your life that were lost or misplaced during the shuffle. I have a passion for working with individuals who have challenges in the areas of anxiety, depression, trauma, self-harm, anger, and communication.
(661) 463-9924 View (661) 463-9924
Photo of Cheryl Polyudhapoom, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Cheryl Polyudhapoom
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
I'm Cheryl Polyudhapoom. I'm a daughter, sister, wife, & mother to a beautiful child. I've started my own private practice because I’m a therapist committed to helping adults learn how to build healthier relationships, be free from trauma, and to overall learn how to manage their mental health. My work focuses on targeting negative behaviors, habits, and thoughts. I believe in utilizing multiple modalities in treatment to help clients reach their goals. If you’re struggling to cope with grief and loss, I can help you navigate these feelings and offer a path forward.
I'm Cheryl Polyudhapoom. I'm a daughter, sister, wife, & mother to a beautiful child. I've started my own private practice because I’m a therapist committed to helping adults learn how to build healthier relationships, be free from trauma, and to overall learn how to manage their mental health. My work focuses on targeting negative behaviors, habits, and thoughts. I believe in utilizing multiple modalities in treatment to help clients reach their goals. If you’re struggling to cope with grief and loss, I can help you navigate these feelings and offer a path forward.
(661) 760-2417 View (661) 760-2417
Photo of Rhonda Ince, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 93313, CA
Rhonda Ince
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
In-person and virtual services available, I have a passion for helping others, and take pleasure in helping people learn to manage their circumstances and live a happy and healthy life. I use holistic healing strategies in therapy and addresses each client through the lens of mind, body, and spirit. I enjoy expanding the mind with new ideas and practices by being an active learner in this regard which allows me to continue bringing fresh perspectives and healing strategies into sessions. I am fascinated with the brain and body working in unison, which can lead to swift healing and rapid achievement of the therapy goals of her cli
In-person and virtual services available, I have a passion for helping others, and take pleasure in helping people learn to manage their circumstances and live a happy and healthy life. I use holistic healing strategies in therapy and addresses each client through the lens of mind, body, and spirit. I enjoy expanding the mind with new ideas and practices by being an active learner in this regard which allows me to continue bringing fresh perspectives and healing strategies into sessions. I am fascinated with the brain and body working in unison, which can lead to swift healing and rapid achievement of the therapy goals of her cli
(661) 463-9101 View (661) 463-9101
Photo of Gisela J Gonzales, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Gisela J Gonzales
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313  (Online Only)
'Servicios disponibles en español.' Whether you are struggling with depression, anxiety, grief, addiction, major life changes; or simply feel lost, disconnected, or unable to find meaning/purpose. Let's identify what is currently causing you distress and the areas you seek to resolve/improve. Wherever you find yourself in life, I will provide you a supportive environment where we'll collaboratively establish goals and an individualized plan that is right for you. We will not only treat your symptoms, but most importantly, identify and resolve the cause in order effect sustainable change.
'Servicios disponibles en español.' Whether you are struggling with depression, anxiety, grief, addiction, major life changes; or simply feel lost, disconnected, or unable to find meaning/purpose. Let's identify what is currently causing you distress and the areas you seek to resolve/improve. Wherever you find yourself in life, I will provide you a supportive environment where we'll collaboratively establish goals and an individualized plan that is right for you. We will not only treat your symptoms, but most importantly, identify and resolve the cause in order effect sustainable change.
(661) 771-3271 View (661) 771-3271
Photo of Elva Lopez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Elva Lopez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Elva Lopez and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Ventura, California and working with clients statewide via tele health. I am passionate about supporting all of my clients through challenges to experience healing and growth in their lives. I found that my style and approach are a good fit for adults who may be dealing with the challenges of life transitions and social pressures. This often takes the form of anxiety, depression, grief, and stress.
My name is Elva Lopez and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Ventura, California and working with clients statewide via tele health. I am passionate about supporting all of my clients through challenges to experience healing and growth in their lives. I found that my style and approach are a good fit for adults who may be dealing with the challenges of life transitions and social pressures. This often takes the form of anxiety, depression, grief, and stress.
(661) 485-3742 View (661) 485-3742
Photo of Courtney Samari Rayne, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Courtney Samari Rayne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Accepting New In-Person and Tele-health Patients! It is my passion to work with people who are interested in a holistic approach to self healing and empowerment. It is important to me that I offer clients a sacred space to share, authentic connection, and honest & direct communication. It is my goal to support people in their personal exploration and growth through therapeutic counseling, breath work, relaxation training, the practice of somatic awareness and meditation. The methods I use also have very strong response to treatment for individuals with a history of trauma.
Accepting New In-Person and Tele-health Patients! It is my passion to work with people who are interested in a holistic approach to self healing and empowerment. It is important to me that I offer clients a sacred space to share, authentic connection, and honest & direct communication. It is my goal to support people in their personal exploration and growth through therapeutic counseling, breath work, relaxation training, the practice of somatic awareness and meditation. The methods I use also have very strong response to treatment for individuals with a history of trauma.
(661) 367-8493 View (661) 367-8493
Photo of Ana Martin Del Campo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Ana Martin Del Campo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Ana Martin Del Campo is a licensed clinical social worker with 10 years of experience working with adults suffering from anxiety, depression, substance use, and challenges with behavior impacting their relationships. Ana provides a nonjudgmental, safe space to help clients explore their potential for healing. Ana incorporates CBT, mindfulness, and a strength-based approach
Ana Martin Del Campo is a licensed clinical social worker with 10 years of experience working with adults suffering from anxiety, depression, substance use, and challenges with behavior impacting their relationships. Ana provides a nonjudgmental, safe space to help clients explore their potential for healing. Ana incorporates CBT, mindfulness, and a strength-based approach
(661) 276-9504 View (661) 276-9504
Photo of Richard Roth, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Richard Roth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Hello, my name is Richard Roth. I'm a licensed clinical social worker (29841). I offer counseling for issues of grief and loss, alcohol and substance/addiction treatment, as well as Motivational Interviewing for behavior change and wellness. I have experience and expertise counseling adults struggling with alcohol and drug problems, those experiencing grief and loss, or those wanting to increase motivation in making a change in their lives. I have years of experience working with veterans of the US military and am comfortable working with those who identify as LGBTQIA+.
Hello, my name is Richard Roth. I'm a licensed clinical social worker (29841). I offer counseling for issues of grief and loss, alcohol and substance/addiction treatment, as well as Motivational Interviewing for behavior change and wellness. I have experience and expertise counseling adults struggling with alcohol and drug problems, those experiencing grief and loss, or those wanting to increase motivation in making a change in their lives. I have years of experience working with veterans of the US military and am comfortable working with those who identify as LGBTQIA+.
(661) 451-7121 View (661) 451-7121
Photo of Konstance Kirby, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 93313, CA
Konstance Kirby
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Konstance Kirby, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in California, working with clients statewide via telehealth. I specialize in working with disadvantaged children, adolescents, and adults. I have obtained vast experience assisting those struggling with anxiety, depression, stress management, low self-esteem, and mood disorders. I was trained as a family systems therapist and practice short-term, goal-orientated treatment to help people reach their goals quickly.
My name is Konstance Kirby, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in California, working with clients statewide via telehealth. I specialize in working with disadvantaged children, adolescents, and adults. I have obtained vast experience assisting those struggling with anxiety, depression, stress management, low self-esteem, and mood disorders. I was trained as a family systems therapist and practice short-term, goal-orientated treatment to help people reach their goals quickly.
(661) 228-8518 View (661) 228-8518
Photo of Guy Hoss, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Guy Hoss
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Not accepting new clients
​Your story may be filled with chapters on broken pieces, terrible choices, and very ugly truths, but a chapter is a chapter—it’s not the whole story.​ My purpose, and the passion for why I entered the field of Clinical Psychology, is to help inspire others to believe again and dream again.
​Your story may be filled with chapters on broken pieces, terrible choices, and very ugly truths, but a chapter is a chapter—it’s not the whole story.​ My purpose, and the passion for why I entered the field of Clinical Psychology, is to help inspire others to believe again and dream again.
(661) 402-9279 View (661) 402-9279
Photo of Keegan Starr, Counselor in 93313, CA
Keegan Starr
Counselor, LPCC
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
Hello, my name is Keegan Starr, and I am a Licensed Profession Clinical Counselor (LPCC14938) with a master's in clinical Mental Health Counseling. Thank you for taking the time to view my information. I consider counseling others a tremendous privilege. I offer youth, teen, individual, couples, and family counseling; parenting classes and mental health groups; and court mandated DVRP groups, counseling and reunification counseling. I always try to create and calm, empathetic and safe environment that allows clients to freely and honestly explore what they are going through.
Hello, my name is Keegan Starr, and I am a Licensed Profession Clinical Counselor (LPCC14938) with a master's in clinical Mental Health Counseling. Thank you for taking the time to view my information. I consider counseling others a tremendous privilege. I offer youth, teen, individual, couples, and family counseling; parenting classes and mental health groups; and court mandated DVRP groups, counseling and reunification counseling. I always try to create and calm, empathetic and safe environment that allows clients to freely and honestly explore what they are going through.
(909) 442-5347 View (909) 442-5347
Photo of Jennifer Padilla, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Jennifer Padilla
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) practicing in Napa, California. I am a bilingual, (Spanish/English) therapist. As a bilingual and bicultural therapist, I will provide a safe and nonjudgmental space for self-exploration. I will encourage growth by building upon strengths to develop new coping skills that can help alleviate life stressors. I have been working as a therapist since 2014. As a therapist I have supported others with their mental health journey.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) practicing in Napa, California. I am a bilingual, (Spanish/English) therapist. As a bilingual and bicultural therapist, I will provide a safe and nonjudgmental space for self-exploration. I will encourage growth by building upon strengths to develop new coping skills that can help alleviate life stressors. I have been working as a therapist since 2014. As a therapist I have supported others with their mental health journey.
(951) 724-5775 View (951) 724-5775
Photo of Maria Magdalena Martins, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Maria Magdalena Martins
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Maggie (Maria Magdalena) Martins, MA, LMFT 134812 I provide a safe and confidential space for my clients to inspire change through self-awareness and self-exploration. I conduct individual therapy with adult clients experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship, school and work stress. My approach and style are a great fit for adults experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship, school and work stress. I utilize a person-centered approach, cognitive behavioral therapy, and integrate strength-based interventions to help my clients gain coping skills to improve their mental health and quality of life.
My name is Maggie (Maria Magdalena) Martins, MA, LMFT 134812 I provide a safe and confidential space for my clients to inspire change through self-awareness and self-exploration. I conduct individual therapy with adult clients experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship, school and work stress. My approach and style are a great fit for adults experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship, school and work stress. I utilize a person-centered approach, cognitive behavioral therapy, and integrate strength-based interventions to help my clients gain coping skills to improve their mental health and quality of life.
(951) 441-3121 View (951) 441-3121
Photo of Sarah Lauterbach, Marriage & Family Therapist in 93313, CA
Sarah Lauterbach
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bakersfield, CA 93313
My name is Sarah Lauterbach, I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, and I love working with anxiety, life transitions, and pregnancy/postpartum folks from attachment theory-based, family systems, and psychodynamic approaches. My clients come to me with symptoms of anxiety (feeling worried a lot of the time, focusing on worst-case scenarios, and feeling fear which may result in avoidance and panic attacks). Some of my clients are pregnant or have just had a baby and feel overwhelmed with the life transition. They may feel like they have lost themselves.
My name is Sarah Lauterbach, I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, and I love working with anxiety, life transitions, and pregnancy/postpartum folks from attachment theory-based, family systems, and psychodynamic approaches. My clients come to me with symptoms of anxiety (feeling worried a lot of the time, focusing on worst-case scenarios, and feeling fear which may result in avoidance and panic attacks). Some of my clients are pregnant or have just had a baby and feel overwhelmed with the life transition. They may feel like they have lost themselves.
(909) 639-4047 View (909) 639-4047

See more therapy options for 93313

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 93313

50+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in 93313 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
87% Depression
77% Self Esteem
72% Stress
68% Coping Skills
64% Relationship Issues
58% Grief

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Aetna
79% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
79% Optum

How Therapists in 93313 see their clients

89% In Person and Online
11% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
19% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 93313?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.