Photo of Christine Rivlin, Counselor in 92660, CA
Christine Rivlin
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660  (Online Only)
I work primarily with adults who are wanting to manage symptoms associated with depression, anxiety, and trauma. I will be with you on your path to discovery, recovery, and finding the person you would like to become. I approach therapy with a client-centered approach in order to create a safe, comfortable space for you to share and express yourself, and your vulnerabilities. We will explore healthy ways to process your trauma, regulate difficult emotions, and restore broken relationships. I believe the trust built between Client and Therapist is powerful, and necessary in order to help you through your healing journey.
I work primarily with adults who are wanting to manage symptoms associated with depression, anxiety, and trauma. I will be with you on your path to discovery, recovery, and finding the person you would like to become. I approach therapy with a client-centered approach in order to create a safe, comfortable space for you to share and express yourself, and your vulnerabilities. We will explore healthy ways to process your trauma, regulate difficult emotions, and restore broken relationships. I believe the trust built between Client and Therapist is powerful, and necessary in order to help you through your healing journey.
(949) 694-3840 View (949) 694-3840
Photo of Jauna Cruz, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Jauna Cruz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660  (Online Only)
Finding the right therapist can be challenging! But feeling connected and safe is essential to the work you will do in therapy. It takes a lot of courage to open your life up to someone else, to be vulnerable and willing to work on yourself. I place a high priority on creating a safe space for clients to share, we get enough judgment elsewhere in life. I am passionate about helping individuals struggling with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, body image, eating disorders, social anxiety, codependency, work/career stress and communication issues.
Finding the right therapist can be challenging! But feeling connected and safe is essential to the work you will do in therapy. It takes a lot of courage to open your life up to someone else, to be vulnerable and willing to work on yourself. I place a high priority on creating a safe space for clients to share, we get enough judgment elsewhere in life. I am passionate about helping individuals struggling with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, body image, eating disorders, social anxiety, codependency, work/career stress and communication issues.
(949) 693-7834 View (949) 693-7834
Photo of Sara Asadifar, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Sara Asadifar
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Do feelings always feel intense and raw? Do these feelings take over and get in the way of your relationship or closeness with others? These are patterns that scream a need to survive and to protect. I am here to help you appreciate the way your body has tried to keep you safe for years while also learning how and why it shows up, whether it be in or out of the bedroom. We need to feel heard and seen in our pain and that is what I value providing in our sessions. Together, we will identify your needs and goals in order to feel balanced and connected to others.
Do feelings always feel intense and raw? Do these feelings take over and get in the way of your relationship or closeness with others? These are patterns that scream a need to survive and to protect. I am here to help you appreciate the way your body has tried to keep you safe for years while also learning how and why it shows up, whether it be in or out of the bedroom. We need to feel heard and seen in our pain and that is what I value providing in our sessions. Together, we will identify your needs and goals in order to feel balanced and connected to others.
(714) 766-0227 View (714) 766-0227
Photo of Lindsay Guin, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Lindsay Guin
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Ready to make a change? I’m here to help. I am a trauma trained therapist- I specialize in teen and adult women struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, intense emotion, self harm, and addictive behaviors. I offer phone consultations at no charge to help determine if we’re the right fit.
Ready to make a change? I’m here to help. I am a trauma trained therapist- I specialize in teen and adult women struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, intense emotion, self harm, and addictive behaviors. I offer phone consultations at no charge to help determine if we’re the right fit.
(949) 990-5307 View (949) 990-5307
Photo of Sharmeen Mahmud, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Sharmeen Mahmud
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, PPS, EdD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
This may not be an easy time in your life and I respect your courage to reach out for help. Hiding fear of failure or family pressure to be perfect and make it look effortless is a daily struggle. I know you can be overwhelmed. Frustrated and angry. I have lived it and have decades of experience. After facing the pressure from parents, peers, or yourself, you need a place to sort out who you are and how you fit into these pieces. You may be looking for a safe place to work through your challenges, such as when you are experiencing anxiety or depression, or even a unique cultural experience that you feel nobody understands.
This may not be an easy time in your life and I respect your courage to reach out for help. Hiding fear of failure or family pressure to be perfect and make it look effortless is a daily struggle. I know you can be overwhelmed. Frustrated and angry. I have lived it and have decades of experience. After facing the pressure from parents, peers, or yourself, you need a place to sort out who you are and how you fit into these pieces. You may be looking for a safe place to work through your challenges, such as when you are experiencing anxiety or depression, or even a unique cultural experience that you feel nobody understands.
(949) 537-2422 View (949) 537-2422
Photo of Jack N Hayden, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Jack N Hayden
Marriage & Family Therapist, MBA, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Oftentimes people face issues which feel so overwhelming and whose consequences seem so far-reaching that the individual may not be able to access the internal strength to solve the problem on their own. In a sense, they may become trapped in what is known and familiar. A person may come to the conclusion that they are worthless, or that there is no hope, or become mired in a feeling of uselessness. These thoughts may come from familial, social or cultural experiences and can cause people to live a life where they feel out of place or unable to achieve to their fullest potential.
Oftentimes people face issues which feel so overwhelming and whose consequences seem so far-reaching that the individual may not be able to access the internal strength to solve the problem on their own. In a sense, they may become trapped in what is known and familiar. A person may come to the conclusion that they are worthless, or that there is no hope, or become mired in a feeling of uselessness. These thoughts may come from familial, social or cultural experiences and can cause people to live a life where they feel out of place or unable to achieve to their fullest potential.
(714) 342-5295 View (714) 342-5295
Photo of Haley Martel, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Haley Martel
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
My name is Haley Martel and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) providing telehealth services, based in Santa Barbara, California. I have a diverse background working with individuals, couples, and families of all ages, especially young adults. I am deeply committed to providing a supportive, compassionate, and tailored therapeutic experience to promote emotional well-being and interpersonal growth for all my clients.
My name is Haley Martel and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) providing telehealth services, based in Santa Barbara, California. I have a diverse background working with individuals, couples, and families of all ages, especially young adults. I am deeply committed to providing a supportive, compassionate, and tailored therapeutic experience to promote emotional well-being and interpersonal growth for all my clients.
(949) 776-3850 View (949) 776-3850
Photo of Alexandra M. Chiara, Psychologist in 92660, CA
Alexandra M. Chiara
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Are you ready to be happier and healthier? I consider it a privilege to guide others in their pursuit of a better life and strive to provide competent and compassionate care in a comfortable setting. Everybody has individual strengths that can be harnessed when trying to deal with difficult and distressing periods in life. Together we'll identify these strengths, clarify your priorities and work on strategies to make life more manageable and meaningful. With my professional assistance, you can recover from past disappointments, cope better with challenging situations and seek out more positive experiences and relationships.
Are you ready to be happier and healthier? I consider it a privilege to guide others in their pursuit of a better life and strive to provide competent and compassionate care in a comfortable setting. Everybody has individual strengths that can be harnessed when trying to deal with difficult and distressing periods in life. Together we'll identify these strengths, clarify your priorities and work on strategies to make life more manageable and meaningful. With my professional assistance, you can recover from past disappointments, cope better with challenging situations and seek out more positive experiences and relationships.
(949) 274-7003 View (949) 274-7003
Photo of Hannah Berstein, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Hannah Berstein
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, EMDR
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Are you struggling with anxiety and trauma and turning towards unhealthy coping mechanisms in an attempt to manage your emotions? Now is a trying time for almost everyone, and if you have a trauma background what's coming up in the current environment may be reminiscent of the stress, isolation, and fear induced by early childhood experiences. You don't have to handle this alone, and with clinically tested techniques to regulate the mind and body, it's possible to shift from a place of disempowerment to strength.
Are you struggling with anxiety and trauma and turning towards unhealthy coping mechanisms in an attempt to manage your emotions? Now is a trying time for almost everyone, and if you have a trauma background what's coming up in the current environment may be reminiscent of the stress, isolation, and fear induced by early childhood experiences. You don't have to handle this alone, and with clinically tested techniques to regulate the mind and body, it's possible to shift from a place of disempowerment to strength.
(949) 216-7099 View (949) 216-7099
Photo of Abigail Muchow, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 92660, CA
Abigail Muchow
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Everyone deserves a place to feel seen, heard and fully known; a place to explore the parts of yourself that need care and extra attention. As a therapist, it is an incredible honor to be able to sit with you as you begin the hard work of allowing all the parts of yourself…the parts that have been tucked away, the light and dark, to take up space and experience lasting healing. I approach therapy through a wholistic lens that gives attention to mind, body, and spirit.
Everyone deserves a place to feel seen, heard and fully known; a place to explore the parts of yourself that need care and extra attention. As a therapist, it is an incredible honor to be able to sit with you as you begin the hard work of allowing all the parts of yourself…the parts that have been tucked away, the light and dark, to take up space and experience lasting healing. I approach therapy through a wholistic lens that gives attention to mind, body, and spirit.
(949) 531-7849 View (949) 531-7849
Photo of Alyssa S Jones, Psychologist in 92660, CA
Alyssa S Jones
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Are you or a loved one struggling with hopelessness, loneliness, or thoughts of suicide? You might feel down, anxious, or even thinking about hurting yourself. Doing the most basic tasks can feel overwhelming, or you’re getting everything done while feeling empty or distracted. As a caregiver of someone experiencing mental health concerns, you may feel helpless or scared and want to find a way to get them relief from their pain. Therapy can help you or your child learn how to get on a path to health, and develop confidence in your abilities to handle the current struggles.
Are you or a loved one struggling with hopelessness, loneliness, or thoughts of suicide? You might feel down, anxious, or even thinking about hurting yourself. Doing the most basic tasks can feel overwhelming, or you’re getting everything done while feeling empty or distracted. As a caregiver of someone experiencing mental health concerns, you may feel helpless or scared and want to find a way to get them relief from their pain. Therapy can help you or your child learn how to get on a path to health, and develop confidence in your abilities to handle the current struggles.
(949) 426-7966 View (949) 426-7966
Photo of Cindy S. Finch, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92660, CA
Cindy S. Finch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Trained at the world-renown Mayo Clinic, my comprehensive education and seasoned experience as a therapist will help you make the changes you want. I specialize in assisting my clients to improve their closest relationships, manage life transitions, understand how to parent today's teenagers and young adults, survive in a difficult family, be an effective step-parent, make life and career changes, get back to living after a major illness, and recover after loss.
Trained at the world-renown Mayo Clinic, my comprehensive education and seasoned experience as a therapist will help you make the changes you want. I specialize in assisting my clients to improve their closest relationships, manage life transitions, understand how to parent today's teenagers and young adults, survive in a difficult family, be an effective step-parent, make life and career changes, get back to living after a major illness, and recover after loss.
(949) 577-6792 View (949) 577-6792
Photo of Henna Cho, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92660, CA
Henna Cho
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Are you feeling alone, unheard, or stuck? Are you experiencing anxiety, fatigue, and excessive worrying that impact your relationships and career? I’m glad you’re taking the time to notice these changes and to invest in yourself to become a better version of yourself. In sessions, I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to help identify ways to incorporate positive changes for your negative thought patterns. Thus, you will learn to become better equipped in maintaining your personal or professional goals. I am committed to helping my clients decrease anxiety and manage healthy relationships.
Are you feeling alone, unheard, or stuck? Are you experiencing anxiety, fatigue, and excessive worrying that impact your relationships and career? I’m glad you’re taking the time to notice these changes and to invest in yourself to become a better version of yourself. In sessions, I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to help identify ways to incorporate positive changes for your negative thought patterns. Thus, you will learn to become better equipped in maintaining your personal or professional goals. I am committed to helping my clients decrease anxiety and manage healthy relationships.
(949) 997-1208 View (949) 997-1208
Photo of Attachment-Based Emdr Trained - Lisa Casey, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Attachment-Based Emdr Trained - Lisa Casey
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Are you feeling stuck, overwhelmed, lost or not enough? Do relationships never seem to go your way? Perhaps you have a hard time identifying what you want and struggle with how to communicate it. Maybe you feel alone and overwhelmed in your pain. My therapeutic focus is to help you understand how these problems came to be and help you strengthen your inner voice. My goal is to help you overcome your current setbacks so you can live your best life, full of connection and new patterns of meaning.
Are you feeling stuck, overwhelmed, lost or not enough? Do relationships never seem to go your way? Perhaps you have a hard time identifying what you want and struggle with how to communicate it. Maybe you feel alone and overwhelmed in your pain. My therapeutic focus is to help you understand how these problems came to be and help you strengthen your inner voice. My goal is to help you overcome your current setbacks so you can live your best life, full of connection and new patterns of meaning.
(949) 997-0591 View (949) 997-0591
Photo of Therapy Together Counseling Services, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92660, CA
Therapy Together Counseling Services
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Hello! My name is Robin Ensor Kopf. I know that choosing to seek therapy is hard and I’m glad you’re here. I’ve been working in the mental health field for over twenty years. I specialize in depression, anxiety, grief & loss, addiction, chronic illness, relationships as well as teen issues.
Hello! My name is Robin Ensor Kopf. I know that choosing to seek therapy is hard and I’m glad you’re here. I’ve been working in the mental health field for over twenty years. I specialize in depression, anxiety, grief & loss, addiction, chronic illness, relationships as well as teen issues.
(949) 694-3626 View (949) 694-3626
Photo of Social Skills Development Center, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Social Skills Development Center
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
I am a licensed Marriage & Family therapist, licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, certified PEERS instructor, and credentialed teacher. I have effectively taught social skills privately and in school settings to children, teens, and young adults with Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Bipolar, and Schizophrenia for over 20 years. In addition to social skills groups, I can provide one-on-one therapy to children, teens, and young adults experiencing specific concerns. I also provide mentoring/therapy services to parents with child rearing issues and concerns.
I am a licensed Marriage & Family therapist, licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, certified PEERS instructor, and credentialed teacher. I have effectively taught social skills privately and in school settings to children, teens, and young adults with Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Bipolar, and Schizophrenia for over 20 years. In addition to social skills groups, I can provide one-on-one therapy to children, teens, and young adults experiencing specific concerns. I also provide mentoring/therapy services to parents with child rearing issues and concerns.
(714) 862-1803 View (714) 862-1803
Photo of Czarina De Jesus, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Czarina De Jesus
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Czarina De Jesus is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). She received her Master’s in Clinical Psychology at Pepperdine University and completed her Bachelor’s in Psychology at UCLA. Czarina’s interest in this field piqued at UCLA when she began working in early care education centers, in which she witnessed the positive impact of attunement and empathy on the development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. While pursuing her Master’s, Czarina provided therapeutic services to college students at Vanguard University.
Czarina De Jesus is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). She received her Master’s in Clinical Psychology at Pepperdine University and completed her Bachelor’s in Psychology at UCLA. Czarina’s interest in this field piqued at UCLA when she began working in early care education centers, in which she witnessed the positive impact of attunement and empathy on the development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. While pursuing her Master’s, Czarina provided therapeutic services to college students at Vanguard University.
(949) 771-2698 View (949) 771-2698
Photo of Denée Grauberger, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Denée Grauberger
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, AMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Not accepting new clients
Are you missing out on life's little moments? Tired of repeating the same negative patterns? Troublesome concerns/worries not resolving? My hope is to support you in your journey to finding the Confident, Courageous, and Self Reliant person you desire to be. I invite you to call me, so we can begin this wonderful journey! I provide counseling for Individuals, Couples, and Families. I have worked with many individuals with a wide range of concerns, and find it a privilege to work with them in their therapeutic journey.
Are you missing out on life's little moments? Tired of repeating the same negative patterns? Troublesome concerns/worries not resolving? My hope is to support you in your journey to finding the Confident, Courageous, and Self Reliant person you desire to be. I invite you to call me, so we can begin this wonderful journey! I provide counseling for Individuals, Couples, and Families. I have worked with many individuals with a wide range of concerns, and find it a privilege to work with them in their therapeutic journey.
(714) 464-6780 View (714) 464-6780
Photo of George H Brouillet, Associate Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
George H Brouillet
Associate Marriage & Family Therapist, AMFT, CADC-I
Verified Verified
Newport Beach, CA 92660
As an associate marriage and family therapist at a reputable treatment center in Newport Beach, California, I specialize in supporting individuals facing a range of challenges, including mood disorders, trauma, and substance abuse. My clients seek relief from emotional pain, a deeper understanding of themselves, and strategies for creating positive change in their lives.
As an associate marriage and family therapist at a reputable treatment center in Newport Beach, California, I specialize in supporting individuals facing a range of challenges, including mood disorders, trauma, and substance abuse. My clients seek relief from emotional pain, a deeper understanding of themselves, and strategies for creating positive change in their lives.
(949) 776-1971 View (949) 776-1971
Photo of Jane DeWilde, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92660, CA
Jane DeWilde
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newport Beach, CA 92660
I have been a therapist for 10 years. This has been a lifetime goal for me. I waited to become a therapist until I had the time in my life to dedicate myself to this career. My life experience has brought me to a place of openness and acceptance of everyone's life journeys. I have worked with all different types of people in many different walks of life. Everyone wants to be heard when life is not as we expect it to be. I believe that is what therapy is all about, being heard.
I have been a therapist for 10 years. This has been a lifetime goal for me. I waited to become a therapist until I had the time in my life to dedicate myself to this career. My life experience has brought me to a place of openness and acceptance of everyone's life journeys. I have worked with all different types of people in many different walks of life. Everyone wants to be heard when life is not as we expect it to be. I believe that is what therapy is all about, being heard.
(714) 617-7438 View (714) 617-7438

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 92660

900+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in 92660 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
90% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
66% Coping Skills
66% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

58% Cigna and Evernorth
57% Aetna
45% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 92660 see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
19% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 92660?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.