Therapists in 92024

Photo of Andrew L. Stinson, Psychologist in 92024, CA
Andrew L. Stinson
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Thank you for visiting my Psychology Today profile. I am a licensed clinical psychologist serving the greater San Diego area. I work primarily with those experiencing stress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, trauma, grief/loss, and life transitions. I employ an eclectic therapeutic approach drawing upon a number of different healing modalities and traditions to fit your unique circumstances. I provide a safe, warm, supportive, and collaborative environment to help you achieve your goals.
Thank you for visiting my Psychology Today profile. I am a licensed clinical psychologist serving the greater San Diego area. I work primarily with those experiencing stress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, trauma, grief/loss, and life transitions. I employ an eclectic therapeutic approach drawing upon a number of different healing modalities and traditions to fit your unique circumstances. I provide a safe, warm, supportive, and collaborative environment to help you achieve your goals.
(858) 465-7981 View (858) 465-7981
Photo of Kate Pruefer, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Kate Pruefer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
As an experienced clinician, I am honored and happy to assist you and your loved ones on your path toward greater life satisfaction and peace of mind. I specialize in individual work with women and teenage girls, family and couples counseling, separation and divorce issues, trauma/abuse recovery and addiction recovery. I love to help children and adolescents express their feelings in a warm and relaxed environment in a garden setting. Addressing mood struggles as well as life challenges and transitions, my work is solution-focused, interactive and goal-oriented.
As an experienced clinician, I am honored and happy to assist you and your loved ones on your path toward greater life satisfaction and peace of mind. I specialize in individual work with women and teenage girls, family and couples counseling, separation and divorce issues, trauma/abuse recovery and addiction recovery. I love to help children and adolescents express their feelings in a warm and relaxed environment in a garden setting. Addressing mood struggles as well as life challenges and transitions, my work is solution-focused, interactive and goal-oriented.
(760) 954-0109 View (760) 954-0109
Photo of Shelley Wisdom-Lazar, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92024, CA
Shelley Wisdom-Lazar
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
I offer Co-Parent Counseling to divorced couples who believe that children should be put first when a divorce happens, and wish to improve cooperation and communication. With couples who have low to moderate conflict I also offer Parent Coordination services whether voluntary or court ordered. I provide therapy to adults and older teens who are experiencing distress due to transitions in their life such as a role change, loss or relationship difficulties. I approach problems from a BioPsychoSocial perspective, taking into account all of the factors in one's life, and how they might contribute to - and help to SOLVE - problems.
I offer Co-Parent Counseling to divorced couples who believe that children should be put first when a divorce happens, and wish to improve cooperation and communication. With couples who have low to moderate conflict I also offer Parent Coordination services whether voluntary or court ordered. I provide therapy to adults and older teens who are experiencing distress due to transitions in their life such as a role change, loss or relationship difficulties. I approach problems from a BioPsychoSocial perspective, taking into account all of the factors in one's life, and how they might contribute to - and help to SOLVE - problems.
(760) 840-5741 View (760) 840-5741
Robyn Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Robyn Johnson is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) who provides psychotherapy to those who are suffering from mental, familial, social, and/or medical issues. She earned her undergraduate bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California (USC). Then, continued on to earn her Master's Degree in Social Work with an emphasis in Mental Health from USC as well. Robyn works with individuals who are looking to gain insight into themselves and improve their quality of life.
Robyn Johnson is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) who provides psychotherapy to those who are suffering from mental, familial, social, and/or medical issues. She earned her undergraduate bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California (USC). Then, continued on to earn her Master's Degree in Social Work with an emphasis in Mental Health from USC as well. Robyn works with individuals who are looking to gain insight into themselves and improve their quality of life.
(760) 387-8952 View (760) 387-8952
Photo of Mira Masukawa, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Mira Masukawa
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
5 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
ARE YOU HAVING ANXIETY?...... Are you feeling stuck? .......Is your thinking cloudy and are you having problems concentrating on daily tasks?...........You don't feel the same and you don't know what you want. I have heard from many clients who are grieving the loss of a job, a divorce, or the loss of a loved one, that they don’t know who they are anymore. I am an experienced grief therapist and can help with anxiety, depression, self-esteem, family conflicts and loss. I got you.
ARE YOU HAVING ANXIETY?...... Are you feeling stuck? .......Is your thinking cloudy and are you having problems concentrating on daily tasks?...........You don't feel the same and you don't know what you want. I have heard from many clients who are grieving the loss of a job, a divorce, or the loss of a loved one, that they don’t know who they are anymore. I am an experienced grief therapist and can help with anxiety, depression, self-esteem, family conflicts and loss. I got you.
(760) 214-9462 View (760) 214-9462
Photo of Andrea Yeric, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Andrea Yeric
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
You're feeling stuck. You're finding yourself feeling overwhelmed and disconnected from life, others, and maybe yourself. You feel uncertain of your thoughts, wants, needs or what to do. Trauma can leave us feeling hopeless, exhausted, and alone. It can make us shut the world out, or put other's needs before our own in hope for solace. At times it can feel like change isn't possible, or if we just ignore it long enough it will resolve itself.
You're feeling stuck. You're finding yourself feeling overwhelmed and disconnected from life, others, and maybe yourself. You feel uncertain of your thoughts, wants, needs or what to do. Trauma can leave us feeling hopeless, exhausted, and alone. It can make us shut the world out, or put other's needs before our own in hope for solace. At times it can feel like change isn't possible, or if we just ignore it long enough it will resolve itself.
(512) 559-3748 View (512) 559-3748
Photo of Tom Manheim, Psychologist in 92024, CA
Tom Manheim
Psychologist, PhD, Psy, MFT
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Thanks for considering collaborating with me. I am a licensed clinical psychologist and have worked also as a marriage and family therapist also. I began in this field about 30yrs ago. My experience comes from working in psychiatric inpatient and intensive outpatient hospitals as well as private practice. Primarily I specialize in stress, anxiety, depression, trauma, painful life situations, and relationship issues. I utilize CBT, DBT, humanistic, mindfulness, and meditation along with other appropriate therapies. Support is provided in an understanding, respectful and warm office setting as we work together toward your goals.
Thanks for considering collaborating with me. I am a licensed clinical psychologist and have worked also as a marriage and family therapist also. I began in this field about 30yrs ago. My experience comes from working in psychiatric inpatient and intensive outpatient hospitals as well as private practice. Primarily I specialize in stress, anxiety, depression, trauma, painful life situations, and relationship issues. I utilize CBT, DBT, humanistic, mindfulness, and meditation along with other appropriate therapies. Support is provided in an understanding, respectful and warm office setting as we work together toward your goals.
(760) 550-2122 View (760) 550-2122
Photo of Haven for Change , Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Haven for Change
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
3 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
How's it going lately? Maybe not so well. I can imagine you're feeling a bit overwhelmed and you're trying to decide where to begin and how this all works. I would like to invite you to a safe haven for self-discovery and the opportunity to address the issues that have you seeking support. I provide a warm, welcoming and supportive environment for clients. I enjoy working collaboratively with individuals and families. Together we'll address the issues that brought you here, learn coping skills, identify and utilize resources to help you better manage the situation and reach your therapeutic goals.
How's it going lately? Maybe not so well. I can imagine you're feeling a bit overwhelmed and you're trying to decide where to begin and how this all works. I would like to invite you to a safe haven for self-discovery and the opportunity to address the issues that have you seeking support. I provide a warm, welcoming and supportive environment for clients. I enjoy working collaboratively with individuals and families. Together we'll address the issues that brought you here, learn coping skills, identify and utilize resources to help you better manage the situation and reach your therapeutic goals.
(760) 573-2573 View (760) 573-2573
Photo of Reid Kessler, Psychologist in 92024, CA
Reid Kessler
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
6 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
Our small group practice of psychologists is accepting new patients as of 2/29/24 for in-person (Encinitas & Carlsbad) or virtual therapy! I offer people a caring, down-to-earth, and honest relationship. I help teens and adults navigate their distress with confidence and purpose. If you are having difficulty managing emotions that used to be easy or you want to better understand destructive patterns in life, I can help.
Our small group practice of psychologists is accepting new patients as of 2/29/24 for in-person (Encinitas & Carlsbad) or virtual therapy! I offer people a caring, down-to-earth, and honest relationship. I help teens and adults navigate their distress with confidence and purpose. If you are having difficulty managing emotions that used to be easy or you want to better understand destructive patterns in life, I can help.
(760) 571-2425 View (760) 571-2425
Photo of John How in 92024, CA
John How
MD
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Hello! I am a board-certified medical doctor with over a decade of experience and has been part of Stella's provider network since 2020. In 2024, my practice was officially acquired by Stella as a Center of Excellence. I specialize in treating an array mental health conditions, with a special interest in healing the physical and mental problems developed in people who work or live in high-stress jobs and environments. I received my medical degree at Loma Linda University School of Medicine in Loma Linda, California. From there, I completed a residency in emergency medicine at Ascension St. John Hospital in Detroit, Michigan.
Hello! I am a board-certified medical doctor with over a decade of experience and has been part of Stella's provider network since 2020. In 2024, my practice was officially acquired by Stella as a Center of Excellence. I specialize in treating an array mental health conditions, with a special interest in healing the physical and mental problems developed in people who work or live in high-stress jobs and environments. I received my medical degree at Loma Linda University School of Medicine in Loma Linda, California. From there, I completed a residency in emergency medicine at Ascension St. John Hospital in Detroit, Michigan.
(760) 389-9233 View (760) 389-9233
Photo of Katie Phan, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Katie Phan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
4 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
It takes an enormous amount of courage to take the first step towards purposeful change. I’m here to walk that path with you. Throughout our lifetimes we encounter challenging experiences that we may not feel prepared for. This can leave us feeling overwhelmed, stuck or numb. Whether your emotional pain originates from current life stressors, past trauma, anxiety, depression, loss, change, or somewhere less identifiable, I believe every single person is capable of healing & growth. I am here to help you acknowledge the good & the not-so-good, make sense of your thoughts & feelings & gain a deeper understanding of who you are.
It takes an enormous amount of courage to take the first step towards purposeful change. I’m here to walk that path with you. Throughout our lifetimes we encounter challenging experiences that we may not feel prepared for. This can leave us feeling overwhelmed, stuck or numb. Whether your emotional pain originates from current life stressors, past trauma, anxiety, depression, loss, change, or somewhere less identifiable, I believe every single person is capable of healing & growth. I am here to help you acknowledge the good & the not-so-good, make sense of your thoughts & feelings & gain a deeper understanding of who you are.
(760) 304-1512 View (760) 304-1512
Photo of Deborah Mori, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Deborah Mori
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, SEP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024  (Online Only)
Life doesn't always go as planned and sometimes it can be a real struggle. If you are experiencing anxiety / depression / overwhelm and unsure where to turn ... I can help! As human beings we naturally go through a wide range of emotions but that doesn't mean we have to suffer... we all have the power of change within us! I can help you believe in yourself, embrace confidence and self-assertion to take back your life. In my practice, I help people struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, loss, food/body issues, dissociation, codependency, and relationship problems.
Life doesn't always go as planned and sometimes it can be a real struggle. If you are experiencing anxiety / depression / overwhelm and unsure where to turn ... I can help! As human beings we naturally go through a wide range of emotions but that doesn't mean we have to suffer... we all have the power of change within us! I can help you believe in yourself, embrace confidence and self-assertion to take back your life. In my practice, I help people struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, loss, food/body issues, dissociation, codependency, and relationship problems.
(619) 458-3663 View (619) 458-3663
Photo of Porta Verum Psychotherapy Services , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92024, CA
Porta Verum Psychotherapy Services
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LMFT, LPCC
Verified
5 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024  (Online Only)
Porta Verum Psychotherapy Services provides comprehensive psychotherapy services for individuals, couples, and families so they can heal through traumas and overcome their mental, emotional, psychological, and interpersonal challenges so that they can experience a life worth living with joy, connection, empowerment, and love. We are a group of experienced, passionate, and dedicated therapists who are committed to an exceptional quality of care, and utilizing a range of best practice modalities to facilitate transformation in people’s lives. We offer psychotherapy services to children of all ages, adults, families, and couples.
Porta Verum Psychotherapy Services provides comprehensive psychotherapy services for individuals, couples, and families so they can heal through traumas and overcome their mental, emotional, psychological, and interpersonal challenges so that they can experience a life worth living with joy, connection, empowerment, and love. We are a group of experienced, passionate, and dedicated therapists who are committed to an exceptional quality of care, and utilizing a range of best practice modalities to facilitate transformation in people’s lives. We offer psychotherapy services to children of all ages, adults, families, and couples.
(760) 299-7964 View (760) 299-7964
Photo of Aaron O Nowlin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92024, CA
Aaron O Nowlin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024  (Online Only)
My purpose is to provide expert mental health therapy to my clients. I have an approach in working with others which is a combination of utilizing evidence based practices with a mindful and person centered focus. My diverse array of experiences within the military, at the VA and within the San Diego community has facilitated my work with the populations, of children and adolescents, trauma survivors, severe mental illness, and age specific populations from young adult to the elderly.
My purpose is to provide expert mental health therapy to my clients. I have an approach in working with others which is a combination of utilizing evidence based practices with a mindful and person centered focus. My diverse array of experiences within the military, at the VA and within the San Diego community has facilitated my work with the populations, of children and adolescents, trauma survivors, severe mental illness, and age specific populations from young adult to the elderly.
(760) 282-0963 View (760) 282-0963
Photo of Jill Prolman, Psychologist in 92024, CA
Jill Prolman
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
“Let me help you achieve balance in your life with comprehensive therapy that treats the whole you: mentally, emotionally, spiritually, and physically." I am able to understand and connect with a broad client base and identify problems and solutions that tailors the therapy around practical and effective solutions. I have over 25 years of experience and receive many referrals from the medical community in the areas of depression, anxiety, stress management, and relationships. My approach will help you gain insight, develop awareness, and learn techniques and skills which will empower you to successfully achieve your goals.
“Let me help you achieve balance in your life with comprehensive therapy that treats the whole you: mentally, emotionally, spiritually, and physically." I am able to understand and connect with a broad client base and identify problems and solutions that tailors the therapy around practical and effective solutions. I have over 25 years of experience and receive many referrals from the medical community in the areas of depression, anxiety, stress management, and relationships. My approach will help you gain insight, develop awareness, and learn techniques and skills which will empower you to successfully achieve your goals.
(760) 496-5857 View (760) 496-5857
Photo of Phillip Jones, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 92024, CA
Phillip Jones
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Integrating a solutions-oriented approach, behavioral therapy, and empathy, I work with clients to create a challenging yet empowering vortex for change. In my work, one size does not fit all, so creating a strong therapeutic alliance is of utmost importance. I aim to walk alongside you on the path towards finding, empowering, and affirming oneself, time and time again.
Integrating a solutions-oriented approach, behavioral therapy, and empathy, I work with clients to create a challenging yet empowering vortex for change. In my work, one size does not fit all, so creating a strong therapeutic alliance is of utmost importance. I aim to walk alongside you on the path towards finding, empowering, and affirming oneself, time and time again.
(760) 273-3876 View (760) 273-3876
Photo of Joanna Raabsmith, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Joanna Raabsmith
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MDiv
Verified
1 Endorsed
Encinitas, CA 92024
So many of us find ourselves trapped, caught in unhealthy cycles and relationship patterns, hopeless but wanting change. I want to come alongside you, helping you find insight into those patterns and discover the healing truths about yourself. This moment of insight opens up the possibility of change, allowing you to live your best self in all relationships. Psychotherapy is important to me because it works! I have witnessed psychotherapy bring about the transforming journey from a place of hopelessness to place of freedom in my own life and in the lives of my clients.
So many of us find ourselves trapped, caught in unhealthy cycles and relationship patterns, hopeless but wanting change. I want to come alongside you, helping you find insight into those patterns and discover the healing truths about yourself. This moment of insight opens up the possibility of change, allowing you to live your best self in all relationships. Psychotherapy is important to me because it works! I have witnessed psychotherapy bring about the transforming journey from a place of hopelessness to place of freedom in my own life and in the lives of my clients.
(626) 788-9893 View (626) 788-9893
Pamela Sachs
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Pamela Sachs is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who earned her MSW degree in 1984 from Boston University, and was licensed in the state of California in 1987. Pamela's career in San Diego County includes working with children, adults and couples in a variety of treatment settings. Having developed integrated behavioral health programs, she was motivated to evolve her practice into a holistic treatment approach, partnering with her clients to move toward emotional, physical and spiritual wellness.
Pamela Sachs is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who earned her MSW degree in 1984 from Boston University, and was licensed in the state of California in 1987. Pamela's career in San Diego County includes working with children, adults and couples in a variety of treatment settings. Having developed integrated behavioral health programs, she was motivated to evolve her practice into a holistic treatment approach, partnering with her clients to move toward emotional, physical and spiritual wellness.
(760) 821-8157 View (760) 821-8157
Photo of Rebecca Prolman, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Rebecca Prolman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
Waitlist for new clients
However you come into therapy is welcomed - you can’t do this wrong.​ Sometimes we can feel overwhelmed by anxiety, sadness, or the intensity of our emotions. Other times we can feel numb and not be able to feel much of anything. Maybe it feels challenging to relax or to feel joy and pleasure. These are challenging, but common experiences— you are not crazy. Together we will explore your experiences, hopes, and desires. I work holistically to address the mind, body, heart, and spirit; allowing for increased experiences of inner-peace, meaningful connection, and increased confidence.
However you come into therapy is welcomed - you can’t do this wrong.​ Sometimes we can feel overwhelmed by anxiety, sadness, or the intensity of our emotions. Other times we can feel numb and not be able to feel much of anything. Maybe it feels challenging to relax or to feel joy and pleasure. These are challenging, but common experiences— you are not crazy. Together we will explore your experiences, hopes, and desires. I work holistically to address the mind, body, heart, and spirit; allowing for increased experiences of inner-peace, meaningful connection, and increased confidence.
(760) 417-6961 View (760) 417-6961
Photo of Tecia Giusta, Marriage & Family Therapist in 92024, CA
Tecia Giusta
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, LPCC
Verified
Encinitas, CA 92024
I help women let go of anxiety and live a more peaceful life based on what matters most to them. You may appear confident and calm, but you question your decisions and focus on your mistakes. You want to learn how to stop the anxious thoughts, to feel more confident and thrive. You may be feeling stuck in a relationship, a career, or a painful situation, like infertility.
I help women let go of anxiety and live a more peaceful life based on what matters most to them. You may appear confident and calm, but you question your decisions and focus on your mistakes. You want to learn how to stop the anxious thoughts, to feel more confident and thrive. You may be feeling stuck in a relationship, a career, or a painful situation, like infertility.
(760) 815-4855 View (760) 815-4855

See more therapy options for 92024

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 92024

400+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in 92024 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
88% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
70% Trauma and PTSD
69% Self Esteem
64% Stress
63% Grief

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% Aetna
59% Cigna and Evernorth
51% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 92024 see their clients

72% In Person and Online
28% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 92024?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.