Therapists in 85008

Photo of Prof. Joshua Henry in 85008, AZ
Prof. Joshua Henry
MPsy, CAIP, ADHD-CE, CPT
Phoenix, AZ 85008
It is strength to seek the support to overcome the challenges we didn't expect & the mistakes we didn't mean to make. Men if you are looking to overcome symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, regret, isolation & developmental challenges, I'm your guy. My clients seek to increase their sense of autonomy, tap back into their creativity, & improve their strategic problem-skills. My clients are in need of someone with a direct approach We will speak man-to-man as I you engage in psychoeducation, cognitive behavior techniques, & brotherhood.
It is strength to seek the support to overcome the challenges we didn't expect & the mistakes we didn't mean to make. Men if you are looking to overcome symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, regret, isolation & developmental challenges, I'm your guy. My clients seek to increase their sense of autonomy, tap back into their creativity, & improve their strategic problem-skills. My clients are in need of someone with a direct approach We will speak man-to-man as I you engage in psychoeducation, cognitive behavior techniques, & brotherhood.
(602) 894-9198 View (602) 894-9198
Photo of Bryan Terence Gastelle, Psychologist in 85008, AZ
Bryan Terence Gastelle
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
My goal is always to learn your wellness goals and help you reach them on your terms. I take the guess work out of treatment and give the power back to my clients. Change can be a challenge, but I will be there with you every step of the way.
My goal is always to learn your wellness goals and help you reach them on your terms. I take the guess work out of treatment and give the power back to my clients. Change can be a challenge, but I will be there with you every step of the way.
(928) 437-1734 View (928) 437-1734
Photo of Nancy Diaz in 85008, AZ
Nancy Diaz
MSW
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
As a daughter of immigrants, do you struggle with guilt, people-pleasing, boundary-setting, and a constant need to be productive? The burden that has been placed on you since you were a young child has felt overwhelming and you have been carrying so much. It's okay if prioritizing your health and needs seems daunting because it's never been modeled for you. As a first-gen Latina therapist specializing in aiding women of color and daughters of immigrants in trauma healing, I understand the struggles. It's hard to feel enough, especially as a woman of color, but you deserve healing and gentleness. You deserve a safe space in therapy.
As a daughter of immigrants, do you struggle with guilt, people-pleasing, boundary-setting, and a constant need to be productive? The burden that has been placed on you since you were a young child has felt overwhelming and you have been carrying so much. It's okay if prioritizing your health and needs seems daunting because it's never been modeled for you. As a first-gen Latina therapist specializing in aiding women of color and daughters of immigrants in trauma healing, I understand the struggles. It's hard to feel enough, especially as a woman of color, but you deserve healing and gentleness. You deserve a safe space in therapy.
(623) 267-1803 View (623) 267-1803
Photo of Angela Salomon, Counselor in 85008, AZ
Angela Salomon
Counselor, MAPC, PsyD, LAC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
Empowering Solutions PLLC is dedicated to providing high standard of mental health care. Our mission is to provide a safe therapeutic space that offers you support, understanding, and hope. We believe that empowerment is restored through the process of feeling heard and being equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to rise above life’s challenges. Services are culturally responsive and available in English and Spanish.
Empowering Solutions PLLC is dedicated to providing high standard of mental health care. Our mission is to provide a safe therapeutic space that offers you support, understanding, and hope. We believe that empowerment is restored through the process of feeling heard and being equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to rise above life’s challenges. Services are culturally responsive and available in English and Spanish.
(623) 624-8163 View (623) 624-8163
Photo of Teena Chavez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85008, AZ
Teena Chavez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008
In my practice, I provide a safe and inclusive space for all individuals. I understand that each person's experience is unique, and I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs and goals. I am trained in trauma, substance abuse, and eating disorders. I am equipped to address these issues with sensitivity and expertise. My goal is to empower you to embrace your strengths and navigate challenges in a way that honors your personal identity. Together, we will explore your unique perspective and develop strategies to support your mental well-being and personal growth.
In my practice, I provide a safe and inclusive space for all individuals. I understand that each person's experience is unique, and I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs and goals. I am trained in trauma, substance abuse, and eating disorders. I am equipped to address these issues with sensitivity and expertise. My goal is to empower you to embrace your strengths and navigate challenges in a way that honors your personal identity. Together, we will explore your unique perspective and develop strategies to support your mental well-being and personal growth.
(623) 303-8444 View (623) 303-8444
Photo of Chad Krakauskas, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85008, AZ
Chad Krakauskas
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
I have primarily worked with adults. I can help with anxiety, depression, PTSD issues, grief issues, motivation, relationship issues, and substance abuse challenges. I have helped people with less severe issues all the way to people with serious mental health challenges.
I have primarily worked with adults. I can help with anxiety, depression, PTSD issues, grief issues, motivation, relationship issues, and substance abuse challenges. I have helped people with less severe issues all the way to people with serious mental health challenges.
(602) 691-7610 View (602) 691-7610
Photo of D.j. Diebold, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 85008, AZ
D.j. Diebold
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CAC, LISAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
I consider myself to be half street and half academia. And I always ask the question, Are you sick and tired of being sick and tired? Addiction is like a deep, dark hole that seemingly has no way out. This is my specialty and I am very skilled at it. I consider myself half "Street" and half academia. Please go to www.dieboldbehavioralcounseling.com for a more detailed biography. The healing begins with a phone call. It can be scary after we've been hurt and lost, but the way back home is always worth the effort. I'm always amazed at the courage of my clients.
I consider myself to be half street and half academia. And I always ask the question, Are you sick and tired of being sick and tired? Addiction is like a deep, dark hole that seemingly has no way out. This is my specialty and I am very skilled at it. I consider myself half "Street" and half academia. Please go to www.dieboldbehavioralcounseling.com for a more detailed biography. The healing begins with a phone call. It can be scary after we've been hurt and lost, but the way back home is always worth the effort. I'm always amazed at the courage of my clients.
(480) 646-4697 View (480) 646-4697
Photo of Healthy Futures, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85008, AZ
Healthy Futures
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, SEP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Healthy Futures cures eating issues. Whether you struggle with bulimia or anorexia, to binge eating, we have a team of caring professionals to help lead you to a Healthy Future.
Healthy Futures cures eating issues. Whether you struggle with bulimia or anorexia, to binge eating, we have a team of caring professionals to help lead you to a Healthy Future.
(480) 451-8500 View (480) 451-8500
Photo of Caleb Mitchell, Counselor in 85008, AZ
Caleb Mitchell
Counselor, LPC
Verified
6 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
You may have landed on this professional profile because you are taking stock of your life and realize that the life you have is not the one you envisioned for yourself. Whether you are bored or in a lot of pain, you may be seeking growth and change, possibly a sense of aliveness. Counseling can be a safe, nurturing setting to slow down and listen to your soul and your body. As you become aware of yourself, you begin to understand how you got to where you are, why you do what you do, and what new paths are possible to you. As a trained therapist from a relational-psychodynamic perspective, I see therapy as a collaborative process.
You may have landed on this professional profile because you are taking stock of your life and realize that the life you have is not the one you envisioned for yourself. Whether you are bored or in a lot of pain, you may be seeking growth and change, possibly a sense of aliveness. Counseling can be a safe, nurturing setting to slow down and listen to your soul and your body. As you become aware of yourself, you begin to understand how you got to where you are, why you do what you do, and what new paths are possible to you. As a trained therapist from a relational-psychodynamic perspective, I see therapy as a collaborative process.
(623) 257-7493 View (623) 257-7493
Photo of Deborah E Dyer, Psychologist in 85008, AZ
Deborah E Dyer
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Sometime life gets crazy. Sometime, despite all our efforts, what we're doing to cope with a difficult situation just doesn't seem to be enough. If you're at that point, I may be able to help. My style in therapy is practical, goal-oriented, solution-focused and strength-based. I endeavor to use your strengths and bolster them to help you get to the place you want to be. I can also teach you new coping skills and techniques that will be successful across different situations and environments. This lays the groundwork for more calm, confidence and productivity going forward.
Sometime life gets crazy. Sometime, despite all our efforts, what we're doing to cope with a difficult situation just doesn't seem to be enough. If you're at that point, I may be able to help. My style in therapy is practical, goal-oriented, solution-focused and strength-based. I endeavor to use your strengths and bolster them to help you get to the place you want to be. I can also teach you new coping skills and techniques that will be successful across different situations and environments. This lays the groundwork for more calm, confidence and productivity going forward.
(480) 409-2427 View (480) 409-2427
Photo of Gabrielle Lawrence Phd, Psychologist in 85008, AZ
Gabrielle Lawrence Phd
Psychologist, PhD, MA, RPT-S
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008
I am an attachment based psychologist. I specialize in traumatic loss, marriage and family, bereavement, Play therapy, Parenting coaching, EMDR, and Somatic Experiencing, child, adolescents, and adult and relationship therapy. I am a solution-focused, brief therapist. The client sets the goals and we work collaboratively, using the skills and strategies mentioned above to achieve his or her goals. I try to create a warm, caring, safe relationship in which my client can discover his or her answers within. I also write evaluations and do expert, witnessing in wrongful death suits, for those who have lost a loved one
I am an attachment based psychologist. I specialize in traumatic loss, marriage and family, bereavement, Play therapy, Parenting coaching, EMDR, and Somatic Experiencing, child, adolescents, and adult and relationship therapy. I am a solution-focused, brief therapist. The client sets the goals and we work collaboratively, using the skills and strategies mentioned above to achieve his or her goals. I try to create a warm, caring, safe relationship in which my client can discover his or her answers within. I also write evaluations and do expert, witnessing in wrongful death suits, for those who have lost a loved one
(480) 382-7963 View (480) 382-7963
Photo of Jennifer Vega, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 85008, AZ
Jennifer Vega
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LAMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Not accepting new clients
Quality relationships improve our life and create meaning. What is more important in life than family and friends? Everyone struggles from time to time to connect with others. To invest in the quality of your relationships through therapy is one of the best investments you can make with a return that lasts a lifetime. Whether it is coping with high school, college, career, marriage, welcoming a new baby, or adjusting to retirement, or grief and loss, therapy can help identify ways to improve and connect. When we experience trauma, we may also struggle to find our voice and therapy can help.
Quality relationships improve our life and create meaning. What is more important in life than family and friends? Everyone struggles from time to time to connect with others. To invest in the quality of your relationships through therapy is one of the best investments you can make with a return that lasts a lifetime. Whether it is coping with high school, college, career, marriage, welcoming a new baby, or adjusting to retirement, or grief and loss, therapy can help identify ways to improve and connect. When we experience trauma, we may also struggle to find our voice and therapy can help.
(602) 536-7641 View (602) 536-7641
Photo of Kai Kline, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85008, AZ
Kai Kline
Licensed Professional Counselor, MC, LPC, NCC
Verified
4 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hi! I'm a licensed therapist and provide individual/family therapy for all ages. I help clients navigate a variety of experiences, including anxiety/depression, trauma, neurodiversity, and specialize in gender/sexual identity. I approach counseling in a variety of ways but primarily work with the narrative that we are the experts of our own lives and as such, can make meaningful change. I provide clients with a safe space for exploration and growth by maintaining a nonjudgmental and laid back approach to therapy. I encourage all clients to show up as their authentic selves, and together we can identify and foster meaningful change!
Hi! I'm a licensed therapist and provide individual/family therapy for all ages. I help clients navigate a variety of experiences, including anxiety/depression, trauma, neurodiversity, and specialize in gender/sexual identity. I approach counseling in a variety of ways but primarily work with the narrative that we are the experts of our own lives and as such, can make meaningful change. I provide clients with a safe space for exploration and growth by maintaining a nonjudgmental and laid back approach to therapy. I encourage all clients to show up as their authentic selves, and together we can identify and foster meaningful change!
(480) 571-3746 View (480) 571-3746
Photo of Amanda Walker, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85008, AZ
Amanda Walker
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Maybe you're feeling less than confident in knowing how to best support your child with school issues, anxiety, anger issues, adoption, family conflict, working through trauma or other concerns. Lets work together! As a therapist, I value providing a non-judgmental, empathetic and collaborative relationship with my clients, as well as supporting you as the parent in finding your own strength and confidence in your parenting. You don’t have to go it alone! My goal is to help you see that you already have the tools needed to help create calm, peace and happiness for yourself and your family.
Maybe you're feeling less than confident in knowing how to best support your child with school issues, anxiety, anger issues, adoption, family conflict, working through trauma or other concerns. Lets work together! As a therapist, I value providing a non-judgmental, empathetic and collaborative relationship with my clients, as well as supporting you as the parent in finding your own strength and confidence in your parenting. You don’t have to go it alone! My goal is to help you see that you already have the tools needed to help create calm, peace and happiness for yourself and your family.
(623) 624-9159 View (623) 624-9159
Photo of John Burt, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85008, AZ
John Burt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
You find yourself in one of the toughest seasons of your life. You’re experiencing a traumatizing event (a breakup, a job loss, the death of a loved one, loneliness, or maybe you’re just plain unhappy with life). You might have also experienced a rough childhood where you endured critical, judgmental, or abusive parents. This is how trauma presence itself in our lives, and when it goes unaddressed it will show up as: anxiety, depression, anger, self-judgment, uncertainty, addiction and a host of other things that let’s us know we have some unhealed parts we have to attend to. You want to heal/improve, but don't know where to start.
You find yourself in one of the toughest seasons of your life. You’re experiencing a traumatizing event (a breakup, a job loss, the death of a loved one, loneliness, or maybe you’re just plain unhappy with life). You might have also experienced a rough childhood where you endured critical, judgmental, or abusive parents. This is how trauma presence itself in our lives, and when it goes unaddressed it will show up as: anxiety, depression, anger, self-judgment, uncertainty, addiction and a host of other things that let’s us know we have some unhealed parts we have to attend to. You want to heal/improve, but don't know where to start.
(480) 613-9812 View (480) 613-9812
Photo of Megan Chapman, Marriage & Family Therapist in 85008, AZ
Megan Chapman
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
In a world with so much information, making decisions, managing anxiety, and setting boundaries can be difficult. You might feel stuck trying to find a work-self-relationship balance or struggling to connect with your partner or family meaningfully. Choosing therapy as a path to resolving these inner conflicts and relational stress can improve your overall happiness. By identifying your needs and building healthier relationships, you can learn to take concrete steps toward improving your life.
In a world with so much information, making decisions, managing anxiety, and setting boundaries can be difficult. You might feel stuck trying to find a work-self-relationship balance or struggling to connect with your partner or family meaningfully. Choosing therapy as a path to resolving these inner conflicts and relational stress can improve your overall happiness. By identifying your needs and building healthier relationships, you can learn to take concrete steps toward improving your life.
(602) 671-3279 View (602) 671-3279
Photo of Katie Carey, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85008, AZ
Katie Carey
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MS
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008  (Online Only)
Telehealth practice. People make sense. I am passionate about uncovering core issues related to anxiety, depression, esteem issues, addiction issues, and relationship patterns that bring individuals into my office in order to create targeted change. I have specialized in working with mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, trauma, and relationship issues. I use attachment models and trauma-informed methods to help my clients develop awareness around repeating patterns in their lives. Together, we can identify and change relationship and behavioral cycles that are often sub-conscious and maladaptive.
Telehealth practice. People make sense. I am passionate about uncovering core issues related to anxiety, depression, esteem issues, addiction issues, and relationship patterns that bring individuals into my office in order to create targeted change. I have specialized in working with mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, trauma, and relationship issues. I use attachment models and trauma-informed methods to help my clients develop awareness around repeating patterns in their lives. Together, we can identify and change relationship and behavioral cycles that are often sub-conscious and maladaptive.
(623) 400-8985 View (623) 400-8985
Photo of Karina Trejo, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85008, AZ
Karina Trejo
Licensed Professional Counselor, MC, LPC, CCTP
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional with over 20 years of experience working with diverse populations in the behavioral health field. I am currently only seeing women 18+. I am dedicated to ensure that individuals receive high quality care. I am committed to provide help, support and guidance by focusing on the individual strengths ad safely address and resolve life challenges by creating a safe environment to help promote positive change and healing.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional with over 20 years of experience working with diverse populations in the behavioral health field. I am currently only seeing women 18+. I am dedicated to ensure that individuals receive high quality care. I am committed to provide help, support and guidance by focusing on the individual strengths ad safely address and resolve life challenges by creating a safe environment to help promote positive change and healing.
(520) 525-1055 View (520) 525-1055
Photo of Dr. Sabrina Pratt, Psychologist in 85008, AZ
Dr. Sabrina Pratt
Psychologist, PsyD, PSYPACT
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Trauma impacts every area of our life, so the most effective treatment is one which does the same. Through a holistic approach, I help children, adolescents, and young adults who have experienced unexpected and/or stressful life events take control of their narrative and rediscover the joy of life. Together we will collaboratively develop a plan for growth and healing that best fits your unique experiences and needs. My focus areas of treatment are grief, life transitions, anxiety, depression, and trauma, with a specialty in working with survivors of childhood and/or adulthood sexual traumas.
Trauma impacts every area of our life, so the most effective treatment is one which does the same. Through a holistic approach, I help children, adolescents, and young adults who have experienced unexpected and/or stressful life events take control of their narrative and rediscover the joy of life. Together we will collaboratively develop a plan for growth and healing that best fits your unique experiences and needs. My focus areas of treatment are grief, life transitions, anxiety, depression, and trauma, with a specialty in working with survivors of childhood and/or adulthood sexual traumas.
(480) 605-0820 View (480) 605-0820
Photo of Dhannia Torres-Rincon, Psychologist in 85008, AZ
Dhannia Torres-Rincon
Psychologist, PhD, PLC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Not accepting new clients
Not accepting new patients. Is anxiety, stress, insomnia, or chronic pain impacting your life? Are you tired of these issues taking the focus away from your work, family, and activities? Have you noticed your physical health being impacted by your emotional health? When our emotional health isn't doing well it can also impact our physical health and vice versa. I specialize in helping people learn skills to manage anxiety, stress, insomnia, and chronic pain.
Not accepting new patients. Is anxiety, stress, insomnia, or chronic pain impacting your life? Are you tired of these issues taking the focus away from your work, family, and activities? Have you noticed your physical health being impacted by your emotional health? When our emotional health isn't doing well it can also impact our physical health and vice versa. I specialize in helping people learn skills to manage anxiety, stress, insomnia, and chronic pain.
(480) 405-5717 View (480) 405-5717

See more therapy options for 85008

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 85008

30+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 85008 who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
84% Depression
84% Trauma and PTSD
77% Relationship Issues
71% Stress
68% Grief
68% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% BlueCross and BlueShield
75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
63% Aetna

How Therapists in 85008 see their clients

65% In Person and Online
35% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
26% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 85008?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.