Therapists in 85002

Photo of Leslie Richardson, Marriage & Family Therapist in 85002, AZ
Leslie Richardson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LIMHP, LMFT, LADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
Waitlist for new clients
Waitlist until mid June - Combing through the LONG list of therapists can be overwhelming, let alone making the decision to start therapy! I am sensitive to the strength and vulnerability that it takes to make the decision to take the leap. I believe that every negative event is an opportunity for growth! My goal is to provide you with the tools and support to help you attain your goals and get your life back on track.
Waitlist until mid June - Combing through the LONG list of therapists can be overwhelming, let alone making the decision to start therapy! I am sensitive to the strength and vulnerability that it takes to make the decision to take the leap. I believe that every negative event is an opportunity for growth! My goal is to provide you with the tools and support to help you attain your goals and get your life back on track.
(531) 201-8398 View (531) 201-8398
Photo of Dr. Elise Dossaji, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85002, AZ
Dr. Elise Dossaji
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC-S, NCC, ND
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
Do you feel stuck in emotional patterns ? Do you experience feelings that lead to other life challenges or feel difficult to control? Do you feel frequently dysregulated emotionally? We can work together to identify patterns and areas of growth as well as resolve conflict with self and others. I have over 15 years experience as a therapist and approach therapy from an integrated perspective, emphasizing openness, trust, and honesty. I utilize a blend of therapeutic techniques to help clients improve coping skills and self-efficacy, while balancing validation and support for change.
Do you feel stuck in emotional patterns ? Do you experience feelings that lead to other life challenges or feel difficult to control? Do you feel frequently dysregulated emotionally? We can work together to identify patterns and areas of growth as well as resolve conflict with self and others. I have over 15 years experience as a therapist and approach therapy from an integrated perspective, emphasizing openness, trust, and honesty. I utilize a blend of therapeutic techniques to help clients improve coping skills and self-efficacy, while balancing validation and support for change.
(504) 434-4836 View (504) 434-4836
Photo of Reema Takla, Marriage & Family Therapist in 85002, AZ
Reema Takla
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
I am here to help you change your life! I provide an empathetic, non-judgemental and caring therapeutic approach. My goal is to help you reduce symptoms and gain positive change. Are you feeling anxious, sad, lonely, and struggle with loss of motivation? Are you having boundary issues, relationship issues, work problems, gender identity, culture issues, and/or immigration struggles. I am passionate about working with my clients to meet their goals. Every case is unique and requires a special therapeutic approach. I tailor my approach to your specific needs.
I am here to help you change your life! I provide an empathetic, non-judgemental and caring therapeutic approach. My goal is to help you reduce symptoms and gain positive change. Are you feeling anxious, sad, lonely, and struggle with loss of motivation? Are you having boundary issues, relationship issues, work problems, gender identity, culture issues, and/or immigration struggles. I am passionate about working with my clients to meet their goals. Every case is unique and requires a special therapeutic approach. I tailor my approach to your specific needs.
(480) 750-7743 View (480) 750-7743
Photo of True2U Counseling LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85002, AZ
True2U Counseling LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with anxiety, overwhelmed, or just dealing with too much stress? Is depression settling in and stealing your energy and joy? Or is your relationship at a crossroad? Feeling stuck and lost without some better tools to communicate and connect with your partner? Tired of seeing everyone else's happy updates on Facebook or Instagram and wondering if you are the only one unhappy? Or are you overwhelmed with school or work and just not sure what to do with your life. Lets talk about it! I am here to support you.
Are you struggling with anxiety, overwhelmed, or just dealing with too much stress? Is depression settling in and stealing your energy and joy? Or is your relationship at a crossroad? Feeling stuck and lost without some better tools to communicate and connect with your partner? Tired of seeing everyone else's happy updates on Facebook or Instagram and wondering if you are the only one unhappy? Or are you overwhelmed with school or work and just not sure what to do with your life. Lets talk about it! I am here to support you.
(480) 613-2855 View (480) 613-2855
Photo of Kristen Jurgenson, Marriage & Family Therapist in 85002, AZ
Kristen Jurgenson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Do you feel like life has gotten harder and you’re just overwhelmed by it all? Do you feel like you’re living in a different world, and it seems angrier and lacking compassion? I am here to help you navigate your feelings of being lost. I'm a trained Christian counselor, and believe spirituality and faith can help you through these challenging times. If faith is a part of your journey I can include that as part of your healing process. There's no magic button or pill that can take these stressful feelings away, but I walk alongside you every step of the way.
Do you feel like life has gotten harder and you’re just overwhelmed by it all? Do you feel like you’re living in a different world, and it seems angrier and lacking compassion? I am here to help you navigate your feelings of being lost. I'm a trained Christian counselor, and believe spirituality and faith can help you through these challenging times. If faith is a part of your journey I can include that as part of your healing process. There's no magic button or pill that can take these stressful feelings away, but I walk alongside you every step of the way.
(480) 780-1572 View (480) 780-1572
Photo of Alyse Lowery, Licensed Master Social Worker in 85002, AZ
Alyse Lowery
Licensed Master Social Worker , LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
Alyse believes that every client is different and everyone has a unique experience in some way. In acknowledging this sentiment she allows clients to be the expert in their story and guide their therapy sessions with her. Using a systems approach Alyse aims to ensure her clients feel heard, understood, and empowered through their involvement in their own care.
Alyse believes that every client is different and everyone has a unique experience in some way. In acknowledging this sentiment she allows clients to be the expert in their story and guide their therapy sessions with her. Using a systems approach Alyse aims to ensure her clients feel heard, understood, and empowered through their involvement in their own care.
(928) 272-5409 View (928) 272-5409
Photo of Diane Breneman, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85002, AZ
Diane Breneman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Are you sick and tired of being sick and tired? Perhaps, you are feeling down or struggling with daily stressors? Are you regretting the past or worrying about the future? Or maybe, you are wanting to learn new skills to heal and grow in relationship with self and others? Relationships can be very difficult, whether with significant others, family, friends, co-workers, or others. Effective communication and healthy boundaries can help to create peace and freedom in one's life. My experience includes many years working with individuals, couples, and families who are facing various difficulties in life.
Are you sick and tired of being sick and tired? Perhaps, you are feeling down or struggling with daily stressors? Are you regretting the past or worrying about the future? Or maybe, you are wanting to learn new skills to heal and grow in relationship with self and others? Relationships can be very difficult, whether with significant others, family, friends, co-workers, or others. Effective communication and healthy boundaries can help to create peace and freedom in one's life. My experience includes many years working with individuals, couples, and families who are facing various difficulties in life.
(928) 212-5074 View (928) 212-5074
Photo of Jose L Valdiviezo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Jose L Valdiviezo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
I am a bilingual clinical social worker having the honor of serving populations of the Southwest. In a world full of uncertainties, complex stressors and a never ending fast pace culture I am here to support individuals whom would like to work on improving their depression, managing their stress or working on their sobriety. Its never too late and never too early to start working on your personal self care. Available to supports individuals going through significant adjustments in life, grief and sadness. You are not alone, things can get better!
I am a bilingual clinical social worker having the honor of serving populations of the Southwest. In a world full of uncertainties, complex stressors and a never ending fast pace culture I am here to support individuals whom would like to work on improving their depression, managing their stress or working on their sobriety. Its never too late and never too early to start working on your personal self care. Available to supports individuals going through significant adjustments in life, grief and sadness. You are not alone, things can get better!
(480) 613-3866 View (480) 613-3866
Photo of Jack Gift, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Jack Gift
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
You may be experiencing anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, a personality disorder, another mental health challenge, chronic pain, trouble with relationships, or difficulties at your place of employment. You may feel stuck in your life or need to clarify personal values and goals. I am skilled and experienced at working with people facing a variety of mental health and related challenges. I specialize in working with people 18 years old and older. My approach to therapy starts with the idea that people are usually the best experts on their own lives.
You may be experiencing anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, a personality disorder, another mental health challenge, chronic pain, trouble with relationships, or difficulties at your place of employment. You may feel stuck in your life or need to clarify personal values and goals. I am skilled and experienced at working with people facing a variety of mental health and related challenges. I specialize in working with people 18 years old and older. My approach to therapy starts with the idea that people are usually the best experts on their own lives.
(520) 335-3987 View (520) 335-3987
Photo of Dr. Aimee Poleski, Psychologist in 85002, AZ
Dr. Aimee Poleski
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Dr. Poleski has experience with children, adults, and older adults in a number of settings. She utilizes an individualized approach that honors each person’s unique self and situation. Clients appreciate her authentic approach that creates a space free of judgment, where they can develop a strong, genuine working relationship to address whatever challenge they may be facing.
Dr. Poleski has experience with children, adults, and older adults in a number of settings. She utilizes an individualized approach that honors each person’s unique self and situation. Clients appreciate her authentic approach that creates a space free of judgment, where they can develop a strong, genuine working relationship to address whatever challenge they may be facing.
(520) 415-2298 View (520) 415-2298
Photo of Summer Papin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Summer Papin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Serving Nevada/Arizona- Whatever the reason you are here...know that I am here to help you through it -no matter how large or small! I want to help and support you through the challenges you are going through. We all experience difficulties in life and sometimes they can feel almost unbearable and we may feel alone. I am here for you. I provide a direct, supportive, empathetic and nonjudgmental approach in therapy. I strive to make the therapeutic process worthwhile and one you are glad you experienced. We will work together to meet your goals and build the skills you need to move on with your life in a positive and meaningful way.
Serving Nevada/Arizona- Whatever the reason you are here...know that I am here to help you through it -no matter how large or small! I want to help and support you through the challenges you are going through. We all experience difficulties in life and sometimes they can feel almost unbearable and we may feel alone. I am here for you. I provide a direct, supportive, empathetic and nonjudgmental approach in therapy. I strive to make the therapeutic process worthwhile and one you are glad you experienced. We will work together to meet your goals and build the skills you need to move on with your life in a positive and meaningful way.
View
Photo of Daylia Warden, Pre-Licensed Professional in 85002, AZ
Daylia Warden
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
Daylia is driven by empathy and a fierce advocate for her clients. She takes into consideration the care of her clients authentically using a gentle and welcoming approach to address each client’s challenges and concerns they are experiencing. Utilizing an eclectic approach incorporating Existential/Humanistic Therapy, CBT, and DBT she empowers her clients to leave each session feeling stronger, both emotionally, and mentally, and more confident in their own way of being. She has worked with clients from different backgrounds experiencing various challenges; trauma, behavioral issues, depression, stress, and anxiety to name a few
Daylia is driven by empathy and a fierce advocate for her clients. She takes into consideration the care of her clients authentically using a gentle and welcoming approach to address each client’s challenges and concerns they are experiencing. Utilizing an eclectic approach incorporating Existential/Humanistic Therapy, CBT, and DBT she empowers her clients to leave each session feeling stronger, both emotionally, and mentally, and more confident in their own way of being. She has worked with clients from different backgrounds experiencing various challenges; trauma, behavioral issues, depression, stress, and anxiety to name a few
(623) 343-4113 View (623) 343-4113
Photo of Levi Sanders, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Levi Sanders
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
I am a firm believer that therapy is for everyone - no matter how scary and strange the process may be. In this safe environment, everyone will feel welcomed just as they are. Working through a trauma-informed lens, I have extensive training in working with fellow members of the LGBTQIA+ community, while utilizing clinical and evidence-based therapeutic modalities - all while using a secular approach. I work with everyone of any age, I largely work with teens through their college years.
I am a firm believer that therapy is for everyone - no matter how scary and strange the process may be. In this safe environment, everyone will feel welcomed just as they are. Working through a trauma-informed lens, I have extensive training in working with fellow members of the LGBTQIA+ community, while utilizing clinical and evidence-based therapeutic modalities - all while using a secular approach. I work with everyone of any age, I largely work with teens through their college years.
(913) 398-4167 View (913) 398-4167
Photo of Karen Glaza, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Karen Glaza
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LCSW-S
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Currently Accepting New Clients via Telehealth only. In addition to Illinois, I am also licensed in Arizona, Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri and Texas. It takes courage to understand the circumstances of our personal journeys. I provide a safe and collaborative environment to help client's identify concerns, establish achievable goals, and provide support and encouragement towards higher functioning. I empower my clients to identify their own strengths, experiences, and interpersonal relationships to help guide them to positive change.
Currently Accepting New Clients via Telehealth only. In addition to Illinois, I am also licensed in Arizona, Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri and Texas. It takes courage to understand the circumstances of our personal journeys. I provide a safe and collaborative environment to help client's identify concerns, establish achievable goals, and provide support and encouragement towards higher functioning. I empower my clients to identify their own strengths, experiences, and interpersonal relationships to help guide them to positive change.
(312) 217-2259 View (312) 217-2259
Photo of Gregory Custer, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85002, AZ
Gregory Custer
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
That saying, "What doesn't kill me makes me stronger" -- I think it should be "What doesn't kill me makes me suffer." So many people feel unheard, disconnected, tired, worthless, fearful, sad, anxious and forgettable. They need the skills to nurture their resilience, to discern their incredible value. There's a loneliness in struggling. But I'm here to help you heal yourself with a new, creative perspective and find resources you didn't know you possessed.
That saying, "What doesn't kill me makes me stronger" -- I think it should be "What doesn't kill me makes me suffer." So many people feel unheard, disconnected, tired, worthless, fearful, sad, anxious and forgettable. They need the skills to nurture their resilience, to discern their incredible value. There's a loneliness in struggling. But I'm here to help you heal yourself with a new, creative perspective and find resources you didn't know you possessed.
(480) 848-4037 View (480) 848-4037
Photo of Anna Antonova, Counselor in 85002, AZ
Anna Antonova
Counselor, MA, CRC, LAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
I am licensed mental health and rehabilitation counselor. I love working with adult individuals and couples. My main work focus is on childhood trauma, anxiety, depression and relationship with self and others. The goal of my therapy is to help you to make the positive changes you need in your life. I’m a client-centered and CBT therapist: I believe that every individual can achieve their mental health, wellness, relationship, and career goals. I provide a nourishing environment where together we will discover your true-self. I see the role of a counselor as a guide who walks beside you as you find your life's path.
I am licensed mental health and rehabilitation counselor. I love working with adult individuals and couples. My main work focus is on childhood trauma, anxiety, depression and relationship with self and others. The goal of my therapy is to help you to make the positive changes you need in your life. I’m a client-centered and CBT therapist: I believe that every individual can achieve their mental health, wellness, relationship, and career goals. I provide a nourishing environment where together we will discover your true-self. I see the role of a counselor as a guide who walks beside you as you find your life's path.
(520) 597-8302 View (520) 597-8302
Photo of Tabitha Martin, Counselor in 85002, AZ
Tabitha Martin
Counselor, MSc, LAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Are you feeling overwhelmed, unheard, worried about every little thing, or unable to cope? Together we can work toward healing and growth. I am passionate about working with parents, families, adolescents, and children in areas including trauma processing, grief and loss, anxiety, and depression. I am LGBTQ+ and neurodiversity affirming. I understand that navigating through life stages can be a struggle, and I know that you do not have to go through it alone.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, unheard, worried about every little thing, or unable to cope? Together we can work toward healing and growth. I am passionate about working with parents, families, adolescents, and children in areas including trauma processing, grief and loss, anxiety, and depression. I am LGBTQ+ and neurodiversity affirming. I understand that navigating through life stages can be a struggle, and I know that you do not have to go through it alone.
(520) 335-9239 View (520) 335-9239
Photo of John Cohen, Licensed Professional Counselor in 85002, AZ
John Cohen
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85002
My main specialty is adoption and attachment. I was adopted and have reunited with my birth parents and have worked with hundreds of adoptees as well as adoptive parents seeking to understand their child/young adult. I work best with those who are seeking insights into themselves. I can help guide you if you are looking to do some self exploration and find out why you keep repeating the same patterns. I have worked extensively with teens, young adults, and with parents. I have treated many families who are struggling with navigating issues related to family dynamics.
My main specialty is adoption and attachment. I was adopted and have reunited with my birth parents and have worked with hundreds of adoptees as well as adoptive parents seeking to understand their child/young adult. I work best with those who are seeking insights into themselves. I can help guide you if you are looking to do some self exploration and find out why you keep repeating the same patterns. I have worked extensively with teens, young adults, and with parents. I have treated many families who are struggling with navigating issues related to family dynamics.
(928) 863-7282 View (928) 863-7282
Photo of Kelly Massey, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 85002, AZ
Kelly Massey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002  (Online Only)
Some seasons (or years) of life can leave us feeling stuck, disconnected, and fearful. Life can be devastatingly full of loss with little hope of recovery. I believe the best way to experience change and move towards recovery starts with acknowledging our unique strengths and resources - what are those things that keep us going? It also requires confronting the darker parts of life with a few trusted people. We are meant for connection. I would be honored to be a trusted person who walks towards healing with you. Are you open to exploring your own road of recovery with me?
Some seasons (or years) of life can leave us feeling stuck, disconnected, and fearful. Life can be devastatingly full of loss with little hope of recovery. I believe the best way to experience change and move towards recovery starts with acknowledging our unique strengths and resources - what are those things that keep us going? It also requires confronting the darker parts of life with a few trusted people. We are meant for connection. I would be honored to be a trusted person who walks towards healing with you. Are you open to exploring your own road of recovery with me?
(425) 517-1242 View (425) 517-1242
Photo of Julia Malone, Marriage & Family Therapist in 85002, AZ
Julia Malone
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85002
You're feeling stuck and looking for a place to unpack some painful memories from the past. You've been trying to make sense of how people so close to you could cause you so much pain. As you've gotten older, navigated relationships, or have had children of your own, you have really been struggling to feel confident, truly connected to others, and whole. I'm Julia. I help those working through generational (complex) trauma alleviate their anxiety, change patterns of perfectionism, people pleasing, and codependency and connect deeply with those they love. I'm here to help you make sense of your experience and embrace yourself fully.
You're feeling stuck and looking for a place to unpack some painful memories from the past. You've been trying to make sense of how people so close to you could cause you so much pain. As you've gotten older, navigated relationships, or have had children of your own, you have really been struggling to feel confident, truly connected to others, and whole. I'm Julia. I help those working through generational (complex) trauma alleviate their anxiety, change patterns of perfectionism, people pleasing, and codependency and connect deeply with those they love. I'm here to help you make sense of your experience and embrace yourself fully.
(619) 503-3526 View (619) 503-3526

See more therapy options for 85002

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 85002

20+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 85002 who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
93% Depression
86% Relationship Issues
86% Self Esteem
75% Trauma and PTSD
75% Stress
64% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Aetna
67% BlueCross and BlueShield
67% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 85002 see their clients

60% Online Only
40% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

76% Female
20% Male
4% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 85002?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.