Photo of Jessica Haworth, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jessica Haworth
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
I provide family and individual services. I have extensive experience working with individuals who have experienced sexual and relational trauma. I utilize a variety of modalities in my treatment approach depending on the need of the client and what works best for them. My treatment approach is client centered first and foremost.I believe all people deserve to be treated with dignity and respect.The space I provide for clients is one of safety and free of judgement.I will provide a supportive relationship in which you can explore the best choices to create the life you truly desire by discovering the truth of who you are.
I provide family and individual services. I have extensive experience working with individuals who have experienced sexual and relational trauma. I utilize a variety of modalities in my treatment approach depending on the need of the client and what works best for them. My treatment approach is client centered first and foremost.I believe all people deserve to be treated with dignity and respect.The space I provide for clients is one of safety and free of judgement.I will provide a supportive relationship in which you can explore the best choices to create the life you truly desire by discovering the truth of who you are.
(539) 352-3294 View (539) 352-3294
Photo of Dannielle Davis-Trauernicht, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Dannielle Davis-Trauernicht
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119
Since 2020, I’ve helped people of all beliefs and backgrounds reclaim the path of their lives. I have a passion for assisting parents navigating the waters of parenthood– from infertility, conception and pregnancy through the unexpected challenges that comes with being a new parent such as postpartum depression/ mood disorders and the grief of loss when things do not go as planned.
Since 2020, I’ve helped people of all beliefs and backgrounds reclaim the path of their lives. I have a passion for assisting parents navigating the waters of parenthood– from infertility, conception and pregnancy through the unexpected challenges that comes with being a new parent such as postpartum depression/ mood disorders and the grief of loss when things do not go as planned.
(918) 203-8330 View (918) 203-8330
Photo of Brie Neil, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brie Neil
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Currently accepting new clients for in-person or telehealth. Is something getting in the way of your happiness? Maybe life has thrown you a curveball or, you've been feeling this way for a while and know it's time to make a change. I provide my clients with a safe and confidential space where they feel listened to, valued and respected. I teach coping skills, relational skills and provide direct and caring feedback to help my clients make significant life changes and achieve their goals. My clients come to me for: relational issues, self-esteem work, boundary work, grief, depression, anxiety, life decisions and more.
Currently accepting new clients for in-person or telehealth. Is something getting in the way of your happiness? Maybe life has thrown you a curveball or, you've been feeling this way for a while and know it's time to make a change. I provide my clients with a safe and confidential space where they feel listened to, valued and respected. I teach coping skills, relational skills and provide direct and caring feedback to help my clients make significant life changes and achieve their goals. My clients come to me for: relational issues, self-esteem work, boundary work, grief, depression, anxiety, life decisions and more.
(539) 200-6395 View (539) 200-6395
Photo of Carrie Brown, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Carrie Brown
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Now Accepting New Clients! Imagine having healthier relationships, balanced emotions, and better boundaries. You might be dealing with problems in your relationships with your spouse, family, or friends. Maybe you feel stuck in unhealthy relationship patterns. You struggle with saying no and taking care of yourself. Or perhaps you are walking through a big life transition and trying to figure out your new identity. These relationship issues are starting to create big emotions, making you feel stressed, anxious, and depressed. Together, we can work on having a happier marriage, healthier boundaries, or a more fufilling life.
Now Accepting New Clients! Imagine having healthier relationships, balanced emotions, and better boundaries. You might be dealing with problems in your relationships with your spouse, family, or friends. Maybe you feel stuck in unhealthy relationship patterns. You struggle with saying no and taking care of yourself. Or perhaps you are walking through a big life transition and trying to figure out your new identity. These relationship issues are starting to create big emotions, making you feel stressed, anxious, and depressed. Together, we can work on having a happier marriage, healthier boundaries, or a more fufilling life.
(918) 900-1511 View (918) 900-1511
Photo of Katt Townsend, LCSW, TIYT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Katt Townsend
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, TIYT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
You want a life that you feel content, radiant and supported in. You want relationships that don't feel like prison, and a job that feels like it was what you were born to do while saving for a future you know you can count on. You want to be that person that soaks in the beauty of life and knows when to say 'enough is enough'. So let's get you there.
You want a life that you feel content, radiant and supported in. You want relationships that don't feel like prison, and a job that feels like it was what you were born to do while saving for a future you know you can count on. You want to be that person that soaks in the beauty of life and knows when to say 'enough is enough'. So let's get you there.
(405) 645-7735 View (405) 645-7735
Katherine (Feist) Keeling
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
Have the negative thoughts and self-doubt become unmanageable lately? Feeling unfulfilled moving from one to-do list to the next? The demands of everyday life can get exhausting. You do not have to suffer alone. Let’s work together to create a space filled with safety, exploration, and self-compassion. Through this space, we’ll help you break free from self-doubt and create meaningful change in your life.
Have the negative thoughts and self-doubt become unmanageable lately? Feeling unfulfilled moving from one to-do list to the next? The demands of everyday life can get exhausting. You do not have to suffer alone. Let’s work together to create a space filled with safety, exploration, and self-compassion. Through this space, we’ll help you break free from self-doubt and create meaningful change in your life.
(918) 322-1855 View (918) 322-1855
Photo of Elisabeth Akeman, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Elisabeth Akeman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Let’s be honest - life is hard sometimes. On the outside, it might seem like you have it all together, but on the inside you feel stuck. It’s a struggle to pull yourself out of bed in the morning. You’re overwhelmed with worry about every little thing. You always put others before yourself. You (and your mind) go go go all day which leaves you no time for yourself. You've been on this roller coaster for so long that it seems like there aren't any other options. Finding a way to break out of this cycle can feel overwhelming. You don't have to do this alone.
Let’s be honest - life is hard sometimes. On the outside, it might seem like you have it all together, but on the inside you feel stuck. It’s a struggle to pull yourself out of bed in the morning. You’re overwhelmed with worry about every little thing. You always put others before yourself. You (and your mind) go go go all day which leaves you no time for yourself. You've been on this roller coaster for so long that it seems like there aren't any other options. Finding a way to break out of this cycle can feel overwhelming. You don't have to do this alone.
(918) 553-5997 View (918) 553-5997
Photo of Scott Rainwater, PhD, Psychologist
Scott Rainwater
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119
I see myself as a navigator. You are the captain. You decide where you want to go. I may have a few good maps to help you get there. It's your boat. You decide how fast or slow. Let me help you build a sturdy ship. So that no matter what stormy seas you find yourself in, you know how to rely on the resources within you. And around you. And how to keep them strong. We are indeed complex creatures. We need to stay in touch by learning about the many ways to find peace and understanding about what things mean. And what we can do about it. And you don't have to do it alone. I'll walk with you.
I see myself as a navigator. You are the captain. You decide where you want to go. I may have a few good maps to help you get there. It's your boat. You decide how fast or slow. Let me help you build a sturdy ship. So that no matter what stormy seas you find yourself in, you know how to rely on the resources within you. And around you. And how to keep them strong. We are indeed complex creatures. We need to stay in touch by learning about the many ways to find peace and understanding about what things mean. And what we can do about it. And you don't have to do it alone. I'll walk with you.
(539) 209-4634 View (539) 209-4634
Photo of Sierra Wade, LPC, LADC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sierra Wade
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LADC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
Starting the process of finding positive support can be complicated, but I’m glad that you’re here and willing to connect. I enjoy working with kids, teens and adults navigating through life’s challenges. I’m here not only to listen, but to encourage you, help hold you accountable and support you with your goals. And these goals will be ones that we create and work on together. You’re the best expert at your life, your voice matters and you deserve to be heard. You’re already doing amazing and taking a huge step towards advocating for yourself and finding positive support.
Starting the process of finding positive support can be complicated, but I’m glad that you’re here and willing to connect. I enjoy working with kids, teens and adults navigating through life’s challenges. I’m here not only to listen, but to encourage you, help hold you accountable and support you with your goals. And these goals will be ones that we create and work on together. You’re the best expert at your life, your voice matters and you deserve to be heard. You’re already doing amazing and taking a huge step towards advocating for yourself and finding positive support.
View
Photo of Siara Jacobs, LPC, NBCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Siara Jacobs
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NBCC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Exhausted from the endless merry-go-round-of-doing-all-the-things-all-the-time and ready to get off the ride? Weary of the people-pleasing, wondering how to make space for yourself and the things that matter most to you? Feeling restless, uncomfortable, or unsafe in your own body? Or maybe you're just looking for a space to start being real with yourself. Let’s talk. Wherever you are, that’s where I’ll meet you. Life’s odyssey is ongoing–it’s never too late to choose a new path forward. No matter your past or present battles, inner demons or distractions, there is still time to become the hero of your own story, starting today.
Exhausted from the endless merry-go-round-of-doing-all-the-things-all-the-time and ready to get off the ride? Weary of the people-pleasing, wondering how to make space for yourself and the things that matter most to you? Feeling restless, uncomfortable, or unsafe in your own body? Or maybe you're just looking for a space to start being real with yourself. Let’s talk. Wherever you are, that’s where I’ll meet you. Life’s odyssey is ongoing–it’s never too late to choose a new path forward. No matter your past or present battles, inner demons or distractions, there is still time to become the hero of your own story, starting today.
(918) 380-0664 View (918) 380-0664
Photo of Jill Sedlacek, LPC-S, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jill Sedlacek
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-S
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119
I've realized people like to share their entire life story with someone who will leave them alone most of the time. In my opinion, therapy is the easiest relationship to develop, maintain, and come back to over and over again. A good therapist will help you recognize and appreciate this motto.
I've realized people like to share their entire life story with someone who will leave them alone most of the time. In my opinion, therapy is the easiest relationship to develop, maintain, and come back to over and over again. A good therapist will help you recognize and appreciate this motto.
(918) 770-8772 View (918) 770-8772
Photo of undefined - Anchored BHC Interns, Licensed Professional Counselor
Anchored BHC Interns
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Welcome to Anchored BHC's intern page. Anchored BHC offers Pro Bono counseling services given by qualified Master level Interns. These Interns have a large array of experiences and knowledge to assist you in your journey. Anchored is here to continue to remove the barriers so that you can receive counseling services.
Welcome to Anchored BHC's intern page. Anchored BHC offers Pro Bono counseling services given by qualified Master level Interns. These Interns have a large array of experiences and knowledge to assist you in your journey. Anchored is here to continue to remove the barriers so that you can receive counseling services.
(918) 601-4017 View (918) 601-4017
Photo of Karen Lacy, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Karen Lacy
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Accepting new clients with immediate openings in-person and remote! Therapy is about you, your self-defined goals, your perspective, and your experience. I believe you already have what you need inside to be successful in your healing journey. I see myself as a guide and holder-of-hope to identify, navigate, and remove the barriers that prevent peace and joy. I enjoy working with a wide range of presenting concerns, and I have expertise in treating teens, trauma, mood disorders, anxiety, and LGBTQ clients. I will guide our sessions with a strengths-based, person-centered, inclusive perspective.
Accepting new clients with immediate openings in-person and remote! Therapy is about you, your self-defined goals, your perspective, and your experience. I believe you already have what you need inside to be successful in your healing journey. I see myself as a guide and holder-of-hope to identify, navigate, and remove the barriers that prevent peace and joy. I enjoy working with a wide range of presenting concerns, and I have expertise in treating teens, trauma, mood disorders, anxiety, and LGBTQ clients. I will guide our sessions with a strengths-based, person-centered, inclusive perspective.
(918) 900-1511 View (918) 900-1511
Photo of Julius Fellows, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Julius Fellows
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Hello! My name is Julius and I am an EMDR trained therapist with over 11 years of experience. Through this journey I’ve learned that there can be Triumph within Trauma and often a Purpose in the Pain. As a Disciple of Christ I believe that all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. With faith and works, It can and will get better. Don’t miss your shot to move into the Life you desire. Today is the best day to get started. :) Julius LPC
Hello! My name is Julius and I am an EMDR trained therapist with over 11 years of experience. Through this journey I’ve learned that there can be Triumph within Trauma and often a Purpose in the Pain. As a Disciple of Christ I believe that all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. With faith and works, It can and will get better. Don’t miss your shot to move into the Life you desire. Today is the best day to get started. :) Julius LPC
(539) 352-4771 View (539) 352-4771
Photo of Samira Yousef, LPC, NCC, MS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Samira Yousef
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, MS
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
Have you ever come across a situation in your life left you feeling confused - whether it be in your own response or someone else's? Perhaps it left you reflecting on your own needs or unsure of what steps to take next. Whether you find yourself in this situation or have other reasons for seeking therapy, I'm here to help. I help many clients who exhibit codependent behaviors and struggle to assert themselves. They yearn to find their voice, build confidence, and reclaim their sense of self. They seek to understand their trauma responses, cultivate self-compassion, and break free from unhelpful relationship patterns.
Have you ever come across a situation in your life left you feeling confused - whether it be in your own response or someone else's? Perhaps it left you reflecting on your own needs or unsure of what steps to take next. Whether you find yourself in this situation or have other reasons for seeking therapy, I'm here to help. I help many clients who exhibit codependent behaviors and struggle to assert themselves. They yearn to find their voice, build confidence, and reclaim their sense of self. They seek to understand their trauma responses, cultivate self-compassion, and break free from unhelpful relationship patterns.
(918) 228-5605 View (918) 228-5605
Photo of undefined - Exuberant Connections , MS, LPC-S, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Exuberant Connections
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC-S, NCC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119  (Online Only)
Connections focuses on the trauma informed approach while providing services to couples and individual counseling. Specializing in individual sessions with those transitioning or maintaining a WFPBNO or Vegan lifestyle. Hello! I have been working in the mental health field for 8 years. My counseling style is warm , calm and interactive. I have worked with individuals experiencing a variety of issues including family conflict, depression and anxiety, stress-related issues, domestic violence, trauma, anger management, communication challenges, self-esteem, and many more. Working with couple using the Gottman Approach.
Connections focuses on the trauma informed approach while providing services to couples and individual counseling. Specializing in individual sessions with those transitioning or maintaining a WFPBNO or Vegan lifestyle. Hello! I have been working in the mental health field for 8 years. My counseling style is warm , calm and interactive. I have worked with individuals experiencing a variety of issues including family conflict, depression and anxiety, stress-related issues, domestic violence, trauma, anger management, communication challenges, self-esteem, and many more. Working with couple using the Gottman Approach.
(918) 716-9189 View (918) 716-9189
Photo of Jacquyn Renee Cleary, LPC, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jacquyn Renee Cleary
Marriage & Family Therapist, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
If you want to change or grow, this is the place. As a therapist I will work to earn your trust. When you bring openness, honesty and motivation to work, there is no limit to what you can achieve.You will experience an open,warm environment where you will be welcomed, accepted and encouraged to be the best you can be.Treatment specialties are focused around relationship and marital issues, women's issues, panic, anxiety and depression. It is also important to know that I am solutions oriented in my approach and I work to help the client define their goals and strategies to achieve their goals within a reasonable time frame.
If you want to change or grow, this is the place. As a therapist I will work to earn your trust. When you bring openness, honesty and motivation to work, there is no limit to what you can achieve.You will experience an open,warm environment where you will be welcomed, accepted and encouraged to be the best you can be.Treatment specialties are focused around relationship and marital issues, women's issues, panic, anxiety and depression. It is also important to know that I am solutions oriented in my approach and I work to help the client define their goals and strategies to achieve their goals within a reasonable time frame.
(918) 221-0401 View (918) 221-0401
Photo of Becky van der Hagen, PhD, LPC, RPT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Becky van der Hagen
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, RPT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119
Are you are a guardian who is seeking help for your child? I could be the person you are looking for. I am therapist who specializes in working with children. I work with children starting at age 3. In therapy, I work on helping children have better awareness of their emotions, how to express their emotions in a healthy way, increase frustration tolerance, and process their life experiences. I also work with the children’s guardians to improve the parent/child relationship as well as help the parents be responsive to their children’s emotional and behavioral needs.
Are you are a guardian who is seeking help for your child? I could be the person you are looking for. I am therapist who specializes in working with children. I work with children starting at age 3. In therapy, I work on helping children have better awareness of their emotions, how to express their emotions in a healthy way, increase frustration tolerance, and process their life experiences. I also work with the children’s guardians to improve the parent/child relationship as well as help the parents be responsive to their children’s emotional and behavioral needs.
(539) 210-3110 View (539) 210-3110
Photo of Mary Arena, MS, LPC-C, Pre-Licensed Professional
Mary Arena
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, LPC-C
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tulsa, OK 74119
Looking for help can be the most excruciating part of recovery. If you’re here, you have already made the brave step of deciding you want to get better. Whether you’re battling anxiety, depression, stress, or issues in relationships, I am here to guide you through life’s complex emotions and support you on your journey towards healing.
Looking for help can be the most excruciating part of recovery. If you’re here, you have already made the brave step of deciding you want to get better. Whether you’re battling anxiety, depression, stress, or issues in relationships, I am here to guide you through life’s complex emotions and support you on your journey towards healing.
(918) 601-5071 View (918) 601-5071
Photo of Jasmine Rowe, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jasmine Rowe
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Tulsa, OK 74119
Accepting New Clients. Different seasons of life can open doors to various experiences that we may find challenging, intimidating, painful, or unfulfilling. Past methods of coping with daily stressors, or our way of simply being in the world may no longer feel authentic or true to who we are. I work with clients to explore and identify patterns of thinking and behaviors that are unhelpful; confront discrepancies and limitations that prevent forward movement; enhance self-love and acceptance; and ultimately empower clients to create a life that is more meaningful, intentional, and fulfilling.
Accepting New Clients. Different seasons of life can open doors to various experiences that we may find challenging, intimidating, painful, or unfulfilling. Past methods of coping with daily stressors, or our way of simply being in the world may no longer feel authentic or true to who we are. I work with clients to explore and identify patterns of thinking and behaviors that are unhelpful; confront discrepancies and limitations that prevent forward movement; enhance self-love and acceptance; and ultimately empower clients to create a life that is more meaningful, intentional, and fulfilling.
(918) 900-1511 View (918) 900-1511

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 74119

40+

Average cost per session

$137

Therapists in 74119 who prioritize treating:

85% Self Esteem
80% Anxiety
75% Depression
75% Trauma and PTSD
73% Relationship Issues
73% Stress
70% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

79% BlueCross and BlueShield
67% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
48% Aetna

How Therapists in 74119 see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
13% Male
5% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 74119?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.