Photo of Ruthie Hast, MEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ruthie Hast
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Not accepting new clients
I particularly enjoy helping clients to recognize and strengthen the positives in themselves and their relationships, and to grow toward their goals for themselves and those connections. My trauma and marriage training, as well as my own personal life experiences and Christian faith have uniquely equipped me to accompany clients on that journey in an effective and energizing way.
I particularly enjoy helping clients to recognize and strengthen the positives in themselves and their relationships, and to grow toward their goals for themselves and those connections. My trauma and marriage training, as well as my own personal life experiences and Christian faith have uniquely equipped me to accompany clients on that journey in an effective and energizing way.
(405) 835-2543 View (405) 835-2543
Photo of Kendra Laughlin, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Kendra Laughlin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor assisting individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and relationship issues. My goal is create a comfortable, supportive, and welcoming environment to discover how to cope with your personal situation and issues.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor assisting individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and relationship issues. My goal is create a comfortable, supportive, and welcoming environment to discover how to cope with your personal situation and issues.
(918) 819-4197 View (918) 819-4197
Photo of undefined - Katie Wood, MS
Katie Wood
MS
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Katie desires to help clients navigate the story of their lives and understand their experiences through the therapeutic relationship. Her training focused on relationship dynamics and family systems. Katie finds meaning in models like Narrative Family Therapy and Experiential Family Therapy. She discovered that these two models worked beautifully together to help clients gain insight and heal. She believes that as we come to better understand ourselves and our surroundings, we are better able to grow and move forward through life.
Katie desires to help clients navigate the story of their lives and understand their experiences through the therapeutic relationship. Her training focused on relationship dynamics and family systems. Katie finds meaning in models like Narrative Family Therapy and Experiential Family Therapy. She discovered that these two models worked beautifully together to help clients gain insight and heal. She believes that as we come to better understand ourselves and our surroundings, we are better able to grow and move forward through life.
(405) 817-3616 View (405) 817-3616
Photo of Hannah Barnes, LMSWu/s, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hannah Barnes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSWu/s
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Have you been in therapy for as long as you can remember and still have no idea how to regulate your emotions, what to do with your life, or how to maintain healthy relationships? Do you feel things so very deeply, and no one else seems to understand? Maybe you don't know how to turn off intrusive thoughts in your mind, and are desperate to find connection with something that’s real. Are you a caregiver navigating complex parenting dynamics and feeling distressed and hopeless? Have you suffered loss, invalidation, or abuse and have never been able to fully put that weight down? If so, you are my people.
Have you been in therapy for as long as you can remember and still have no idea how to regulate your emotions, what to do with your life, or how to maintain healthy relationships? Do you feel things so very deeply, and no one else seems to understand? Maybe you don't know how to turn off intrusive thoughts in your mind, and are desperate to find connection with something that’s real. Are you a caregiver navigating complex parenting dynamics and feeling distressed and hopeless? Have you suffered loss, invalidation, or abuse and have never been able to fully put that weight down? If so, you are my people.
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Photo of Alex Buchner, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Alex Buchner
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
16 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
I often find myself meeting with clients who are struggling with feelings and behaviors that have come to the surface without them knowing why. I see this a lot in my work with adolescents, adults and couples. For many, life has become more complicated than they expected it would and no one should have to navigate that complexity alone. I believe in the relationship between the client and therapist and have witnessed it lead to growth and change. If you are looking to try therapy, please pursue it. My hope is that you would experience the real, meaningful change that therapy can provide us all.
I often find myself meeting with clients who are struggling with feelings and behaviors that have come to the surface without them knowing why. I see this a lot in my work with adolescents, adults and couples. For many, life has become more complicated than they expected it would and no one should have to navigate that complexity alone. I believe in the relationship between the client and therapist and have witnessed it lead to growth and change. If you are looking to try therapy, please pursue it. My hope is that you would experience the real, meaningful change that therapy can provide us all.
(405) 299-0389 View (405) 299-0389
Photo of Shae D Gregston, LPC, LMFT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Shae D Gregston
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
My mission is to walk alongside individuals, couples, families, adults, and adolescents during any of the challenges life is throwing at them, not matter how big or small, while honoring foundational Christian truths of scripture. My goal for each person who walks through our doors is to experience the compassionate care available in an environment that promotes safety and healing. Together, we will work to increase personal insight and motivation to change those things that are harmful, whether it be in negative relationships, feelings of hopelessness, or addictive behaviors.
My mission is to walk alongside individuals, couples, families, adults, and adolescents during any of the challenges life is throwing at them, not matter how big or small, while honoring foundational Christian truths of scripture. My goal for each person who walks through our doors is to experience the compassionate care available in an environment that promotes safety and healing. Together, we will work to increase personal insight and motivation to change those things that are harmful, whether it be in negative relationships, feelings of hopelessness, or addictive behaviors.
(405) 241-4955 View (405) 241-4955
Photo of Shayla Hanna, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Shayla Hanna
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034
I have a passion for supporting others as they work to develop their best, truest self. I believe we all deserve a space to explore the deepest parts of ourselves without the risk of judgment, misunderstanding or shame. I enjoy working with clients of all backgrounds and experiences, and have a special passion for those navigating the waters of mood disorders and the perinatal/postpartum season. I know how overwhelming these experiences can be, and I believe we should never have to navigate them alone.
I have a passion for supporting others as they work to develop their best, truest self. I believe we all deserve a space to explore the deepest parts of ourselves without the risk of judgment, misunderstanding or shame. I enjoy working with clients of all backgrounds and experiences, and have a special passion for those navigating the waters of mood disorders and the perinatal/postpartum season. I know how overwhelming these experiences can be, and I believe we should never have to navigate them alone.
(405) 267-8125 View (405) 267-8125
Photo of Mike Etzler, PhD, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Mike Etzler
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034
Due to the CV-19 pandemic, I'm currently using both Telehealth and in-person counselling with my clients in Oklahoma. I am currently taking new clients. My goal is for clients to finish counseling feeling heard, cared for and loved. Sometimes stress and trauma can be made worse by our own beliefs. Therapy can help identify and correct those harmful thoughts and false beliefs. Caring friends have helped my family and me to face life's biggest challenges. Remember, you can survive even the worst of times, and there is nothing too difficult for you to handle. Let's reason together and find your answers.
Due to the CV-19 pandemic, I'm currently using both Telehealth and in-person counselling with my clients in Oklahoma. I am currently taking new clients. My goal is for clients to finish counseling feeling heard, cared for and loved. Sometimes stress and trauma can be made worse by our own beliefs. Therapy can help identify and correct those harmful thoughts and false beliefs. Caring friends have helped my family and me to face life's biggest challenges. Remember, you can survive even the worst of times, and there is nothing too difficult for you to handle. Let's reason together and find your answers.
(405) 445-6532 View (405) 445-6532
Photo of Jessica Bergmann, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jessica Bergmann
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034  (Online Only)
You Matter. You are worth it, Together we can do this. Deciding to come to therapy takes courage. I would be honored to partner with you and provide tools for you to live a more productive, peaceful, and satisfying life. I know from my experience as a therapist and life coach that you have the ability to make big changes in your life. If you are ready to do the work, you will be amazed at how capable you are.
You Matter. You are worth it, Together we can do this. Deciding to come to therapy takes courage. I would be honored to partner with you and provide tools for you to live a more productive, peaceful, and satisfying life. I know from my experience as a therapist and life coach that you have the ability to make big changes in your life. If you are ready to do the work, you will be amazed at how capable you are.
(580) 203-4580 View (580) 203-4580
Photo of Dr. Laura Lochner, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Laura Lochner
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I help women and men to understand and free themselves from unhealthy relationship patterns and live full and engaged lives. I have 15+ years of experience and am passionate about working with individual adults to dig deep into their thoughts, feelings and actions. I help people who are experiencing depression, anxiety, fear, effects from trauma and abuse, and low self-esteem. When relationships with partners, family, friends and others are strained, we often feel adrift. I want to help you feel emotionally and psychologically freed so you can live the life you want.
I help women and men to understand and free themselves from unhealthy relationship patterns and live full and engaged lives. I have 15+ years of experience and am passionate about working with individual adults to dig deep into their thoughts, feelings and actions. I help people who are experiencing depression, anxiety, fear, effects from trauma and abuse, and low self-esteem. When relationships with partners, family, friends and others are strained, we often feel adrift. I want to help you feel emotionally and psychologically freed so you can live the life you want.
(405) 591-2337 View (405) 591-2337
Photo of Rachel Hixson, Pre-Licensed Professional
Rachel Hixson
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
One of my favorite quotes is “Not all those who wander are lost” -J.R.R. Tolkien. Life can sometimes feel aimless, and we may feel like we are lost in a huge forest of difficulty. Difficulty could look like anxiety, depression, burnout, or problems with relationships. Sometimes having a person to help navigate through life’s problems can create direction. If you feel lost or aimless look no further! Together we will explore the forests of life and find new trails to take. I endeavor to listen empathetically and create a judgement free zone for all.
One of my favorite quotes is “Not all those who wander are lost” -J.R.R. Tolkien. Life can sometimes feel aimless, and we may feel like we are lost in a huge forest of difficulty. Difficulty could look like anxiety, depression, burnout, or problems with relationships. Sometimes having a person to help navigate through life’s problems can create direction. If you feel lost or aimless look no further! Together we will explore the forests of life and find new trails to take. I endeavor to listen empathetically and create a judgement free zone for all.
(405) 451-4861 View (405) 451-4861
Photo of Katie Raizola, Intern
Katie Raizola
Intern
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
I'm thrilled to introduce myself as an intern therapist embarking on a journey to provide compassionate and effective therapy services through Wellspring Counseling Center. I'm a graduate from Southwestern Oklahoma State University with a Masters degree in Community Counseling, with a minor in Alcohol Dependency.
I'm thrilled to introduce myself as an intern therapist embarking on a journey to provide compassionate and effective therapy services through Wellspring Counseling Center. I'm a graduate from Southwestern Oklahoma State University with a Masters degree in Community Counseling, with a minor in Alcohol Dependency.
(405) 267-8357 View (405) 267-8357
Photo of Chantel Weeks, MCP, LPC, PMH-C, Licensed Professional Counselor
Chantel Weeks
Licensed Professional Counselor, MCP, LPC, PMH-C
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
You probably woke up today and said that’s freaking it, time to finally get my sh+t together….that Hogwarts letter ain’t coming! Just feeling worn out from seeing the negative side of everything? Feeling like today is the same as yesterday! Laying in bed with your junk food, not wanting to get up, downing coffee like it’s an Olympic sport to have enough energy to make it through the day, and playing scenarios of what you would really like to say to your boss over and over in your head! Well, It's time to figure out how to manage that anxiety. YOU can make your own magic and take your life BACK!
You probably woke up today and said that’s freaking it, time to finally get my sh+t together….that Hogwarts letter ain’t coming! Just feeling worn out from seeing the negative side of everything? Feeling like today is the same as yesterday! Laying in bed with your junk food, not wanting to get up, downing coffee like it’s an Olympic sport to have enough energy to make it through the day, and playing scenarios of what you would really like to say to your boss over and over in your head! Well, It's time to figure out how to manage that anxiety. YOU can make your own magic and take your life BACK!
(405) 963-3771 View (405) 963-3771
Photo of Melinda Vanderschaaf, MAMFT, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Melinda Vanderschaaf
Licensed Professional Counselor, MAMFT, LPC
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034
Waitlist for new clients
I believe that we all experience times in our lives where it is a struggle to adjust and cope to unexpected losses, changes in our family dynamics, role responsibilities, relationships, and other life difficulties. It is my core belief as a therapist that the therapeutic relationship can provide great healing. I work with my clients in a confidential setting to build a safe and accepting environment that promotes client and therapist working together towards common goals for treatment. We work to achieve these goals utilizing therapeutic methods and interventions that allow hope and healing to occur for the client.
I believe that we all experience times in our lives where it is a struggle to adjust and cope to unexpected losses, changes in our family dynamics, role responsibilities, relationships, and other life difficulties. It is my core belief as a therapist that the therapeutic relationship can provide great healing. I work with my clients in a confidential setting to build a safe and accepting environment that promotes client and therapist working together towards common goals for treatment. We work to achieve these goals utilizing therapeutic methods and interventions that allow hope and healing to occur for the client.
(405) 896-3591 View (405) 896-3591
Photo of Shawn Fowler, MA, LPC, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Shawn Fowler
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LLC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Life is a book in which we intend to write one story, but are inevitably forced to write another. I help couples and individuals through the difficult chapters. Has the love story you dreamed of writing grown stagnant or been rocked by betrayal? I’ll help restore intimacy, reignite passion, rebuild trust, and rediscover the joy of love. Facing a chapter characterized by debilitating depression, crippling anxiety, a cloud of grief, or the ghost of past trauma? Find refuge, relief, and healing here. A difficult chapter doesn’t mean your story is ruined. We'll get through the painful pages and begin writing a new and better chapter.
Life is a book in which we intend to write one story, but are inevitably forced to write another. I help couples and individuals through the difficult chapters. Has the love story you dreamed of writing grown stagnant or been rocked by betrayal? I’ll help restore intimacy, reignite passion, rebuild trust, and rediscover the joy of love. Facing a chapter characterized by debilitating depression, crippling anxiety, a cloud of grief, or the ghost of past trauma? Find refuge, relief, and healing here. A difficult chapter doesn’t mean your story is ruined. We'll get through the painful pages and begin writing a new and better chapter.
(405) 251-6532 View (405) 251-6532
Photo of Laurie Spies, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Laurie Spies
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Not accepting new clients
Do you desire a deep sense of well-being, goodness, and peace but find those experiences are elusive? No matter how hard you try, you feel anxious, angry, disconnected from the people you love, distant from your own emotions, paralyzed, and exhausted with all the effort. I help people improve their relationships with themselves, God, and other people by examining the patterns that keep us stuck. We are so close to our own experiences and feelings, that we often can’t see the full picture. Working together, we can zoom out to see more clearly what is going on. When we do that, we find we have more options and more freedom.
Do you desire a deep sense of well-being, goodness, and peace but find those experiences are elusive? No matter how hard you try, you feel anxious, angry, disconnected from the people you love, distant from your own emotions, paralyzed, and exhausted with all the effort. I help people improve their relationships with themselves, God, and other people by examining the patterns that keep us stuck. We are so close to our own experiences and feelings, that we often can’t see the full picture. Working together, we can zoom out to see more clearly what is going on. When we do that, we find we have more options and more freedom.
(405) 963-3406 View (405) 963-3406
Photo of Alyson S Clark, MHR, LPC, LADC, EMDR, Licensed Professional Counselor
Alyson S Clark
Licensed Professional Counselor, MHR, LPC, LADC, EMDR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
Waitlist for new clients
Talk therapy not cutting it? Suffering from anxiety, stress, depression, or other adverse life circumstances? Want to improve your social or sports performance? Do you have disturbing events that you can not get out of your head? Your brain has the power to heal itself! EMDR or Eye Movement Desensitization therapy can help. EMDR is an integrative and widely researched psychotherapy approach that incorporates talk therapy and various other therapeutic techniques. EMDR has been found to effectively treat a wide range of disorders such as stress, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, phobias, and negative thought processes.
Talk therapy not cutting it? Suffering from anxiety, stress, depression, or other adverse life circumstances? Want to improve your social or sports performance? Do you have disturbing events that you can not get out of your head? Your brain has the power to heal itself! EMDR or Eye Movement Desensitization therapy can help. EMDR is an integrative and widely researched psychotherapy approach that incorporates talk therapy and various other therapeutic techniques. EMDR has been found to effectively treat a wide range of disorders such as stress, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, phobias, and negative thought processes.
(405) 241-5434 View (405) 241-5434
Photo of Kacey Brewer, MS, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kacey Brewer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
I want clients to experience therapy with safety and healing. Together, we will work to increase personal insight, restore balance, improve relationships, and increase motivation. I hope to create an environment of authenticity, warmth, and empathy for clients. I work with individual adults, couples, families, and adolescents. I recognize every individual is influenced by their family system and relationships. I am passionate about assisting couples and family members to thrive in their environment! My favorite part of therapy is walking alongside clients through their lives and seeing their growth!
I want clients to experience therapy with safety and healing. Together, we will work to increase personal insight, restore balance, improve relationships, and increase motivation. I hope to create an environment of authenticity, warmth, and empathy for clients. I work with individual adults, couples, families, and adolescents. I recognize every individual is influenced by their family system and relationships. I am passionate about assisting couples and family members to thrive in their environment! My favorite part of therapy is walking alongside clients through their lives and seeing their growth!
(405) 267-8175 View (405) 267-8175
Photo of undefined - Bruce Lochner, Ph.D., PhD, ABPP, MA, FIPA, HSP, Psychologist
Bruce Lochner, Ph.D.
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP, MA, FIPA, HSP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edmond, OK 73034
I help people rebound from difficult situations and reclaim purpose, meaning and pleasure in their life. I help them resolve their inner conflicts so that they may gain psychological freedom and enjoy all of what life has to offer them. Resolving inner conflicts removes barriers to relationships that form the basis for a coherent personal identity, relationship intimacy, and success in business and personal life. By using what happens in the therapy relationship, we can encounter, examine, and master the unconscious fears and beliefs that produce the debilitating problems which profoundly affect our lives, and thwart our goals.
I help people rebound from difficult situations and reclaim purpose, meaning and pleasure in their life. I help them resolve their inner conflicts so that they may gain psychological freedom and enjoy all of what life has to offer them. Resolving inner conflicts removes barriers to relationships that form the basis for a coherent personal identity, relationship intimacy, and success in business and personal life. By using what happens in the therapy relationship, we can encounter, examine, and master the unconscious fears and beliefs that produce the debilitating problems which profoundly affect our lives, and thwart our goals.
(405) 455-8042 x455 View (405) 455-8042 x455
Photo of Brooke Larimore, MA, LPC-C, Pre-Licensed Professional
Brooke Larimore
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, LPC-C
Verified Verified
Edmond, OK 73034
Hello! I want to first start out by saying, that ALL are welcome here. My hope for this space is that it will be not only therapeutic, but a healing environment, and that it will be a soft place to land for all who enter. I operate from a person-centered approach, and firmly believe in unconditional positive regard for my clients. My areas of special interest are religious trauma, including processing experiences of purity culture, shame-based teachings, and deconstruction.
Hello! I want to first start out by saying, that ALL are welcome here. My hope for this space is that it will be not only therapeutic, but a healing environment, and that it will be a soft place to land for all who enter. I operate from a person-centered approach, and firmly believe in unconditional positive regard for my clients. My areas of special interest are religious trauma, including processing experiences of purity culture, shame-based teachings, and deconstruction.
(405) 251-7463 View (405) 251-7463

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 73034

100+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in 73034 who prioritize treating:

88% Anxiety
84% Depression
75% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
67% Grief
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Health Choice
74% BlueCross and BlueShield
53% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 73034 see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 73034?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.