Photo of Sara Nelson-Johns, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Sara Nelson-Johns
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LSCSW
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
Not accepting new clients
I work with high achieving adults who want to make changes. Maybe you deal with anxiety, depression, old hurts or current stressors. I work with parents struggling with parenting anxiety, feeling bad or worried about the ways your children are affected by your home life. And I work with adolescents who aren’t sure how to take their next steps. - I am supervising a licensed masters level therapist that provides virtual therapy at a discounted cost. Please ask me about this if you are interested in meeting with her.
I work with high achieving adults who want to make changes. Maybe you deal with anxiety, depression, old hurts or current stressors. I work with parents struggling with parenting anxiety, feeling bad or worried about the ways your children are affected by your home life. And I work with adolescents who aren’t sure how to take their next steps. - I am supervising a licensed masters level therapist that provides virtual therapy at a discounted cost. Please ask me about this if you are interested in meeting with her.
(913) 735-7161 View (913) 735-7161
Photo of Grace Griffin-Spain, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Grace Griffin-Spain
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
I have seen both professionally and personally how transformative the therapeutic process can be when seeking change, growth, and healing. I focus on individuals and couples whose concerns may include anxiety, depression, trauma, or relationship problems. My goal is to provide clients a safe and nonjudgmental space to explore and process their pain and help them reflect on how their experiences influence their perception of themselves, others, and the world. With empathy, understanding, acceptance, and encouragement, I work with clients on integrating changes so that they have the tools they need to live a happy and healthy life.
I have seen both professionally and personally how transformative the therapeutic process can be when seeking change, growth, and healing. I focus on individuals and couples whose concerns may include anxiety, depression, trauma, or relationship problems. My goal is to provide clients a safe and nonjudgmental space to explore and process their pain and help them reflect on how their experiences influence their perception of themselves, others, and the world. With empathy, understanding, acceptance, and encouragement, I work with clients on integrating changes so that they have the tools they need to live a happy and healthy life.
(816) 355-6143 View (816) 355-6143
Photo of Gabrielle Chappelle, Pre-Licensed Professional in 64106, MO
Gabrielle Chappelle
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, PLPC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
Hi there, I’m Gabrielle! Managing the demands of life while dealing with private pain and suffering can be really tough. There may be a sense of ‘Where do I even begin?’ I would love the opportunity to begin right where you are. You may find me appropriate if you are seeking emotional resilience, self-acceptance, or harmony in your relationships. My primary area of focus is with adults and couples impacted by life transitions, trauma, grief, or addiction.
Hi there, I’m Gabrielle! Managing the demands of life while dealing with private pain and suffering can be really tough. There may be a sense of ‘Where do I even begin?’ I would love the opportunity to begin right where you are. You may find me appropriate if you are seeking emotional resilience, self-acceptance, or harmony in your relationships. My primary area of focus is with adults and couples impacted by life transitions, trauma, grief, or addiction.
(816) 692-2933 View (816) 692-2933
Photo of Tenfold Counseling Group, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Tenfold Counseling Group, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
Hi, my name is Crystal Rodenbaugh, and I hope to have the opportunity to work with you! It is my passion to help others live out a life of abundance and to no longer be held back by the hurts from the past. I provide counseling services to teens and adults who may be dealing with the challenges of trauma recovery, depression, anxiety, grief, and relational conflict. It is my goal to help guide you toward new insights that start the process of change and lead to a more healthy and productive life.
Hi, my name is Crystal Rodenbaugh, and I hope to have the opportunity to work with you! It is my passion to help others live out a life of abundance and to no longer be held back by the hurts from the past. I provide counseling services to teens and adults who may be dealing with the challenges of trauma recovery, depression, anxiety, grief, and relational conflict. It is my goal to help guide you toward new insights that start the process of change and lead to a more healthy and productive life.
(816) 656-3127 View (816) 656-3127
Photo of KC Counseling Studio, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
KC Counseling Studio
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
My therapeutic style is ideal for clients looking to reconnect with themselves on all levels. Clients should come curious about identifying emotional and psychological blocks, as well as where trauma, tension, anxiety, or depression is stored in the physical body. I specialize in treating people who are struggling with anxiety, depression, illness, death, sexual assault survivors, and bi-polar. I frequently work with women who are trying to stabilize their body and mind after childbirth, trauma, or menapause. All are welcome.
My therapeutic style is ideal for clients looking to reconnect with themselves on all levels. Clients should come curious about identifying emotional and psychological blocks, as well as where trauma, tension, anxiety, or depression is stored in the physical body. I specialize in treating people who are struggling with anxiety, depression, illness, death, sexual assault survivors, and bi-polar. I frequently work with women who are trying to stabilize their body and mind after childbirth, trauma, or menapause. All are welcome.
(816) 623-1011 View (816) 623-1011
Photo of Nicholas Higgins, Counselor in 64106, MO
Nicholas Higgins
Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
I work primarily with clients suffering from the effects of trauma, chronic shame, depression, and anxiety. Finding what you want in a therapist is difficult, a difficult task on top of the difficulties you are already facing. I encourage you to reach out with an email or a phone call for a free consultation so that we can determine how exactly to get you where you want to be.
I work primarily with clients suffering from the effects of trauma, chronic shame, depression, and anxiety. Finding what you want in a therapist is difficult, a difficult task on top of the difficulties you are already facing. I encourage you to reach out with an email or a phone call for a free consultation so that we can determine how exactly to get you where you want to be.
(913) 270-8005 View (913) 270-8005
Photo of Maxwell Psychological Services, LLC, Psychologist in 64106, MO
Maxwell Psychological Services, LLC
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
Dr. Maxwell specializes in treating chronically turbulent emotions, as well as difficulties relating comfortably and effectively to others. Sometimes these experiences go along with a feeling of not knowing who one is, as well as making rash choices one often regrets. These experiences may or may not be related to abuse(s) and/or neglect experienced in one’s childhood and teenage years. Clinically, these experiences sometimes manifest as personality disorders and/or complex posttraumatic stress disorder. He also helps people curb unruly anxiety, combat avoidance, disrupt depressive thinking patterns, and reshape unhelpful habits.
Dr. Maxwell specializes in treating chronically turbulent emotions, as well as difficulties relating comfortably and effectively to others. Sometimes these experiences go along with a feeling of not knowing who one is, as well as making rash choices one often regrets. These experiences may or may not be related to abuse(s) and/or neglect experienced in one’s childhood and teenage years. Clinically, these experiences sometimes manifest as personality disorders and/or complex posttraumatic stress disorder. He also helps people curb unruly anxiety, combat avoidance, disrupt depressive thinking patterns, and reshape unhelpful habits.
(816) 239-3940 View (816) 239-3940
Photo of Sandra Italiano, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Sandra Italiano
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106  (Online Only)
Life is not always easy. Even the strongest people amongst us need a little bit of help at times to work through the more challenging chapters of life. Everyone has battles to fight and hurdles to overcome at some point. Whatever you may be struggling with, you should know there is hope for a better tomorrow. It takes courage to take the first step toward a more fulfilling and happier life, and I am honored to work with you on your healing journey. Remember, we can do hard things.
Life is not always easy. Even the strongest people amongst us need a little bit of help at times to work through the more challenging chapters of life. Everyone has battles to fight and hurdles to overcome at some point. Whatever you may be struggling with, you should know there is hope for a better tomorrow. It takes courage to take the first step toward a more fulfilling and happier life, and I am honored to work with you on your healing journey. Remember, we can do hard things.
View
Photo of Gabriel Cline, Psychologist in 64106, MO
Gabriel Cline
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
I specialize in High-performance individuals that live under a constant state of performance pressure, Parents who want to understand what their child needs in education (gifted or learning difficulties), and Attorneys that want fair and honest data to decide what needs to happen in complex child custody cases. As someone who has lived in these scenarios, I've developed tools and techniques to help you find the answers you need. Whether you are worried about your child, feeling burned out, or need an accurate assessment for court, I'll strive to give you the care and attention I'd want for my own family.
I specialize in High-performance individuals that live under a constant state of performance pressure, Parents who want to understand what their child needs in education (gifted or learning difficulties), and Attorneys that want fair and honest data to decide what needs to happen in complex child custody cases. As someone who has lived in these scenarios, I've developed tools and techniques to help you find the answers you need. Whether you are worried about your child, feeling burned out, or need an accurate assessment for court, I'll strive to give you the care and attention I'd want for my own family.
(417) 414-0333 View (417) 414-0333
Photo of Kayla Lejeune, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Kayla Lejeune
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
I work with women, young adults, and adolescents who are seeking support and guidance in overcoming challenges, including anxiety and depression as they strive to build a better future. I help individuals identify underlying issues, set achievable goals, and develop a personalized plan that promotes personal growth, resilience, and overall well-being.
I work with women, young adults, and adolescents who are seeking support and guidance in overcoming challenges, including anxiety and depression as they strive to build a better future. I help individuals identify underlying issues, set achievable goals, and develop a personalized plan that promotes personal growth, resilience, and overall well-being.
(417) 414-0333 View (417) 414-0333
Photo of Sara Appleton, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Sara Appleton
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106  (Online Only)
Accepting New Virtual Telehealth Client In AZ and MO. I provide one-on-one therapy to clients who are looking for integrative mind & body alignment by exploring the client as a whole. My extensive experience allows me to guide you professionally with the utmost care. Together we will restore the delicate harmony that creates balance within your mind and body. I have a passion for helping women, men, and the unique issues concerning the LBGTQ+ community. I treat people as human beings and do not reduce them to their personal difficulties allowing my clients to illuminate the solutions already buried inside them.
Accepting New Virtual Telehealth Client In AZ and MO. I provide one-on-one therapy to clients who are looking for integrative mind & body alignment by exploring the client as a whole. My extensive experience allows me to guide you professionally with the utmost care. Together we will restore the delicate harmony that creates balance within your mind and body. I have a passion for helping women, men, and the unique issues concerning the LBGTQ+ community. I treat people as human beings and do not reduce them to their personal difficulties allowing my clients to illuminate the solutions already buried inside them.
(602) 560-6736 View (602) 560-6736
Photo of Ian T Douglas, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Ian T Douglas
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I provide support to individuals who are navigating the complexities of life. My passion lies in assisting those who feel overwhelmed by pornography, men who are seeking to express themselves better, and individuals struggling with the death or loss of a loved one.
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I provide support to individuals who are navigating the complexities of life. My passion lies in assisting those who feel overwhelmed by pornography, men who are seeking to express themselves better, and individuals struggling with the death or loss of a loved one.
(417) 414-0333 View (417) 414-0333
Photo of Dr. Dwight Eisenman, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Dr. Dwight Eisenman
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LCPC, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106  (Online Only)
I am an LCPC in Kansas, an LPC in Missouri and an LMHC in Florida with a PhD in Psychology. With over 12 years of clinical experience, I focus on helping clients with stress and anxiety, coping with addictions, lgbt-related issues, & relationship stressors. I believe in treating everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion. I will tailor our dialog and treatment plan to meet your unique and specific needs. It takes courage to seek out a more fulfilling and happier life and to take the first steps towards a change. I am here to support & empower you in that journey.
I am an LCPC in Kansas, an LPC in Missouri and an LMHC in Florida with a PhD in Psychology. With over 12 years of clinical experience, I focus on helping clients with stress and anxiety, coping with addictions, lgbt-related issues, & relationship stressors. I believe in treating everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion. I will tailor our dialog and treatment plan to meet your unique and specific needs. It takes courage to seek out a more fulfilling and happier life and to take the first steps towards a change. I am here to support & empower you in that journey.
(913) 704-4054 View (913) 704-4054
Photo of Dr. Annalise Millet, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Dr. Annalise Millet
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106  (Online Only)
Unresolved trauma impacts us deeply. Are you feeling numb and shut down or agitated and on alert. Does that resonate for you? Most of us have experienced a traumatic event during the course of our lives; how you recover is directly impacted by the kind of support you have in your life. Experiencing trauma, abuse, or neglect could mean you have fewer internal resources to combat the impact. This can lead to unhealthy ways of dealing with the pain such as addictions, self-harm, destructive relationships, isolation. Through healthy connections and therapy, you can process traumatic experiences and find joy again. I’m eager to help.
Unresolved trauma impacts us deeply. Are you feeling numb and shut down or agitated and on alert. Does that resonate for you? Most of us have experienced a traumatic event during the course of our lives; how you recover is directly impacted by the kind of support you have in your life. Experiencing trauma, abuse, or neglect could mean you have fewer internal resources to combat the impact. This can lead to unhealthy ways of dealing with the pain such as addictions, self-harm, destructive relationships, isolation. Through healthy connections and therapy, you can process traumatic experiences and find joy again. I’m eager to help.
(561) 203-0683 View (561) 203-0683
Photo of Focused Concentration-KC Wellness Dr. Fernandez, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Focused Concentration-KC Wellness Dr. Fernandez
Licensed Professional Counselor, PsyD, LPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
OFFERING REDUCED FEE (PHONE OR VIDEO) TO ALL FIRST RESPONDERS AFFECTED BY COVID-19. I hold a doctoral degree in Clinical Psychology and treat a variety of emotional issues for adults and couples. I provide diagnostic testing and treatment of ADHD, mood disorders, and substance abuse/addiction issues. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Interpersonal Therapy for depression, anxiety, family conflict and overall addiction/impulse control. Bilingual Spanish-English.
OFFERING REDUCED FEE (PHONE OR VIDEO) TO ALL FIRST RESPONDERS AFFECTED BY COVID-19. I hold a doctoral degree in Clinical Psychology and treat a variety of emotional issues for adults and couples. I provide diagnostic testing and treatment of ADHD, mood disorders, and substance abuse/addiction issues. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Interpersonal Therapy for depression, anxiety, family conflict and overall addiction/impulse control. Bilingual Spanish-English.
(816) 974-0601 View (816) 974-0601
Photo of Mica Ollila, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Mica Ollila
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kansas City, MO 64106
I work with couples who feel disconnected from their partner and want to not only improve their communication but also reestablish their relationship as a secure place to turn to. I also work with individuals who have experienced trauma and would benefit from learning how to relax their bodies and change their perceptions, especially in the context of a perceived threat.
I work with couples who feel disconnected from their partner and want to not only improve their communication but also reestablish their relationship as a secure place to turn to. I also work with individuals who have experienced trauma and would benefit from learning how to relax their bodies and change their perceptions, especially in the context of a perceived threat.
(417) 414-0333 View (417) 414-0333
Photo of Mark Newlon, Licensed Professional Counselor in 64106, MO
Mark Newlon
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
There is a place of peace within you, a doorway and passage to a new and different life. If you are ready for change, and ready to find your way once more, let my twenty-nine years of meditation and twelve years of experience counseling others help guide you to your path. I am a validating counselor and mystic, ready to meet you on your journey. Together, we can enter a meditative space for healing, for discovering answers and knowledge to help you on your path, to bring you back to yourself again.
There is a place of peace within you, a doorway and passage to a new and different life. If you are ready for change, and ready to find your way once more, let my twenty-nine years of meditation and twelve years of experience counseling others help guide you to your path. I am a validating counselor and mystic, ready to meet you on your journey. Together, we can enter a meditative space for healing, for discovering answers and knowledge to help you on your path, to bring you back to yourself again.
(816) 482-3141 View (816) 482-3141
Photo of Karla Pollock-Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Karla Pollock-Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106  (Online Only)
You are a successful career woman who is fighting anxiety every stinking day. You say “yes” without considering your schedule or your needs. You worry all of the time about what others think about you and you tend to act differently depending on who you are around. You are scared of being rejected or abandoned, and you spend way too much time in your head replaying conversations you’ve had, fearful that you said something wrong. You doubt yourself frequently and hate to make decisions! Your body has a lot of tension and you’ve been to your doctor or an ER because you thought you were having a heart attack. Time to invest in you.
You are a successful career woman who is fighting anxiety every stinking day. You say “yes” without considering your schedule or your needs. You worry all of the time about what others think about you and you tend to act differently depending on who you are around. You are scared of being rejected or abandoned, and you spend way too much time in your head replaying conversations you’ve had, fearful that you said something wrong. You doubt yourself frequently and hate to make decisions! Your body has a lot of tension and you’ve been to your doctor or an ER because you thought you were having a heart attack. Time to invest in you.
(636) 597-6290 View (636) 597-6290
Photo of Jennah Strathausen, Psychologist in 64106, MO
Jennah Strathausen
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
I enjoy working with adults and adolescents who are experiencing life transitions or challenging seasons in their lives including depression, anxiety/stress, trauma, relationship issues, grief/loss, LGBTQ+ issues, and gender identity concerns. I incorporate evidence based treatments including CBT and EMDR.
I enjoy working with adults and adolescents who are experiencing life transitions or challenging seasons in their lives including depression, anxiety/stress, trauma, relationship issues, grief/loss, LGBTQ+ issues, and gender identity concerns. I incorporate evidence based treatments including CBT and EMDR.
(573) 508-0383 View (573) 508-0383
Photo of Sarah Fleener, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 64106, MO
Sarah Fleener
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LSCSW
Verified Verified
Kansas City, MO 64106
Feeling overwhelmed? Out of control? Dealing with major life changes? Or desiring a life change that you just can't quite grasp? Each of us is created with the ability to manage life's challenges but we don't always see clearly amidst the struggle. Connecting with someone in a safe, affirming, non-judgmental, and solution-focused environment can help you uncover your inner-strengths and see a way out from those feelings of suffering. With more than 20 years of practice experience, Sarah is well equipped to walk with you through any challenge.
Feeling overwhelmed? Out of control? Dealing with major life changes? Or desiring a life change that you just can't quite grasp? Each of us is created with the ability to manage life's challenges but we don't always see clearly amidst the struggle. Connecting with someone in a safe, affirming, non-judgmental, and solution-focused environment can help you uncover your inner-strengths and see a way out from those feelings of suffering. With more than 20 years of practice experience, Sarah is well equipped to walk with you through any challenge.
(816) 227-6945 View (816) 227-6945

See more therapy options for 64106

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 64106

30+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 64106 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
89% Depression
82% Trauma and PTSD
76% Stress
74% Relationship Issues
71% Self Esteem
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

52% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
48% Aetna
48% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 64106 see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
22% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 64106?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.