Therapists in 63131

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Photo of Jamie Ewald, Pre-Licensed Professional in 63131, MO
Jamie Ewald
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, PLPC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Some of us come to a point in life where we find ourselves feeling stuck. Maybe the things that have always worked are no longer working. Maybe we come to a place where we are struggling with a current relationship, holding on to a past relationship, or longing for a future where our relationships are rich with connection and purpose. Or perhaps an unexpected event or circumstance has left us reeling in confusion and doubt that life will ever feel normal again. Jamie believes that safety and connection in relationship are the most powerful tools for movement towards health and wholeness.
Some of us come to a point in life where we find ourselves feeling stuck. Maybe the things that have always worked are no longer working. Maybe we come to a place where we are struggling with a current relationship, holding on to a past relationship, or longing for a future where our relationships are rich with connection and purpose. Or perhaps an unexpected event or circumstance has left us reeling in confusion and doubt that life will ever feel normal again. Jamie believes that safety and connection in relationship are the most powerful tools for movement towards health and wholeness.
(314) 936-2169 View (314) 936-2169
Photo of Megan J Adamo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
Megan J Adamo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, RPT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I work with adults, adolescents, and children. Often, as adults, we find ourselves stuck. You keep trying, yet things aren’t getting better. Usually, this means you have developed a self-limiting belief. Let’s talk. Together we can identify the root of the issue, develop new core beliefs, and create a plan to develop a more fulfilling life. Children and adolescents need a safe space and a person that accepts them for who they truly are, so they can express themselves openly. I focus on helping them see their true worth to enhance their growth and development, while teaching them skills to express emotions and cope with stressors.
I work with adults, adolescents, and children. Often, as adults, we find ourselves stuck. You keep trying, yet things aren’t getting better. Usually, this means you have developed a self-limiting belief. Let’s talk. Together we can identify the root of the issue, develop new core beliefs, and create a plan to develop a more fulfilling life. Children and adolescents need a safe space and a person that accepts them for who they truly are, so they can express themselves openly. I focus on helping them see their true worth to enhance their growth and development, while teaching them skills to express emotions and cope with stressors.
(636) 428-3547 x417 View (636) 428-3547 x417
Photo of EMDR Training Center, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
EMDR Training Center, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Des Peres, MO 63131
Not accepting new clients
From Adversity to New Life. While often it is our daily reactions that make us what change, neurobiological research now proves that past traumatic experiences cause damage to the brain. EMDR Therapy helps clients to process and overcome a multitude of difficult life experiences and regain healthy thinking and functioning.
From Adversity to New Life. While often it is our daily reactions that make us what change, neurobiological research now proves that past traumatic experiences cause damage to the brain. EMDR Therapy helps clients to process and overcome a multitude of difficult life experiences and regain healthy thinking and functioning.
(636) 238-5782 View (636) 238-5782
Photo of Kelly S Diller, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
Kelly S Diller
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MAC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Kelly brings deep compassion and understanding to the counseling experience and walks with her clients through changes that are meaningful and long-lasting. She is passionate about helping women heal from abuse and betrayal, and she recognizes the importance of instilling hope for desired change with regard to relationships and other goals. She loves to work with relationships, anxiety, self-esteem, family counseling, adolescents, identity issues, grief, trauma, depression, anger, and spiritual struggles. Kelly assists her clients in understanding the full context of their situations and she speaks truth in love.
Kelly brings deep compassion and understanding to the counseling experience and walks with her clients through changes that are meaningful and long-lasting. She is passionate about helping women heal from abuse and betrayal, and she recognizes the importance of instilling hope for desired change with regard to relationships and other goals. She loves to work with relationships, anxiety, self-esteem, family counseling, adolescents, identity issues, grief, trauma, depression, anger, and spiritual struggles. Kelly assists her clients in understanding the full context of their situations and she speaks truth in love.
(314) 219-1724 View (314) 219-1724
Photo of Paige Elizabeth Schmittling, Pre-Licensed Professional in 63131, MO
Paige Elizabeth Schmittling
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, PLPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
NO Waitlist! I am currently licensed as a PLPC and received my Master's degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of Missouri. I am dedicated to creating a space for ALL people to feel safe and supported where we can work through the challenges of life together. Helping people work through life transitions and finding their strengths is what I love about being a therapist. I have a history of working in college student mental health and substance use.
NO Waitlist! I am currently licensed as a PLPC and received my Master's degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of Missouri. I am dedicated to creating a space for ALL people to feel safe and supported where we can work through the challenges of life together. Helping people work through life transitions and finding their strengths is what I love about being a therapist. I have a history of working in college student mental health and substance use.
(314) 798-7662 View (314) 798-7662
Photo of Kimberly E Keegan, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
Kimberly E Keegan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I find that often a person is suffering with one or more unresolved issues and continues to hope things will change. When things don't change or get better, they may be ready to seek counseling and become open to talking with a stranger. That's often a big step to take. The goal is to improve the situation, handle a crisis and/or just stop the pain. There are many issues that result in reaching out to a counselor including a relationship crisis, loss of some sort, surviving trauma, addictions, difficulty with family or significant others, and changes that may occur within the person such as depression or anxiety.
I find that often a person is suffering with one or more unresolved issues and continues to hope things will change. When things don't change or get better, they may be ready to seek counseling and become open to talking with a stranger. That's often a big step to take. The goal is to improve the situation, handle a crisis and/or just stop the pain. There are many issues that result in reaching out to a counselor including a relationship crisis, loss of some sort, surviving trauma, addictions, difficulty with family or significant others, and changes that may occur within the person such as depression or anxiety.
(314) 937-5229 View (314) 937-5229
Photo of Julie Maples, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
Julie Maples
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Hi! I’m Julie. Can we first take a moment to celebrate the fact that you are on this website right now? Seriously, congratulations! Searching for a therapist is no easy feat, my friend. It’s awesome that you are here taking the first step to work through some of life’s challenges. Life is hard enough; you don’t have to do it alone. So, let’s see if we’d be a good fit for each other! Some of my greatest joys in life include puppies, coffee, and, most importantly, seeing my clients have the breakthroughs they are looking for and freedom from the things that hold them back or hurt them.
Hi! I’m Julie. Can we first take a moment to celebrate the fact that you are on this website right now? Seriously, congratulations! Searching for a therapist is no easy feat, my friend. It’s awesome that you are here taking the first step to work through some of life’s challenges. Life is hard enough; you don’t have to do it alone. So, let’s see if we’d be a good fit for each other! Some of my greatest joys in life include puppies, coffee, and, most importantly, seeing my clients have the breakthroughs they are looking for and freedom from the things that hold them back or hurt them.
(636) 206-7860 View (636) 206-7860
Photo of Phoebe Thompson, Counselor in 63131, MO
Phoebe Thompson
Counselor, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor. My work often uses a person-centered approach, focusing on my client’s presenting issues and exploring to find the core struggles that lead to what is really going on. I believe in meeting the client where they are and including humor whenever possible.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor. My work often uses a person-centered approach, focusing on my client’s presenting issues and exploring to find the core struggles that lead to what is really going on. I believe in meeting the client where they are and including humor whenever possible.
(314) 310-7423 View (314) 310-7423
Photo of Lee Lockwood, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
Lee Lockwood
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
My approach is to help my patients both resolve the issues they bring to my office and help them become more able to prevent or minimize the recurrence of these issues. And, often what people can not see in themselves defeats their genuine attempts to change their lives. My strengths are helping people both see and deal with what really gets in the way of their achieving substantial change. The mind/emotions are often like icebergs- only a small amount is above water to be seen-yet much is unseen and can lead to great damage( a failure to change).
My approach is to help my patients both resolve the issues they bring to my office and help them become more able to prevent or minimize the recurrence of these issues. And, often what people can not see in themselves defeats their genuine attempts to change their lives. My strengths are helping people both see and deal with what really gets in the way of their achieving substantial change. The mind/emotions are often like icebergs- only a small amount is above water to be seen-yet much is unseen and can lead to great damage( a failure to change).
(314) 329-8892 View (314) 329-8892
Photo of Julia C Rothermich, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
Julia C Rothermich
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Are you tired of answering the question "What's wrong?" One of the hardest things in life is having words in your heart that you can't speak. Together, we can find your voice and explore whatever brings you to counseling in a collaborative, safe and supportive setting. Mental health is just as critical as your physical health and you don't need to suffer in silence. You deserve an emotional check-up.
Are you tired of answering the question "What's wrong?" One of the hardest things in life is having words in your heart that you can't speak. Together, we can find your voice and explore whatever brings you to counseling in a collaborative, safe and supportive setting. Mental health is just as critical as your physical health and you don't need to suffer in silence. You deserve an emotional check-up.
(636) 779-4040 View (636) 779-4040
Photo of Rachel Freitag, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
Rachel Freitag
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW , LMSW
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Not accepting new clients
Are you a parent seeking engaging, effective therapy for your child? Or an adult experiencing anxiety, depression, identity concerns, illness, or other life stressors? Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. I offer inclusive, client-centered therapy for children, teens and adults with a wide range of mental and behavioral health needs.
Are you a parent seeking engaging, effective therapy for your child? Or an adult experiencing anxiety, depression, identity concerns, illness, or other life stressors? Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. I offer inclusive, client-centered therapy for children, teens and adults with a wide range of mental and behavioral health needs.
(314) 804-1118 View (314) 804-1118
Photo of Mike Diller, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
Mike Diller
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Des Peres, MO 63131  (Online Only)
I am a Certified Clinical Telemental Health Provider and currently provide video and teletherapy counseling. With 20+ years experience in the counseling field, I have witnessed couples, adults, and adolescents achieve renewed hope and happiness. Personal change happens through short-term therapy and may last a lifetime. If you are tired of working hard and achieving little or no success, it's probably time to receive professional help. My specialty areas include marriage counseling, anxiety, depression, family counseling, sexual addiction and pornography, and spiritual issues.
I am a Certified Clinical Telemental Health Provider and currently provide video and teletherapy counseling. With 20+ years experience in the counseling field, I have witnessed couples, adults, and adolescents achieve renewed hope and happiness. Personal change happens through short-term therapy and may last a lifetime. If you are tired of working hard and achieving little or no success, it's probably time to receive professional help. My specialty areas include marriage counseling, anxiety, depression, family counseling, sexual addiction and pornography, and spiritual issues.
(314) 315-4193 View (314) 315-4193
Photo of Brad Werner, Licensed Professional Counselor in 63131, MO
Brad Werner
Licensed Professional Counselor, MAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131  (Online Only)
Couples often say to me - "We can't seem to communicate anymore. Why are we having such a hard time understanding each other?" Have you ever felt like this in your relationship? I can help you make the changes necessary to feel connected again as well as create a more hopeful future. We will work with your thoughts, feelings, and actions, in order to recognize and then disrupt your negative cycles of conflict. Then together, we will create new opportunities for increasing closeness. Ultimately, you will see what is not "working", learn "why", and begin to apply new strategies to bring safety and security back to your relationship.
Couples often say to me - "We can't seem to communicate anymore. Why are we having such a hard time understanding each other?" Have you ever felt like this in your relationship? I can help you make the changes necessary to feel connected again as well as create a more hopeful future. We will work with your thoughts, feelings, and actions, in order to recognize and then disrupt your negative cycles of conflict. Then together, we will create new opportunities for increasing closeness. Ultimately, you will see what is not "working", learn "why", and begin to apply new strategies to bring safety and security back to your relationship.
(314) 272-4164 View (314) 272-4164
Photo of Erin Elking, Pre-Licensed Professional in 63131, MO
Erin Elking
Pre-Licensed Professional, PLPC, NCC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I am a dedicated therapist with a passion for helping individuals live a life worth living. I currently have a PLPC and operate under an LPC. I have been endorsed by the National Board for Certified Counselors. My therapeutic approach is centered around creating a strong therapeutic alliance, practicing unconditional positive regard, empathy, and creating a space where clients can feel vulnerable and validated as they work through their challenges. I have developed a niche for working with self-harm, mood disorders, personality disorders, and trauma.
I am a dedicated therapist with a passion for helping individuals live a life worth living. I currently have a PLPC and operate under an LPC. I have been endorsed by the National Board for Certified Counselors. My therapeutic approach is centered around creating a strong therapeutic alliance, practicing unconditional positive regard, empathy, and creating a space where clients can feel vulnerable and validated as they work through their challenges. I have developed a niche for working with self-harm, mood disorders, personality disorders, and trauma.
(314) 274-1747 View (314) 274-1747
Photo of Doris Wild Helmering, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
Doris Wild Helmering
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I believe almost all problems are solvable. If you decide to see me for therapy, the first thing I'll probably ask is, "What's going on? Why have you come?" Perhaps you're having difficulty with a relationship or your struggling with a child or your weight. You may be trying to decide if you want to continue in a relationship or look for another job. Or you've noticed that you're drinking too much or getting too angry or obsessing. Maybe you're feeling anxious, depressed or lonely, and despite your best efforts, you can't seem to shake these feelings.
I believe almost all problems are solvable. If you decide to see me for therapy, the first thing I'll probably ask is, "What's going on? Why have you come?" Perhaps you're having difficulty with a relationship or your struggling with a child or your weight. You may be trying to decide if you want to continue in a relationship or look for another job. Or you've noticed that you're drinking too much or getting too angry or obsessing. Maybe you're feeling anxious, depressed or lonely, and despite your best efforts, you can't seem to shake these feelings.
(636) 238-1854 View (636) 238-1854
Photo of The Empowerment Spot, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
The Empowerment Spot, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Do you feel anxiety about a current life transition? Is a past trauma holding you back in life? It's common to experience grief about the loss of someone or an idea of how you thought life would be. Individuals and couples can enhance the quality of their relationships and gain a better understand of others by attending therapy. I will sit with you and accept you as you are, while we work together on creating a plan of action to break out of patterns that are no longer serving you. It is ok if you have no clue where to start. This is a great first step!
Do you feel anxiety about a current life transition? Is a past trauma holding you back in life? It's common to experience grief about the loss of someone or an idea of how you thought life would be. Individuals and couples can enhance the quality of their relationships and gain a better understand of others by attending therapy. I will sit with you and accept you as you are, while we work together on creating a plan of action to break out of patterns that are no longer serving you. It is ok if you have no clue where to start. This is a great first step!
(314) 936-3892 View (314) 936-3892
Photo of Michelle Perotta, Pre-Licensed Professional in 63131, MO
Michelle Perotta
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Michelle earned her Masters of Social Work degree from Saint Louis University & her Licensed Master of Social Work License 2011. Michelle has worked with a diverse population over the years, primarily focusing on children, teenagers, & families, as well as individuals facing trauma. Michelle believes that all individuals wish to be heard, accepted & understood, but when faced with stressful & challenging situations life can seem overwhelming, unmanageable, and out of control, but therapy can help bring you peace, or "calm the chaos" as she frequently says.
Michelle earned her Masters of Social Work degree from Saint Louis University & her Licensed Master of Social Work License 2011. Michelle has worked with a diverse population over the years, primarily focusing on children, teenagers, & families, as well as individuals facing trauma. Michelle believes that all individuals wish to be heard, accepted & understood, but when faced with stressful & challenging situations life can seem overwhelming, unmanageable, and out of control, but therapy can help bring you peace, or "calm the chaos" as she frequently says.
(314) 582-5126 View (314) 582-5126
Photo of John A Ware, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 63131, MO
John A Ware
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, JD, LCSW
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63131
I see my role as one who can help clarify and encourage strategies to strengthen one's ability to navigate through stresses and pain. Together, we can develop plans to deal with challenging issues and life transitions in marriage, family, and professional or work situations. My career and life experiences have provided me with unique real world insights into the issues facing men and women today. I understand people who are coping with the difficult balancing of inter-personal relationships, family relationships, and work-related issues including, with increasing frequency, the stress, anxiety and uncertainty created by job loss or career transition.
I see my role as one who can help clarify and encourage strategies to strengthen one's ability to navigate through stresses and pain. Together, we can develop plans to deal with challenging issues and life transitions in marriage, family, and professional or work situations. My career and life experiences have provided me with unique real world insights into the issues facing men and women today. I understand people who are coping with the difficult balancing of inter-personal relationships, family relationships, and work-related issues including, with increasing frequency, the stress, anxiety and uncertainty created by job loss or career transition.
(314) 596-2940 View (314) 596-2940
Photo of Donald Respess, PsyD, LLC, Psychologist in 63131, MO
Donald Respess, PsyD, LLC
Psychologist, PsyD, BCBA
Verified
Frontenac, MO 63131
I began working in mental health at a psychiatric hospital as a Mental Health Tech, where I worked for two years while earning my Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. I then work at this facility for five years as an Admission's Specialist, while I completed Master of Science degrees in Psychology, and Applied Behavior Analysis, and a Doctor of Psychology. As Admission's Specialist, I worked Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights from 8pm-8am. This exposed me to a variety of individuals with active mental issues. I consider those times as unique and important to my education helping others.
I began working in mental health at a psychiatric hospital as a Mental Health Tech, where I worked for two years while earning my Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. I then work at this facility for five years as an Admission's Specialist, while I completed Master of Science degrees in Psychology, and Applied Behavior Analysis, and a Doctor of Psychology. As Admission's Specialist, I worked Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights from 8pm-8am. This exposed me to a variety of individuals with active mental issues. I consider those times as unique and important to my education helping others.
(314) 282-2873 View (314) 282-2873
Photo of Dustin B Adamo, Psychologist in 63131, MO
Dustin B Adamo
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63131
Available in: AL, AZ, AR, CT, DE, D.C., GA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, ME, MD, MN, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NC, OH, OK, PA, RI, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI. I was introduced to the world of psychology while going through a difficult time as a young college student and seeking the help of a therapist. The experience taught me so much about myself and how to manage my emotions during difficult times as well as throughout life that I decided to learn more about the field. One intro to psychology class turned into two more, and then just 12 short years later (with a few twists and turns along the way) I completed my PhD in counseling psychology!
Available in: AL, AZ, AR, CT, DE, D.C., GA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, ME, MD, MN, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NC, OH, OK, PA, RI, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI. I was introduced to the world of psychology while going through a difficult time as a young college student and seeking the help of a therapist. The experience taught me so much about myself and how to manage my emotions during difficult times as well as throughout life that I decided to learn more about the field. One intro to psychology class turned into two more, and then just 12 short years later (with a few twists and turns along the way) I completed my PhD in counseling psychology!
(636) 306-5279 x8 View (636) 306-5279 x8

See more therapy options for 63131

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 63131

100+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in 63131 who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
85% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
69% Self Esteem
65% Coping Skills
64% Trauma and PTSD
64% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
70% Aetna
60% Optum

How Therapists in 63131 see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
17% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 63131?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.