Photo of Paul Goossens, Psychologist in 55106, MN
Paul Goossens
Psychologist, LCP
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
I'm Paul Goossens. Great for you to reach out for support! I am a licensed Psychologist with extensive experience helping teens, adults, and families maneuver through a variety of mental health challenges and life transitions. I seek to understand and connect with each individual in the context of their life, while working together to define treatment success and create pathways toward that success. I am able to offer an assortment of clinical tools and modalities to our work together, tailored to each person's needs. I am here to help you move forward when you are ready.
I'm Paul Goossens. Great for you to reach out for support! I am a licensed Psychologist with extensive experience helping teens, adults, and families maneuver through a variety of mental health challenges and life transitions. I seek to understand and connect with each individual in the context of their life, while working together to define treatment success and create pathways toward that success. I am able to offer an assortment of clinical tools and modalities to our work together, tailored to each person's needs. I am here to help you move forward when you are ready.
(651) 413-9875 View (651) 413-9875
Photo of Toni Price, Marriage & Family Therapist in 55106, MN
Toni Price
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55106  (Online Only)
Are you longing to be heard, seen, and understood? To be more connected to yourself and others? Are you wanting to learn to live in new ways that work better for you and your relationships? You have strengths and I want to help you be more aware of them. In our work together, you can process and heal in a space that’s filled with warmth and empathy, kindness and compassion, non-judgment, encouragement, and gentle challenging. I want to help you increase your awareness around your triggers, identify patterns in your relationships, and help you communicate these in ways that help you connect more with yourself and others.
Are you longing to be heard, seen, and understood? To be more connected to yourself and others? Are you wanting to learn to live in new ways that work better for you and your relationships? You have strengths and I want to help you be more aware of them. In our work together, you can process and heal in a space that’s filled with warmth and empathy, kindness and compassion, non-judgment, encouragement, and gentle challenging. I want to help you increase your awareness around your triggers, identify patterns in your relationships, and help you communicate these in ways that help you connect more with yourself and others.
(651) 369-7689 View (651) 369-7689
Photo of Kylie Ogorek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Kylie Ogorek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
My name is Kylie Ogorek. I am a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker in the state of Minnesota. I am passionate about working with clients who come from a variety of different backgrounds. My therapeutic approach is collaborative; I strive to show my clients empathy and compassion. I enjoy working with clients from a multitude of different backgrounds and ages. I am particularly interested in working with teens and young adults through all of life’s challenges. Anxiety and depression are two of the most common diagnoses I treat and work with.
My name is Kylie Ogorek. I am a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker in the state of Minnesota. I am passionate about working with clients who come from a variety of different backgrounds. My therapeutic approach is collaborative; I strive to show my clients empathy and compassion. I enjoy working with clients from a multitude of different backgrounds and ages. I am particularly interested in working with teens and young adults through all of life’s challenges. Anxiety and depression are two of the most common diagnoses I treat and work with.
(651) 401-7624 View (651) 401-7624
Photo of Hlee Moua, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Hlee Moua
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106  (Online Only)
I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in outpatient clinics, schools, and emergency departments. I enjoy working with adolescents ages 11+, young adults, and adults. I specialize in supporting individuals with anxiety, depression, trauma, suicidal ideation, self-harm, life transitions, and identity or cultural concerns. I practice from a systems lens to help clients understand how their personal experiences within their family and community have influenced them. I work with clients to explore their values and goals, process difficult emotions, identify maladaptive patterns, and improve coping skills.
I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in outpatient clinics, schools, and emergency departments. I enjoy working with adolescents ages 11+, young adults, and adults. I specialize in supporting individuals with anxiety, depression, trauma, suicidal ideation, self-harm, life transitions, and identity or cultural concerns. I practice from a systems lens to help clients understand how their personal experiences within their family and community have influenced them. I work with clients to explore their values and goals, process difficult emotions, identify maladaptive patterns, and improve coping skills.
(651) 998-7405 View (651) 998-7405
Photo of Kelly Ann Pieper, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Kelly Ann Pieper
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, IMH-E®
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
I am an outpatient therapist and clinical supervisor with more than 10 years of experience in providing services to children and families. I have specific specialties in early childhood mental health and permanency/adoption concerns. I am trained in Trauma Informed Child Parent Psychotherapy (TI- CPP) for children under 6 and completed the Permanency and Adoption Competency program through the UMN in early 2015. My approach integrates a broad spectrum of modalities based on the child’s development, age, needs, presenting concerns. I believe strongly in the need to integrate family and work to involve caregivers at every step.
I am an outpatient therapist and clinical supervisor with more than 10 years of experience in providing services to children and families. I have specific specialties in early childhood mental health and permanency/adoption concerns. I am trained in Trauma Informed Child Parent Psychotherapy (TI- CPP) for children under 6 and completed the Permanency and Adoption Competency program through the UMN in early 2015. My approach integrates a broad spectrum of modalities based on the child’s development, age, needs, presenting concerns. I believe strongly in the need to integrate family and work to involve caregivers at every step.
(651) 374-9220 View (651) 374-9220
Photo of Elena Fosness, Marriage & Family Therapist in 55106, MN
Elena Fosness
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
My name is Elena Fosness and i am Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in Minnesota. I work with teenagers and adults and specialize in depression, traumatic experiences and anxiety. I see my approach to therapy as a good fit working with teens and adults that experience challenging life transitions and difficult times managing their mental health symptoms. This often comes in the form of depression, anxiety, stress and trauma experience. I work to help my clients in navigating through difficult life periods and learning skills that help them to feel better about themselves and the world around.
My name is Elena Fosness and i am Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in Minnesota. I work with teenagers and adults and specialize in depression, traumatic experiences and anxiety. I see my approach to therapy as a good fit working with teens and adults that experience challenging life transitions and difficult times managing their mental health symptoms. This often comes in the form of depression, anxiety, stress and trauma experience. I work to help my clients in navigating through difficult life periods and learning skills that help them to feel better about themselves and the world around.
(651) 372-1628 View (651) 372-1628
Photo of Sonja Walker, Marriage & Family Therapist in 55106, MN
Sonja Walker
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
My name is Sonja Walker. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have been working within clinical practice for over 12 years. My experiences are with clients dealing with grief and ambiguous loss, mental health, trauma, divorce, attachment with relationships, parenting, crisis management, inpatient mental health, outpatient/inpatient addiction treatment, transitional services for families dealing with incarceration or legal issues, sexuality concerns and multicultural family systems.
My name is Sonja Walker. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have been working within clinical practice for over 12 years. My experiences are with clients dealing with grief and ambiguous loss, mental health, trauma, divorce, attachment with relationships, parenting, crisis management, inpatient mental health, outpatient/inpatient addiction treatment, transitional services for families dealing with incarceration or legal issues, sexuality concerns and multicultural family systems.
(651) 374-9173 View (651) 374-9173
Photo of ANEW Health and Wellness Clinic, Counselor in 55106, MN
ANEW Health and Wellness Clinic
Counselor, MA, LPCC, LADC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
“We believe that women can start their lives anew!” Our team of professionals have extensive knowledge in providing trauma-responsive and chemical health outpatient individual and group therapy. ANEW Chemical Health Services is proud to be serving women, children and their families! Although we specialize in serving women and children, we'd love to help any individual looking for help. Our brand new, inviting and calming, beautiful space is a great place to start ANEW!
“We believe that women can start their lives anew!” Our team of professionals have extensive knowledge in providing trauma-responsive and chemical health outpatient individual and group therapy. ANEW Chemical Health Services is proud to be serving women, children and their families! Although we specialize in serving women and children, we'd love to help any individual looking for help. Our brand new, inviting and calming, beautiful space is a great place to start ANEW!
(651) 372-2503 View (651) 372-2503
Photo of Rebecca Zabinski, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in 55106, MN
Rebecca Zabinski
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Hello, I'm Rebecca Zabinski, a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) in Minnesota. I am originally from New Mexico and met my husband in the United States Air Force. I am a woman veteran and have grown to love Minnesota and everything it has to offer. My approach to therapy is meeting people where they are at and coming up with some goals together so that there is a common focus between us. I have 3 boys and love animals. If I am not working, I am doing something outside with my kids, in the garden or with my dogs.
Hello, I'm Rebecca Zabinski, a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) in Minnesota. I am originally from New Mexico and met my husband in the United States Air Force. I am a woman veteran and have grown to love Minnesota and everything it has to offer. My approach to therapy is meeting people where they are at and coming up with some goals together so that there is a common focus between us. I have 3 boys and love animals. If I am not working, I am doing something outside with my kids, in the garden or with my dogs.
(651) 390-1313 View (651) 390-1313
Photo of Kenneth Freeman, Licensed Professional Counselor in 55106, MN
Kenneth Freeman
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Hello, my name is Kenneth Freeman. I am a dedicated licensed mental health counselor endeavoring to help people to be their best. I have been working in the mental health field since 2013. My personal and professional motto is to help people recognize the importance of mental health wellness through warmth, acceptance, and empathy. realize success begins with “one person” and the rewards from that can be profound. I am committed to developing a consistent and acceptable treatment plan(s) through a Cognitive Behavioral modality to support adults.
Hello, my name is Kenneth Freeman. I am a dedicated licensed mental health counselor endeavoring to help people to be their best. I have been working in the mental health field since 2013. My personal and professional motto is to help people recognize the importance of mental health wellness through warmth, acceptance, and empathy. realize success begins with “one person” and the rewards from that can be profound. I am committed to developing a consistent and acceptable treatment plan(s) through a Cognitive Behavioral modality to support adults.
(651) 565-6061 View (651) 565-6061
Photo of Royce Vang, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 55106, MN
Royce Vang
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, LAMFT
Not Verified Not Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
First Responder who is looking for a culturally competent therapist.
First Responder who is looking for a culturally competent therapist.
(651) 376-3464 View (651) 376-3464
Photo of Emma Murphy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Emma Murphy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Emma is a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker who primarily sees clients who are law enforcement professionals, first responders, veterans and their families. As the wife of a police officer and veteran, clients can expect to be able to work with someone who understands the culture, lifestyle, pressures, and stressors that come with such high-stress, high-stakes careers. Emma also specializes in treating anxiety, and stress management. Emma is trained in the use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), a highly effective eye-movement therapy created for the treatment of trauma.
Emma is a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker who primarily sees clients who are law enforcement professionals, first responders, veterans and their families. As the wife of a police officer and veteran, clients can expect to be able to work with someone who understands the culture, lifestyle, pressures, and stressors that come with such high-stress, high-stakes careers. Emma also specializes in treating anxiety, and stress management. Emma is trained in the use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), a highly effective eye-movement therapy created for the treatment of trauma.
(952) 209-2158 View (952) 209-2158
Photo of Sheila Miller, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Sheila Miller
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
My name is Shelia Miller. I am a Licensed Independent Clinical Social worker. I work with both adolescents and adults providing individual mental health therapy. My focus practice area includes depression, anxiety, trauma, and stress management. I have found my approach works well with individuals from varying backgrounds including BIPOC. I am comfortable working with the type of individual who is seeking support, understanding, and healing.
My name is Shelia Miller. I am a Licensed Independent Clinical Social worker. I work with both adolescents and adults providing individual mental health therapy. My focus practice area includes depression, anxiety, trauma, and stress management. I have found my approach works well with individuals from varying backgrounds including BIPOC. I am comfortable working with the type of individual who is seeking support, understanding, and healing.
(651) 661-1825 View (651) 661-1825
Photo of Angel Benes in 55106, MN
Angel Benes
MA, LPCC, LADC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Are you struggling with sadness, fatigue, and/or negative messages running a loop in your head? Do you worry about anything and everything? Have you lost a loved one and struggle to find happiness? Are there addiction concerns? Know that you can learn to manage these issues.
Are you struggling with sadness, fatigue, and/or negative messages running a loop in your head? Do you worry about anything and everything? Have you lost a loved one and struggle to find happiness? Are there addiction concerns? Know that you can learn to manage these issues.
(651) 409-4859 View (651) 409-4859
Photo of Andrea Walker, Marriage & Family Therapist in 55106, MN
Andrea Walker
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
My name is Andrea Walker, and I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. I see individuals, couples, and families. I approach therapy using Internal Family Systems, Narrative, Somatic Experiencing, Emotion-Focused Therapy, and CBT. I see people with Depression, Anxiety, Trauma, Relationship issues, Grief & Loss, and Personal Development. I approach therapy with a mix of Internal Family Systems (part of me wanted to eat the cake and part of me didn't), Narrative Therapy (creating our life story), and Somatic Experiencing (helping get us out of our heads and into our bodies).
My name is Andrea Walker, and I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. I see individuals, couples, and families. I approach therapy using Internal Family Systems, Narrative, Somatic Experiencing, Emotion-Focused Therapy, and CBT. I see people with Depression, Anxiety, Trauma, Relationship issues, Grief & Loss, and Personal Development. I approach therapy with a mix of Internal Family Systems (part of me wanted to eat the cake and part of me didn't), Narrative Therapy (creating our life story), and Somatic Experiencing (helping get us out of our heads and into our bodies).
(651) 390-1508 View (651) 390-1508
Photo of Joan Frances Bullemer, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in 55106, MN
Joan Frances Bullemer
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC, LADC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Joan has worked with individuals of all ages, families and couples. She is trained in Adlerian Psychotherapy and has extensive experience in working individuals with addictions, mood disorders, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, grief and loss, as well as, individuals with serious and persistent mental illnesses. Joan’s approach combines therapy focused on change in the “now”, trauma-informed, life coaching, and explored patterns of behavior developed in early experiences.
Joan has worked with individuals of all ages, families and couples. She is trained in Adlerian Psychotherapy and has extensive experience in working individuals with addictions, mood disorders, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, grief and loss, as well as, individuals with serious and persistent mental illnesses. Joan’s approach combines therapy focused on change in the “now”, trauma-informed, life coaching, and explored patterns of behavior developed in early experiences.
(612) 431-9975 View (612) 431-9975
Photo of Maggie O'Malley, Counselor in 55106, MN
Maggie O'Malley
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Not accepting new clients
I specialize in working with anxiety concerns, OCD, generalized anxiety, phobias, and body-focused repetitive behaviors in individual therapy. I am a certified Exposure and Response Prevention Therapist (EX/RP) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Working with an exposure therapist will help you work through feared situations and thoughts with supportive feedback and skill development. I also offer traditional talk therapy to assist clients in gaining coping skills and processing distress tailored to individual needs using a person-centered, non-judgmental, and present-focused approach to my practice.
I specialize in working with anxiety concerns, OCD, generalized anxiety, phobias, and body-focused repetitive behaviors in individual therapy. I am a certified Exposure and Response Prevention Therapist (EX/RP) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Working with an exposure therapist will help you work through feared situations and thoughts with supportive feedback and skill development. I also offer traditional talk therapy to assist clients in gaining coping skills and processing distress tailored to individual needs using a person-centered, non-judgmental, and present-focused approach to my practice.
(651) 359-9512 View (651) 359-9512
Photo of Margaret Evers, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Margaret Evers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Hi! I am Maggie Evers, a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker (LICSW) serving both Minnesota and Wisconsin residents, here to help navigate life's twists and turns. Think of me as your co-pilot on this journey offering a safe and judgment-free space where you can unpack your thoughts and feelings. I specialize in cutting through the jargon and getting to the heart of what's on your mind. Life can be messy, and I'm here to help you sort through it. My approach is real, grounded, and collaborative—we're in this together.
Hi! I am Maggie Evers, a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker (LICSW) serving both Minnesota and Wisconsin residents, here to help navigate life's twists and turns. Think of me as your co-pilot on this journey offering a safe and judgment-free space where you can unpack your thoughts and feelings. I specialize in cutting through the jargon and getting to the heart of what's on your mind. Life can be messy, and I'm here to help you sort through it. My approach is real, grounded, and collaborative—we're in this together.
(651) 376-2533 View (651) 376-2533
Photo of Chris Ochocki, Licensed Professional Counselor in 55106, MN
Chris Ochocki
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106  (Online Only)
For the past 25 years, I have worked extensively with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression or other complex feelings related to difficult life transitions, relationships, traumas. My overall goal of therapy is simple: to help each client connect with tools and supports that will allow them to live the meaningful life they are striving for. I am humanistic, compassionate, actively engaged and enjoy humor. My goals are to work hard alongside you in creating a life that matches your values, while also creating a safe place for you to explore.
For the past 25 years, I have worked extensively with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression or other complex feelings related to difficult life transitions, relationships, traumas. My overall goal of therapy is simple: to help each client connect with tools and supports that will allow them to live the meaningful life they are striving for. I am humanistic, compassionate, actively engaged and enjoy humor. My goals are to work hard alongside you in creating a life that matches your values, while also creating a safe place for you to explore.
(651) 401-7561 View (651) 401-7561
Photo of Dr. Nicole Billingsley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 55106, MN
Dr. Nicole Billingsley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DBH, MSW, LICSW, LADC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106
Some days can feel as though you have tried everything to overcome an issue, and nothing is working. It can feel as if you are barely able to hang on. I get it, and I can help. Whether it is an issue with someone in your life, something from your past, or self-defeating thoughts and behaviors, we will work together to find solutions. It is my mission to help you find the hope and strength needed to get on the other side of life’s adversities. I am a Doctor of Behavioral Health, a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker, a Licensed Alcohol and Drug Counselor, and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional.
Some days can feel as though you have tried everything to overcome an issue, and nothing is working. It can feel as if you are barely able to hang on. I get it, and I can help. Whether it is an issue with someone in your life, something from your past, or self-defeating thoughts and behaviors, we will work together to find solutions. It is my mission to help you find the hope and strength needed to get on the other side of life’s adversities. I am a Doctor of Behavioral Health, a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker, a Licensed Alcohol and Drug Counselor, and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional.
(612) 800-0968 View (612) 800-0968

See more therapy options for 55106

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 55106

90+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in 55106 who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
89% Depression
71% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
68% Relationship Issues
67% Stress
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

77% Aetna
77% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
73% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in 55106 see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
25% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 55106?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.