Photo of Katlyn LaVasseur, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Katlyn LaVasseur
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
As a LMSW, I’ve had the privilege and honor to be alongside those experiencing grief, chronic and life limiting illness, anxiety, depression, lack of confidence and self-esteem, relationship issues, parenting, new life challenges, substance or behavior dependence, and anger management. In my therapeutic practice, I use a variety of techniques including; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution-Focused therapy, Narrative therapy, and Motivational Interviewing. Drawing from a Holistic and Person-Centered approach, we explore and emphasize your strengths to achieve your individual goals.
As a LMSW, I’ve had the privilege and honor to be alongside those experiencing grief, chronic and life limiting illness, anxiety, depression, lack of confidence and self-esteem, relationship issues, parenting, new life challenges, substance or behavior dependence, and anger management. In my therapeutic practice, I use a variety of techniques including; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution-Focused therapy, Narrative therapy, and Motivational Interviewing. Drawing from a Holistic and Person-Centered approach, we explore and emphasize your strengths to achieve your individual goals.
(616) 209-0319 View (616) 209-0319
Photo of Jamie Wilson, Limited Licensed Psychologist in 49525, MI
Jamie Wilson
Limited Licensed Psychologist, MA, LLP
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Not feel like yourself? Tired of overthinking? Feel like stress is taking a toll on your life? Anxiety and depression affect most people at some point during their lifetime, the pandemic has likely increased the statistic exponentially. Counseling is a great place to have an unbiased support person who only wants you to succeed, whether that's by learning new coping skills, talking through a difficult decision, learning about the brain or new psychology research to help you function better.
Not feel like yourself? Tired of overthinking? Feel like stress is taking a toll on your life? Anxiety and depression affect most people at some point during their lifetime, the pandemic has likely increased the statistic exponentially. Counseling is a great place to have an unbiased support person who only wants you to succeed, whether that's by learning new coping skills, talking through a difficult decision, learning about the brain or new psychology research to help you function better.
(616) 200-6043 View (616) 200-6043
Photo of Mary Dufon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Mary Dufon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Mary is a licensed clinical social worker with a Bachelor and Master’s degree in Social Work from Western Michigan University. Mary has been working as a social worker with children, teens, and families for 16 years in a variety of settings including the child welfare/foster care/adoption systems, the juvenile justice system, homelessness, and professional licensing. She has experience working with children, teens, and adults with a variety of issues including trauma, family issues, poverty, child abuse, domestic violence, life transitions, mental health, and developmental delays.
Mary is a licensed clinical social worker with a Bachelor and Master’s degree in Social Work from Western Michigan University. Mary has been working as a social worker with children, teens, and families for 16 years in a variety of settings including the child welfare/foster care/adoption systems, the juvenile justice system, homelessness, and professional licensing. She has experience working with children, teens, and adults with a variety of issues including trauma, family issues, poverty, child abuse, domestic violence, life transitions, mental health, and developmental delays.
(616) 319-4731 View (616) 319-4731
Photo of Jessica Rose Hoekstra, Limited Licensed Psychologist in 49525, MI
Jessica Rose Hoekstra
Limited Licensed Psychologist, LLP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
As a therapist, I believe that building a relationship is the most important part of the therapeutic process. From that relationship, it becomes possible to examine difficult areas of your life in order to experience growth and security within yourself. The therapeutic setting provides a unique opportunity to pause the busyness of everyday life and sort through present or past concerns that may be affecting you and your family.
As a therapist, I believe that building a relationship is the most important part of the therapeutic process. From that relationship, it becomes possible to examine difficult areas of your life in order to experience growth and security within yourself. The therapeutic setting provides a unique opportunity to pause the busyness of everyday life and sort through present or past concerns that may be affecting you and your family.
(616) 528-9132 View (616) 528-9132
Photo of Tricia Meeuwsen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Tricia Meeuwsen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Not accepting new clients
Whether you are feeling disconnected, or hoping to break unhealthy patterns, or are looking to recover from a traumatic experience, we can work together to build on your strengths. I provide a safe, supportive and non-judgmental environment, which helps clients to feel relaxed and at ease. My style is sincere, open and warm, and I encourage self care and self acceptance throughout the therapeutic process. Through honest, non-critical communication, I enjoy collaborating with clients to develop insight and clarity. My ideal client is ready to make the time to reflect and to take the steps toward positive change.
Whether you are feeling disconnected, or hoping to break unhealthy patterns, or are looking to recover from a traumatic experience, we can work together to build on your strengths. I provide a safe, supportive and non-judgmental environment, which helps clients to feel relaxed and at ease. My style is sincere, open and warm, and I encourage self care and self acceptance throughout the therapeutic process. Through honest, non-critical communication, I enjoy collaborating with clients to develop insight and clarity. My ideal client is ready to make the time to reflect and to take the steps toward positive change.
(616) 365-5649 View (616) 365-5649
Photo of Brianna M Watts, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Brianna M Watts
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Not accepting new clients
I am here to help guide you as you begin your therapeutic journey and investment in yourself. My goal is for you to learn and grow as we venture through and discuss your difficulties, while also making a point to highlight your strengths. I meet you where you are at in your mental health journey and provide a safe and accepting environment for you to navigate life's challenges. I firmly believe that you are the expert of your life, I am simply there to provide guidance along the way. My interest is in working with children, families, and adults as they navigate through unexpected life events and life's daily challenges.
I am here to help guide you as you begin your therapeutic journey and investment in yourself. My goal is for you to learn and grow as we venture through and discuss your difficulties, while also making a point to highlight your strengths. I meet you where you are at in your mental health journey and provide a safe and accepting environment for you to navigate life's challenges. I firmly believe that you are the expert of your life, I am simply there to provide guidance along the way. My interest is in working with children, families, and adults as they navigate through unexpected life events and life's daily challenges.
(616) 344-9858 View (616) 344-9858
Photo of Hannah E Schneider, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Hannah E Schneider
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Waitlist for new clients
Hello! My name is Hannah Schneider and I'm glad that you're here! Over the past 9 years, I have been working with children and adults ages 4-30 years old in schools, homes, community, and office settings. In this work, I have focused on topics including depression, anxiety, anger management, grief, emotional regulation, and communication skills.
Hello! My name is Hannah Schneider and I'm glad that you're here! Over the past 9 years, I have been working with children and adults ages 4-30 years old in schools, homes, community, and office settings. In this work, I have focused on topics including depression, anxiety, anger management, grief, emotional regulation, and communication skills.
(616) 737-0279 View (616) 737-0279
Photo of Brenda Thorington, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Brenda Thorington
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
I am a licensed social worker with my LMSW and graduated from Grand Valley State University. My focus has been on both young and older adults and families but I am open to seeing any individual in person or virtually that thinks I may be a good fit for them and their needs.
I am a licensed social worker with my LMSW and graduated from Grand Valley State University. My focus has been on both young and older adults and families but I am open to seeing any individual in person or virtually that thinks I may be a good fit for them and their needs.
(616) 512-1942 View (616) 512-1942
Photo of Reyna Jimenez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Reyna Jimenez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
My name is Reyna and I am a licensed, clinical therapist who is focused on achieving goals focused in mental health, wellness, relationships, school, and career. With a trauma-informed approach, I believe that clients are able to experience, create, and facilitate their growth with guidance and tools.
My name is Reyna and I am a licensed, clinical therapist who is focused on achieving goals focused in mental health, wellness, relationships, school, and career. With a trauma-informed approach, I believe that clients are able to experience, create, and facilitate their growth with guidance and tools.
(616) 557-7756 View (616) 557-7756
Photo of Judy Jenne, Counselor in 49525, MI
Judy Jenne
Counselor, LLPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
I feel every person deserves to have their own therapist. The opportunity to share without fear of judgement or tangling the personal ties in your life. If you want help navigating life's challenges, relationship issues, or knowing what is next in life; therapy is a great place to start. Therapy can be life changing and help you become the best version of yourself. My intention is to meet you where you are and help you reach your goals. It will be a journey of vulnerability and growth, tears and laughter all in a nurturing and empowering environment.
I feel every person deserves to have their own therapist. The opportunity to share without fear of judgement or tangling the personal ties in your life. If you want help navigating life's challenges, relationship issues, or knowing what is next in life; therapy is a great place to start. Therapy can be life changing and help you become the best version of yourself. My intention is to meet you where you are and help you reach your goals. It will be a journey of vulnerability and growth, tears and laughter all in a nurturing and empowering environment.
(616) 404-4045 View (616) 404-4045
Photo of Alyssa Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Alyssa Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Welcome! My name is Alyssa Smith and I know that starting therapy can be an intimidating process, but I aim to provide my clients with a comfortable, non-judgmental space to be themselves and process the conflicts going on in their lives. I view therapy as a partnership, one where I can support you to make your own decisions, set your own goals, and be actively engaged in your own treatment process and healing. My goal is to assist clients in coping and processing with all of life’s difficulties, and ultimately live a life full of confidence and fulfillment.
Welcome! My name is Alyssa Smith and I know that starting therapy can be an intimidating process, but I aim to provide my clients with a comfortable, non-judgmental space to be themselves and process the conflicts going on in their lives. I view therapy as a partnership, one where I can support you to make your own decisions, set your own goals, and be actively engaged in your own treatment process and healing. My goal is to assist clients in coping and processing with all of life’s difficulties, and ultimately live a life full of confidence and fulfillment.
(616) 537-6913 View (616) 537-6913
Photo of Rachel Dziabuda, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Rachel Dziabuda
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Waitlist for new clients
As a queer therapist, it is crucial for me to ensure your concerns are taken seriously, and you are able to show up as your authentic self. Therapy means having a brave space to explore, reconnect with ourselves, and express emotions (maybe some laughing, crying, and swearing are involved too). I specialize working with folks that have experienced trauma & PTSD, anxiety, life transitions, LGBTQIA+ related concerns, and survivors of gender-based violence (i.e., sexual assault, domestic violence, human trafficking).
As a queer therapist, it is crucial for me to ensure your concerns are taken seriously, and you are able to show up as your authentic self. Therapy means having a brave space to explore, reconnect with ourselves, and express emotions (maybe some laughing, crying, and swearing are involved too). I specialize working with folks that have experienced trauma & PTSD, anxiety, life transitions, LGBTQIA+ related concerns, and survivors of gender-based violence (i.e., sexual assault, domestic violence, human trafficking).
(616) 366-9457 View (616) 366-9457
Photo of Aubs Ellison, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Aubs Ellison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
At times life can feel heavy and overwhelming. It can feel like you aren’t capable of managing whatever difficult things you are being challenged with. This is where therapy can help unravel what can feel like chaos and provide a space for you to find your own voice in all the noise. Though change can be challenging and uncomfortable, I am here to walk alongside you to create prompt, intentional, effective, and long-lasting change.
At times life can feel heavy and overwhelming. It can feel like you aren’t capable of managing whatever difficult things you are being challenged with. This is where therapy can help unravel what can feel like chaos and provide a space for you to find your own voice in all the noise. Though change can be challenging and uncomfortable, I am here to walk alongside you to create prompt, intentional, effective, and long-lasting change.
(616) 236-5553 View (616) 236-5553
Photo of Taylor Paige Villano, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Taylor Paige Villano
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525  (Online Only)
Accepting New Clients! Welcome, I am a Mental Health Professional with about 5 years of experience in the field. I have a true passion working with children, teens, and young adults struggling with anxiety, trauma, and low self-esteem. Creating goals for my clients to overcome their struggles and having the privilege to join them throughout their journey of healing, growing, and recovering is what I love most about the work I do!
Accepting New Clients! Welcome, I am a Mental Health Professional with about 5 years of experience in the field. I have a true passion working with children, teens, and young adults struggling with anxiety, trauma, and low self-esteem. Creating goals for my clients to overcome their struggles and having the privilege to join them throughout their journey of healing, growing, and recovering is what I love most about the work I do!
View
Photo of Chelsea O'Day-Navis, Counselor in 49525, MI
Chelsea O'Day-Navis
Counselor, MA, LPC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Grand Rapids, MI 49525  (Online Only)
Are you in search of a queer and trans-affirming OCD specialist? Do you yearn to reclaim your sense of agency, presence, and joy? Perhaps you feel overwhelmed by your sensitive nervous system, entangled in a whirlwind of spinning thoughts and relentless compulsions. I'm grateful you're here because it doesn't have to be this way. I specialize in supporting adults who are ready to honestly look inward and not just manage, but transform their relationship with themselves, their thoughts, feelings and struggles. Whether it's anxiety, OCD, or challenges related to your identity, I am a therapist and human who deeply gets it.
Are you in search of a queer and trans-affirming OCD specialist? Do you yearn to reclaim your sense of agency, presence, and joy? Perhaps you feel overwhelmed by your sensitive nervous system, entangled in a whirlwind of spinning thoughts and relentless compulsions. I'm grateful you're here because it doesn't have to be this way. I specialize in supporting adults who are ready to honestly look inward and not just manage, but transform their relationship with themselves, their thoughts, feelings and struggles. Whether it's anxiety, OCD, or challenges related to your identity, I am a therapist and human who deeply gets it.
(616) 229-2660 View (616) 229-2660
Photo of Rob Conrad, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49525, MI
Rob Conrad
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Rob Conrad, LMSW Licensed Master of Social Work, earned his Master’s of Social Work from the University of Michigan. Rob has experience working with children, teens, families, and adults. He has spent over a decade working with individuals who experienced complex trauma. Rob is certified in Trauma Focused – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and trained in EMDR. He believes in meeting his clients where they are at and in the collaborative nature of therapy. Rob uses evidenced based practices to help his clients identify and achieve their goals.
Rob Conrad, LMSW Licensed Master of Social Work, earned his Master’s of Social Work from the University of Michigan. Rob has experience working with children, teens, families, and adults. He has spent over a decade working with individuals who experienced complex trauma. Rob is certified in Trauma Focused – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and trained in EMDR. He believes in meeting his clients where they are at and in the collaborative nature of therapy. Rob uses evidenced based practices to help his clients identify and achieve their goals.
(616) 374-2063 View (616) 374-2063
3rdchair - Counseling Center for Young Adults
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
We are a collective bunch of counselors who specialize in counseling middle and high school students, college students and young adults. See, all of us here have struggled in different ways, and it’s those experiences that have lead us here to work at 3rdchair. Whatever you’re struggling with, we’ll do our best to help you get through it and be a better and stronger person for it.
We are a collective bunch of counselors who specialize in counseling middle and high school students, college students and young adults. See, all of us here have struggled in different ways, and it’s those experiences that have lead us here to work at 3rdchair. Whatever you’re struggling with, we’ll do our best to help you get through it and be a better and stronger person for it.
(616) 365-5644 View (616) 365-5644
Photo of Sarah Rhein, Counselor in 49525, MI
Sarah Rhein
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Everyone who takes the risk to try counseling needs to be listened to and their unique story heard. During counseling sessions you will feel valued, supported, and equipped to face the struggles of life. Together we'll figure out how you can move forward, if you feel stuck, and reach your goals. We'll use your strengths to overcome what may be holding you back, and holistic strategies for healing and growth. Whether dealing with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulty, or some other issue, we can work together to develop solutions. As a therapist I offer you a fresh perspective, some new skills, guidance, and hope.
Everyone who takes the risk to try counseling needs to be listened to and their unique story heard. During counseling sessions you will feel valued, supported, and equipped to face the struggles of life. Together we'll figure out how you can move forward, if you feel stuck, and reach your goals. We'll use your strengths to overcome what may be holding you back, and holistic strategies for healing and growth. Whether dealing with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulty, or some other issue, we can work together to develop solutions. As a therapist I offer you a fresh perspective, some new skills, guidance, and hope.
(616) 201-1371 View (616) 201-1371
Photo of NOCD- Therapists for OCD, Psychologist in 49525, MI
NOCD- Therapists for OCD
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Imagine what life would be like if you weren't bothered by OCD. NOCD is here to help you regain peace of mind. NOCD is a digital health company that’s focused on effectively treating people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Inside the NOCD mobile app, you can work with one of our licensed mental health therapists with specialty training in OCD. When your therapist isn’t available, access support communities and therapeutic tools - so that you are never alone. NOCD’s protocol has been proven to reduce OCD severity by 40% in less than 10 weeks.
Imagine what life would be like if you weren't bothered by OCD. NOCD is here to help you regain peace of mind. NOCD is a digital health company that’s focused on effectively treating people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Inside the NOCD mobile app, you can work with one of our licensed mental health therapists with specialty training in OCD. When your therapist isn’t available, access support communities and therapeutic tools - so that you are never alone. NOCD’s protocol has been proven to reduce OCD severity by 40% in less than 10 weeks.
(872) 221-6421 View (872) 221-6421
Photo of Meghan Mclain, Psychologist in 49525, MI
Meghan Mclain
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Grand Rapids, MI 49525
Clinical psychologist and owner of Integral Psychological Services. Our multidisciplinary team provides counseling, medication management, psychological evaluations (including ADHD and Autism testing) and occupational therapy. Our clinicians specialize in several therapies that are evidence-based (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy, DBT, acceptance and commitment therapy, animal assisted therapy). Occupational Therapy for executive functioning, sensory/reflex integration, work/school based skills and more. Typically booking testing appointments within a few weeks and therapy appointments within a week.
Clinical psychologist and owner of Integral Psychological Services. Our multidisciplinary team provides counseling, medication management, psychological evaluations (including ADHD and Autism testing) and occupational therapy. Our clinicians specialize in several therapies that are evidence-based (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy, DBT, acceptance and commitment therapy, animal assisted therapy). Occupational Therapy for executive functioning, sensory/reflex integration, work/school based skills and more. Typically booking testing appointments within a few weeks and therapy appointments within a week.
(616) 326-2046 View (616) 326-2046

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 49525

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 49525 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
72% Relationship Issues
70% Self Esteem
66% Stress
65% Trauma and PTSD
65% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

97% BlueCross and BlueShield
82% Priority Health
63% Aetna

How Therapists in 49525 see their clients

81% In Person and Online
19% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
17% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 49525?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.