Photo of Bre Vouaux, Master Social Worker in 49418, MI
Bre Vouaux
Master Social Worker, LMSW
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
It takes courage to start this process. I’m proud of you for being here and for recognizing that your mental health is a priority. I’m looking forward to learning more about you and helping you navigate the challenges that everyday life brings. I use a unique person-centered and strength- based approach to therapy, with acknowledging that you know yourself best! I aim to provide you with a comforting and safe space to express your hopes, fears, and worries, while establishing healthier thought patterns, coping skills and self-care techniques along the way. I will work alongside you to establish the best version of yourself.
It takes courage to start this process. I’m proud of you for being here and for recognizing that your mental health is a priority. I’m looking forward to learning more about you and helping you navigate the challenges that everyday life brings. I use a unique person-centered and strength- based approach to therapy, with acknowledging that you know yourself best! I aim to provide you with a comforting and safe space to express your hopes, fears, and worries, while establishing healthier thought patterns, coping skills and self-care techniques along the way. I will work alongside you to establish the best version of yourself.
(616) 557-6868 View (616) 557-6868
Photo of Dr. Joshua Bishop, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Dr. Joshua Bishop
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
My specialty is in treating sexual abuse, anxiety, trauma and PTSD effectively and efficiently. I'm trained in 3 evidence-based (validated by research) therapies for treating PTSD, and my goal is to help you find healing without wasting your time or money. During your first appointments, we'll determine the best plan for your therapy. Some approaches emphasize talking, while others have very little talking. Some use creative elements and story, while others work directly to treat your brain and nervous system. I also provide general counseling for depression, anxiety, and relationships.
My specialty is in treating sexual abuse, anxiety, trauma and PTSD effectively and efficiently. I'm trained in 3 evidence-based (validated by research) therapies for treating PTSD, and my goal is to help you find healing without wasting your time or money. During your first appointments, we'll determine the best plan for your therapy. Some approaches emphasize talking, while others have very little talking. Some use creative elements and story, while others work directly to treat your brain and nervous system. I also provide general counseling for depression, anxiety, and relationships.
(616) 208-4995 View (616) 208-4995
Photo of Mary Thornsen, Counselor in 49418, MI
Mary Thornsen
Counselor, LLPC
Not Verified Not Verified
2 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
I view the counseling office as a sacred space to do the work of healing and self-growth. Each person has a differing experience of self in the world, with different assumptions, experiences, and identities. I will meet you where you are at with respect, appreciation, and sensitivity for all that makes you who you are. I will strive to provide you with a safe, supportive environment to explore your feelings and holistically consider the things in your life that impact your mind, body, and spirit. I am here to walk beside you as you work to gain a deeper understanding of yourself and your journey forward.
I view the counseling office as a sacred space to do the work of healing and self-growth. Each person has a differing experience of self in the world, with different assumptions, experiences, and identities. I will meet you where you are at with respect, appreciation, and sensitivity for all that makes you who you are. I will strive to provide you with a safe, supportive environment to explore your feelings and holistically consider the things in your life that impact your mind, body, and spirit. I am here to walk beside you as you work to gain a deeper understanding of yourself and your journey forward.
(616) 344-9185 View (616) 344-9185
Photo of Intuitive Edge, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Intuitive Edge
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, CCM
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
Are you ready to make changes, but not sure where to begin? Have you felt limited by your anxiety &/or other negative emotion but want a better life? Have you tried therapy before, but it just didn't seem to make a difference or you're ready to do more work? If you answered yes to any of these, I can help! I'm a solution focused therapist meaning I help you problem-solve to tackle the issues that are bothering you. We work together on building awareness of how your thinking keeps you in unhelpful patterns. Your goals set the stage for what we work on each session and I teach you skills to manage your emotions.
Are you ready to make changes, but not sure where to begin? Have you felt limited by your anxiety &/or other negative emotion but want a better life? Have you tried therapy before, but it just didn't seem to make a difference or you're ready to do more work? If you answered yes to any of these, I can help! I'm a solution focused therapist meaning I help you problem-solve to tackle the issues that are bothering you. We work together on building awareness of how your thinking keeps you in unhelpful patterns. Your goals set the stage for what we work on each session and I teach you skills to manage your emotions.
(616) 326-3458 View (616) 326-3458
Photo of Ryan Townes, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49418, MI
Ryan Townes
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418  (Online Only)
Accepting New Clients - Morning and Afternoon appointments available. I have a focus in working with adult individuals, 18 and older, struggling with anxiety and/or seeking support with LGBTQ+ related concerns, such as sexual orientation, sexual identity, and dysphoria. If you, or someone you know, is seeking an LGBTQIA+ affirming counselor who also identifies under the spectrum, or is seeking help with substance use related concerns, ADHD, racial identity, grief, or depression, please contact our office and ask for an appointment with Ryan Townes by texting 6162872283, or you can also email me.
Accepting New Clients - Morning and Afternoon appointments available. I have a focus in working with adult individuals, 18 and older, struggling with anxiety and/or seeking support with LGBTQ+ related concerns, such as sexual orientation, sexual identity, and dysphoria. If you, or someone you know, is seeking an LGBTQIA+ affirming counselor who also identifies under the spectrum, or is seeking help with substance use related concerns, ADHD, racial identity, grief, or depression, please contact our office and ask for an appointment with Ryan Townes by texting 6162872283, or you can also email me.
(616) 208-5832 View (616) 208-5832
Photo of Debra Marie Mannor, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Debra Marie Mannor
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CAADC, CTRS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
I understand what it is like to struggle and to wonder if the problems you are facing can ever be overcome – and I know, first-hand, that “Yes they can!” Maybe you’ve tried therapy before and nothing really changed, or you’re not really sure what change would even look like. I have found that working in individual counseling, we can start to understand why we react and think the way we do; it can be from past trauma or from an accumulation of life events, but I truly believe when provided a nonjudgmental, understanding, and safe place, it is very possible to defeat these destructive thought patterns and behaviors we’ve obtained.
I understand what it is like to struggle and to wonder if the problems you are facing can ever be overcome – and I know, first-hand, that “Yes they can!” Maybe you’ve tried therapy before and nothing really changed, or you’re not really sure what change would even look like. I have found that working in individual counseling, we can start to understand why we react and think the way we do; it can be from past trauma or from an accumulation of life events, but I truly believe when provided a nonjudgmental, understanding, and safe place, it is very possible to defeat these destructive thought patterns and behaviors we’ve obtained.
(616) 522-8978 View (616) 522-8978
Photo of Max Malave, Counselor in 49418, MI
Max Malave
Counselor, LLPC, MA
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
My passion to work with the LGBTQIA2S+ community, & adolescents & young adults stems from wanting to provide the therapy & be that person I wish I could have had growing up. Being part of the LGBTQIA2S+ community, I strive to make an inclusive environment for all clients that I see. I strive to make a warm & inviting atmosphere, & want to make sure that the therapeutic environment can foster a safe & open place to be able to discuss any matters that are important to my clients. I hope to provide a trusting & nonjudgmental environment to challenge & also work alongside you to see the growth & progress that you may be seeking.
My passion to work with the LGBTQIA2S+ community, & adolescents & young adults stems from wanting to provide the therapy & be that person I wish I could have had growing up. Being part of the LGBTQIA2S+ community, I strive to make an inclusive environment for all clients that I see. I strive to make a warm & inviting atmosphere, & want to make sure that the therapeutic environment can foster a safe & open place to be able to discuss any matters that are important to my clients. I hope to provide a trusting & nonjudgmental environment to challenge & also work alongside you to see the growth & progress that you may be seeking.
(616) 345-2860 View (616) 345-2860
Photo of Caleb Noble, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49418, MI
Caleb Noble
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
You're tired of being stuck. Stuck in a rut of the same old emotions and behaviors you've fought for so long. Maybe your past or painful memories are holding you back, or perhaps the accusing thoughts have become too heavy. You're not sure exactly how to get out or how to change, but you're ready for something different, and you're tired of fighting alone.
You're tired of being stuck. Stuck in a rut of the same old emotions and behaviors you've fought for so long. Maybe your past or painful memories are holding you back, or perhaps the accusing thoughts have become too heavy. You're not sure exactly how to get out or how to change, but you're ready for something different, and you're tired of fighting alone.
(616) 202-5699 View (616) 202-5699
Photo of Abraham Bilyeu, Psychologist in 49418, MI
Abraham Bilyeu
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
I am a Licensed Psychologist specializing in individual and couples therapy, as well as helping people manage daily life stressors. Identifying your specific needs for therapy will be important as I believe a collaborative approach is important in treatment. I help people better understand how their thoughts and behavior impact their mood, and encourage my clients to incorporate personal values into the daily lives. Strengthening relationships and building support is a key component to much of my therapeutic work. In addition, I am an ally to the lgbtq+ community and infuse a multicultural approach to my therapeutic work.
I am a Licensed Psychologist specializing in individual and couples therapy, as well as helping people manage daily life stressors. Identifying your specific needs for therapy will be important as I believe a collaborative approach is important in treatment. I help people better understand how their thoughts and behavior impact their mood, and encourage my clients to incorporate personal values into the daily lives. Strengthening relationships and building support is a key component to much of my therapeutic work. In addition, I am an ally to the lgbtq+ community and infuse a multicultural approach to my therapeutic work.
(616) 205-9451 View (616) 205-9451
Photo of Lori Lee VanHarmelen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Lori Lee VanHarmelen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
Searching for answers? Feeling lost or confused? I provide a welcoming space that allows you to work with a licensed therapist as you find direction & security in your life. If you are struggling with past trauma, anxiety, depression, grief or other overwhelming event(s) in your life, I would like to help you. Despite the temptation to believe otherwise, there IS hope & healing for you. Often, it feels as if the pressures & fears in life are unending, and you are all alone. I believe otherwise. You can succeed! I would be honored to walk alongside you on your journey to find wholeness, happiness, & peace.
Searching for answers? Feeling lost or confused? I provide a welcoming space that allows you to work with a licensed therapist as you find direction & security in your life. If you are struggling with past trauma, anxiety, depression, grief or other overwhelming event(s) in your life, I would like to help you. Despite the temptation to believe otherwise, there IS hope & healing for you. Often, it feels as if the pressures & fears in life are unending, and you are all alone. I believe otherwise. You can succeed! I would be honored to walk alongside you on your journey to find wholeness, happiness, & peace.
(616) 512-0008 View (616) 512-0008
Photo of Brent Alan Parzuchowski, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Brent Alan Parzuchowski
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
I enjoy working with adolescents, and the individual family members around them. I am dedicated to helping families navigate complex dynamics, developing goals to achieve harmony, and a consistent level of functioning and overall wellness .
I enjoy working with adolescents, and the individual family members around them. I am dedicated to helping families navigate complex dynamics, developing goals to achieve harmony, and a consistent level of functioning and overall wellness .
(616) 439-9649 View (616) 439-9649
Photo of Kahlin Kelly, Counselor in 49418, MI
Kahlin Kelly
Counselor, MA, LLPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
Reaching out for counseling can be an intimidating process, you should be proud for taking this first step! I strive to always offer a genuine, comforting environment, with hopes of easing any stress that may come with seeking help. I have a strong appreciation for the person-centered approach to counseling and truly value each unique individual that sits across from me. I have experience working with children as young as 4, adolescents, and adults. I have a passion for working with children, with experience in both residential and outpatient settings.
Reaching out for counseling can be an intimidating process, you should be proud for taking this first step! I strive to always offer a genuine, comforting environment, with hopes of easing any stress that may come with seeking help. I have a strong appreciation for the person-centered approach to counseling and truly value each unique individual that sits across from me. I have experience working with children as young as 4, adolescents, and adults. I have a passion for working with children, with experience in both residential and outpatient settings.
(616) 207-1858 View (616) 207-1858
Photo of Trent Morell, Marriage & Family Therapist in 49418, MI
Trent Morell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LLMFT
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
I work with primarily with couples, but also see families and individuals interested in systemic therapy. I work with clients interested in deepening their relationship, particularly in times of stress or entering a new period in their life. My clients are interested in growing their sense of self and their understanding of how they can function best in their romantic and familial relationships.
I work with primarily with couples, but also see families and individuals interested in systemic therapy. I work with clients interested in deepening their relationship, particularly in times of stress or entering a new period in their life. My clients are interested in growing their sense of self and their understanding of how they can function best in their romantic and familial relationships.
(616) 952-3030 View (616) 952-3030
Photo of Laura Swain, Counselor in 49418, MI
Laura Swain
Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
We all feel lost and overwhelmed at times, but you do not need to go through it alone. With a focus on inclusivity and acceptance, I specialize in teens through adults who are struggling with establishing positive mental health and wellbeing. With advanced training in substance use/addiction and complex trauma, my goal is to support you in making a positive change that will last a lifetime. I work with a wide variety of issues and concerns including: anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral instability, life transitions, and negative life events.
We all feel lost and overwhelmed at times, but you do not need to go through it alone. With a focus on inclusivity and acceptance, I specialize in teens through adults who are struggling with establishing positive mental health and wellbeing. With advanced training in substance use/addiction and complex trauma, my goal is to support you in making a positive change that will last a lifetime. I work with a wide variety of issues and concerns including: anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral instability, life transitions, and negative life events.
(616) 208-4884 View (616) 208-4884
Photo of Karen Appleton, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49418, MI
Karen Appleton
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
I am passionate about working with teens through older adults who feel that life is unmanageable and they feel out of step with the world. Often these are individuals with a trauma history, who are struggling with intense emotions or relationships they can’t manage. Feeling "out of step" can lead to feelings of self judgment and isolation. When invited into that space of struggle I will seek to provide a space for you to gain skills, find support to increase connections, safety and individual strength.
I am passionate about working with teens through older adults who feel that life is unmanageable and they feel out of step with the world. Often these are individuals with a trauma history, who are struggling with intense emotions or relationships they can’t manage. Feeling "out of step" can lead to feelings of self judgment and isolation. When invited into that space of struggle I will seek to provide a space for you to gain skills, find support to increase connections, safety and individual strength.
(616) 345-2869 View (616) 345-2869
Photo of Mark R. Dyke, Counselor in 49418, MI
Mark R. Dyke
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
Are you struggling with a relationship or feel your partner does not understand you? Is communication a problem and you don't know what to do? I can help you. I specialize in, and have had success with, helping couples just like yourself to improve their relationship. To get out of the communication rut and into a healthy, vibrant relationship. I can use that experience to help you in your relationship so that you feel your partner hears and understands you.
Are you struggling with a relationship or feel your partner does not understand you? Is communication a problem and you don't know what to do? I can help you. I specialize in, and have had success with, helping couples just like yourself to improve their relationship. To get out of the communication rut and into a healthy, vibrant relationship. I can use that experience to help you in your relationship so that you feel your partner hears and understands you.
(616) 253-6268 View (616) 253-6268
Photo of Alliance Counseling Group and Prescribing, Marriage & Family Therapist in 49418, MI
Alliance Counseling Group and Prescribing
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD
Verified Verified
11 Endorsed
Wyoming, MI 49418
Are you looking for BOTH high quality counseling AND mental health prescribing all-in-one? Alliance Counseling Group is the place for you! We have a team of friendly and highly skilled therapists who can meet your mental, emotional, relational, and behavioral health needs. We also have a mental health prescriber who can talk with you to understand if the addition of medication is the right fit for you. Our team of therapists and prescribers will work closely in collaboration to best manage your treatment, giving you the support you need to have the best chance of achieving your mental health goals.
Are you looking for BOTH high quality counseling AND mental health prescribing all-in-one? Alliance Counseling Group is the place for you! We have a team of friendly and highly skilled therapists who can meet your mental, emotional, relational, and behavioral health needs. We also have a mental health prescriber who can talk with you to understand if the addition of medication is the right fit for you. Our team of therapists and prescribers will work closely in collaboration to best manage your treatment, giving you the support you need to have the best chance of achieving your mental health goals.
(616) 918-3110 View (616) 918-3110
Photo of Mindy Hopke, Limited Licensed Psychologist in 49418, MI
Mindy Hopke
Limited Licensed Psychologist, MA, LLP, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Grandville, MI 49418
Not accepting new clients
Individuals and families in today’s world face so many stressors. Different life roles and responsibilities, pressures of friends/family/society, painful life experiences, and personal expectations weigh on us all. In the midst of this, it is all too easy to feel overwhelmed, alone, and confused - like your story is no longer your own. It can hurt your sense of self and your connection to those you love.  I’m prepared to step into this moment of vulnerability with you to help in finding a way to a place where you can feel more connected, strong, and safe, allowing you to redefine your self, your relationships, and your story.
Individuals and families in today’s world face so many stressors. Different life roles and responsibilities, pressures of friends/family/society, painful life experiences, and personal expectations weigh on us all. In the midst of this, it is all too easy to feel overwhelmed, alone, and confused - like your story is no longer your own. It can hurt your sense of self and your connection to those you love.  I’m prepared to step into this moment of vulnerability with you to help in finding a way to a place where you can feel more connected, strong, and safe, allowing you to redefine your self, your relationships, and your story.
(616) 229-3392 x1131 View (616) 229-3392 x1131
Photo of Mandi Lynn Esman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49418, MI
Mandi Lynn Esman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wyoming, MI 49418
My name is Mandi Lynn, and I am a Clinical Therapist who is certified in Trauma Focused-CBT. I specialize in working with children, families, and adults in all walks of life. My 14yrs as a Clinician has been spent focusing on helping teenagers in the Juvenile Justice system, children and families involved with CPS, foster/adoptive families, teenagers aging out of the foster care system, and adults struggling with major life transitions and current/past trauma. My goal is to help children, families, and adults identify and celebrate their strengths, while building and reinforcing healthy familial and interpersonal relationships.
My name is Mandi Lynn, and I am a Clinical Therapist who is certified in Trauma Focused-CBT. I specialize in working with children, families, and adults in all walks of life. My 14yrs as a Clinician has been spent focusing on helping teenagers in the Juvenile Justice system, children and families involved with CPS, foster/adoptive families, teenagers aging out of the foster care system, and adults struggling with major life transitions and current/past trauma. My goal is to help children, families, and adults identify and celebrate their strengths, while building and reinforcing healthy familial and interpersonal relationships.
(616) 449-2477 View (616) 449-2477
Photo of Trisha Tanis, Psychologist in 49418, MI
Trisha Tanis
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified Verified
Grandville, MI 49418
Therapy is a great way to take care of yourself and your future. My goal as a therapist is to foster a space that feels inviting, safe, and accepting. Your experiences have influenced who you are, and my hope is to explore these experiences together to facilitate self-discovery and healing. I prioritize developing a trusting, genuine therapy relationship to allow for exploration of challenging thoughts, while empowering you to make changes to help you lead a life in line with your values.
Therapy is a great way to take care of yourself and your future. My goal as a therapist is to foster a space that feels inviting, safe, and accepting. Your experiences have influenced who you are, and my hope is to explore these experiences together to facilitate self-discovery and healing. I prioritize developing a trusting, genuine therapy relationship to allow for exploration of challenging thoughts, while empowering you to make changes to help you lead a life in line with your values.
(616) 344-5465 View (616) 344-5465

See more therapy options for 49418

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 49418

100+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in 49418 who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
91% Depression
81% Trauma and PTSD
80% Self Esteem
77% Stress
76% Coping Skills
73% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

96% BlueCross and BlueShield
87% Priority Health
65% Blue Care Network

How Therapists in 49418 see their clients

82% In Person and Online
18% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
25% Male
4% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 49418?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.