Therapists in 49007

Photo of Michelle Colpean, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Michelle Colpean
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I'm happy you're here! I hope to walk alongside you and provide the support you need to make changes in your life. I enjoy helping adolescents and adults with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, obsessions and compulsions, boundary setting, and difficult life transitions. I utilize a holistic approach, helping you explore your physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health in a safe space. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process where we can seek a deeper understanding of ourselves and find a path to healing.
I'm happy you're here! I hope to walk alongside you and provide the support you need to make changes in your life. I enjoy helping adolescents and adults with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, obsessions and compulsions, boundary setting, and difficult life transitions. I utilize a holistic approach, helping you explore your physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health in a safe space. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process where we can seek a deeper understanding of ourselves and find a path to healing.
(269) 256-1663 View (269) 256-1663
Photo of Liz Cary, Limited Licensed Psychologist in 49007, MI
Liz Cary
Limited Licensed Psychologist, MA, CAADC, CCS
Verified
3 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I am a Limited Licensed Psychologist specializing in EMDR Therapy.  I use EMDR to treat the impacts of traumatic events, PTSD, grief, anger, and addictions including substance and sexual addictions. I primarily work with Veterans and First Responders, and individuals on the front lines of taking care of others. When you face the dangers of the world head-on on a daily basis, asking for help may feel counterintuitive. At the same time, avoiding problems, thinking they will get better on their own, or denial of their existance (despite the evidence) is a guaranteed path to less-than-ideal outcomes.
I am a Limited Licensed Psychologist specializing in EMDR Therapy.  I use EMDR to treat the impacts of traumatic events, PTSD, grief, anger, and addictions including substance and sexual addictions. I primarily work with Veterans and First Responders, and individuals on the front lines of taking care of others. When you face the dangers of the world head-on on a daily basis, asking for help may feel counterintuitive. At the same time, avoiding problems, thinking they will get better on their own, or denial of their existance (despite the evidence) is a guaranteed path to less-than-ideal outcomes.
(269) 605-4327 View (269) 605-4327
Photo of Atlas Counseling & Psychotherapy Services, Counselor in 49007, MI
Atlas Counseling & Psychotherapy Services
Counselor
Verified
5 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Not accepting new clients
Beginning the process of change can be an intimidating and often stressful endeavor. My goal is to provide an encouraging and warm environment that promotes change and insight. I specialize in the treatment of depression, anxiety, trauma and addiction. From an integrated therapeutic approach that caters to a client’s specific needs, I help my clients to not only focus on reducing symptoms and identifying problematic thinking, but to also explore and heal the underlying issues, emotions, and origins of their presenting concerns. I truly believe in the therapeutic process and it’s ability to facilitate sustainable change.
Beginning the process of change can be an intimidating and often stressful endeavor. My goal is to provide an encouraging and warm environment that promotes change and insight. I specialize in the treatment of depression, anxiety, trauma and addiction. From an integrated therapeutic approach that caters to a client’s specific needs, I help my clients to not only focus on reducing symptoms and identifying problematic thinking, but to also explore and heal the underlying issues, emotions, and origins of their presenting concerns. I truly believe in the therapeutic process and it’s ability to facilitate sustainable change.
(269) 443-1280 View (269) 443-1280
Photo of Allyn Witchell, Marriage & Family Therapist in 49007, MI
Allyn Witchell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Immediate evening openings for new clients. Are you looking for couples counseling, family therapy, or help for yourself to improve your relationships? Couples counseling can be a great avenue to improve and grow in a relationship; even before serious issues arise. Every family has challenges; through the therapeutic process, families can learn new techniques and skills to better support their loved ones.
Immediate evening openings for new clients. Are you looking for couples counseling, family therapy, or help for yourself to improve your relationships? Couples counseling can be a great avenue to improve and grow in a relationship; even before serious issues arise. Every family has challenges; through the therapeutic process, families can learn new techniques and skills to better support their loved ones.
(269) 215-2819 View (269) 215-2819
Photo of Elizabeth McGee, Counselor in 49007, MI
Elizabeth McGee
Counselor, MA , LPC, CADC
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I believe that counseling helps understand who you are and where you want to go today and in the future. As a counselor, I will provide you with an understanding of coping skills and tools as well as how to utilize them. Together, we will navigate through life's journeys. I have worked with individuals and families in a variety of settings for 10 years using various treatment modalities that promise self-care, self-recognition, and future self. I have worked with adolescents, young adults, adults, and the geriatric population through different transitions in life.
I believe that counseling helps understand who you are and where you want to go today and in the future. As a counselor, I will provide you with an understanding of coping skills and tools as well as how to utilize them. Together, we will navigate through life's journeys. I have worked with individuals and families in a variety of settings for 10 years using various treatment modalities that promise self-care, self-recognition, and future self. I have worked with adolescents, young adults, adults, and the geriatric population through different transitions in life.
(269) 257-2291 View (269) 257-2291
Photo of Cristina Collins, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Cristina Collins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CAADC
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007  (Online Only)
You have the skills and strength you need to make the changes and the life that you want. But maybe you need some support or encouragement along the way. It is so rewarding to see a client make lasting, positive changes and to be able to walk alongside them as they achieve their goals.
You have the skills and strength you need to make the changes and the life that you want. But maybe you need some support or encouragement along the way. It is so rewarding to see a client make lasting, positive changes and to be able to walk alongside them as they achieve their goals.
(269) 528-8509 View (269) 528-8509
Photo of Nicole (Wells) Parker, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Nicole (Wells) Parker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Trauma is defined differently by everyone and NO ONE understands what you are going through like you do. As a therapist trained in EMDR I can use my knowledge to help you process life experiences and provide realistic tools to manage reactions caused by trauma. I have previous work experience in healthcare and I enjoy working with teenagers, adults, and couples. My training and work experience include individuals with histories of complex trauma, personality disorders, trauma affiliated with a religion, addiction(s), grief, sexual health, and medical trauma.
Trauma is defined differently by everyone and NO ONE understands what you are going through like you do. As a therapist trained in EMDR I can use my knowledge to help you process life experiences and provide realistic tools to manage reactions caused by trauma. I have previous work experience in healthcare and I enjoy working with teenagers, adults, and couples. My training and work experience include individuals with histories of complex trauma, personality disorders, trauma affiliated with a religion, addiction(s), grief, sexual health, and medical trauma.
(269) 430-2464 View (269) 430-2464
Photo of Amy Vliek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Amy Vliek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LMSW-C
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
(269) 256-1609 View (269) 256-1609
Photo of Amanda Slinkman, Masters Social Worker in 49007, MI
Amanda Slinkman
Masters Social Worker, LLMSW
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I have experience working with children and adults with PTSD, complex trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, parenting, ADHD, child welfare issues, and suicidal ideation. I have specialty training in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and the practice and use of mindfulness strategies. I have seen and experienced the process of trauma recovery and can understand the various levels trauma can impact people's lives. Nurturing a healthy thought-life is a helpful tool towards building resilience and strength in trauma and various other mental health needs.
I have experience working with children and adults with PTSD, complex trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, parenting, ADHD, child welfare issues, and suicidal ideation. I have specialty training in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and the practice and use of mindfulness strategies. I have seen and experienced the process of trauma recovery and can understand the various levels trauma can impact people's lives. Nurturing a healthy thought-life is a helpful tool towards building resilience and strength in trauma and various other mental health needs.
(269) 215-5492 View (269) 215-5492
Photo of Mallory Fountain, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Mallory Fountain
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Making the steps towards healing and growth can be difficult. I am a strong believer that we were never designed to navigate through life alone. Life can be incredibly challenging at times, and more often than not in ways that we would never expect. Whether you are feeling depressed, anxious, hopeless, or maybe experiencing grief, you deserve a safe space to process. I strive to always meet my clients where they're at in an inclusive and non-judgmental space. My hope is that we can work collaboratively together to embrace challenges, identify your strengths and develop healthy coping skills to help you thrive.
Making the steps towards healing and growth can be difficult. I am a strong believer that we were never designed to navigate through life alone. Life can be incredibly challenging at times, and more often than not in ways that we would never expect. Whether you are feeling depressed, anxious, hopeless, or maybe experiencing grief, you deserve a safe space to process. I strive to always meet my clients where they're at in an inclusive and non-judgmental space. My hope is that we can work collaboratively together to embrace challenges, identify your strengths and develop healthy coping skills to help you thrive.
(269) 215-2988 View (269) 215-2988
Photo of George K. Lockwood, Psychologist in 49007, MI
George K. Lockwood
Psychologist
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Cognitive Therapy at the University of Pennsylvania under the supervision of Aaron Beck, M.D. in 1983. I am a Founding Fellow of the Academy for Cognitive Therapy. My primary interest and expertise is in helping people identify and break free from the negative life patterns that underlie long-standing depression, anxiety, and painful relationships. My style is systematic, focused, collaborative and flexible. I see my first task as creating a safe and stable foundation from which clients can begin to meet their core emotional needs and grow.
I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Cognitive Therapy at the University of Pennsylvania under the supervision of Aaron Beck, M.D. in 1983. I am a Founding Fellow of the Academy for Cognitive Therapy. My primary interest and expertise is in helping people identify and break free from the negative life patterns that underlie long-standing depression, anxiety, and painful relationships. My style is systematic, focused, collaborative and flexible. I see my first task as creating a safe and stable foundation from which clients can begin to meet their core emotional needs and grow.
(269) 993-4636 View (269) 993-4636
Photo of Emma Wright, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Emma Wright
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LLMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
As your therapist, I hope to set the foundation for courage, creating a space to be open to vulnerability. In sessions we will reflect on your ability to navigate uncertainty, taking risks, and emotional exposure. Perhaps we will spend time developing healthier boundaries, developing stronger accountability, or engaging with the simple notion of owning our truths.
As your therapist, I hope to set the foundation for courage, creating a space to be open to vulnerability. In sessions we will reflect on your ability to navigate uncertainty, taking risks, and emotional exposure. Perhaps we will spend time developing healthier boundaries, developing stronger accountability, or engaging with the simple notion of owning our truths.
(269) 301-1449 View (269) 301-1449
Photo of Leah Lappan, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49007, MI
Leah Lappan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CAADC
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Life is constantly changing and challenging. At times, it can feel difficult to keep up. As a counselor, my goal is to help you identify ways you can tap into your strengths to better navigate these challenges. My hope is to help empower you to create lasting, meaningful change in your life. I have experience working in inpatient settings, in the child welfare/foster care system, as well as in substance use treatment centers. I am also certified as a supervisor for LLPC therapists in the state of Michigan
Life is constantly changing and challenging. At times, it can feel difficult to keep up. As a counselor, my goal is to help you identify ways you can tap into your strengths to better navigate these challenges. My hope is to help empower you to create lasting, meaningful change in your life. I have experience working in inpatient settings, in the child welfare/foster care system, as well as in substance use treatment centers. I am also certified as a supervisor for LLPC therapists in the state of Michigan
(616) 303-7812 View (616) 303-7812
Photo of Erin Praedel, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49007, MI
Erin Praedel
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Not accepting new clients
I am a licensed professional counselor and licensed marriage and family therapist. I specialize in relationship wellness and work with individuals, couples, & families. I earned my master's degree in community counseling with a focus on marriage and family therapy from Western Michigan University in 2010. I am focused on meeting you where you and helping you achieve your goals. My style is kind and non-judgmental. My focus is listening to you and facilitating an environment where you can make the changes in your life that you want. I also have a therapy dog, Rozy, who is available to you, if you would find that comforting.
I am a licensed professional counselor and licensed marriage and family therapist. I specialize in relationship wellness and work with individuals, couples, & families. I earned my master's degree in community counseling with a focus on marriage and family therapy from Western Michigan University in 2010. I am focused on meeting you where you and helping you achieve your goals. My style is kind and non-judgmental. My focus is listening to you and facilitating an environment where you can make the changes in your life that you want. I also have a therapy dog, Rozy, who is available to you, if you would find that comforting.
(269) 533-4825 View (269) 533-4825
Photo of Tara N Logan, Marriage & Family Therapist in 49007, MI
Tara N Logan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LLPC, LLMFT
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Are you struggling with a loss of interest in normal activities or with a feeling of hopelessness, do you feel consumed with grief, struggle meeting goals, maybe you find it difficult to communicate effectively with family, coworkers, or friends. Life has many transitions and you may need help coping with them (new or loss of a job, college, empty nest, separation, parenting etc). I offer you a safe nonjudgmental space to assist you with finding solutions to your concerns. I am a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor & Limited Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist & I can't wait to help you through your therapeutic journey.
Are you struggling with a loss of interest in normal activities or with a feeling of hopelessness, do you feel consumed with grief, struggle meeting goals, maybe you find it difficult to communicate effectively with family, coworkers, or friends. Life has many transitions and you may need help coping with them (new or loss of a job, college, empty nest, separation, parenting etc). I offer you a safe nonjudgmental space to assist you with finding solutions to your concerns. I am a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor & Limited Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist & I can't wait to help you through your therapeutic journey.
(269) 222-7626 View (269) 222-7626
Photo of Mya White, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Mya White
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Healing and growth journeys can be complex. I am here to assist you in navigating your challenges and goals. I work with those who have experienced trauma and violence. My personal and professional experiences have enhanced my ability to work with those who have experienced harm. I specialize in working with issues related to violence, trauma, racial justice and oppression.
Healing and growth journeys can be complex. I am here to assist you in navigating your challenges and goals. I work with those who have experienced trauma and violence. My personal and professional experiences have enhanced my ability to work with those who have experienced harm. I specialize in working with issues related to violence, trauma, racial justice and oppression.
(269) 256-2274 View (269) 256-2274
Photo of Joe R. Keinath, Counselor in 49007, MI
Joe R. Keinath
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Are you ready to make a change in your life? It takes courage to ask for help, but the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life. Evenings and Weekends work great!
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Are you ready to make a change in your life? It takes courage to ask for help, but the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life. Evenings and Weekends work great!
(269) 512-6045 View (269) 512-6045
Photo of Dr. Chris Olson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 49007, MI
Dr. Chris Olson
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I have been in private practice for 33 years having the privilege of serving individuals and couples in our community. I've gained a solid understanding of the struggles we face navigating the difficulties of life. My knowledge and compassion facilitate growth and healing for individuals within their selves and in their relationships. My style of therapy is one of warmth and engaging with each person in the story of their life and the difficulties within that. It is my intention to create an open and inviting atmosphere for people to explore themselves, their relationships, and the environment which they live.
I have been in private practice for 33 years having the privilege of serving individuals and couples in our community. I've gained a solid understanding of the struggles we face navigating the difficulties of life. My knowledge and compassion facilitate growth and healing for individuals within their selves and in their relationships. My style of therapy is one of warmth and engaging with each person in the story of their life and the difficulties within that. It is my intention to create an open and inviting atmosphere for people to explore themselves, their relationships, and the environment which they live.
(269) 215-5667 View (269) 215-5667
Photo of Valarie Cunningham/The Synergy Health Center, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 49007, MI
Valarie Cunningham/The Synergy Health Center
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Not accepting new clients
I help clients get to the root of their issues through the evidenced base and life approaches, be it life changes, midlife crises, or just need to get back on track. This is all done through a person-centered approach where we focus on the needs and desires of the client. Goals are attainable in any case, I only ask for honesty reflection of self.
I help clients get to the root of their issues through the evidenced base and life approaches, be it life changes, midlife crises, or just need to get back on track. This is all done through a person-centered approach where we focus on the needs and desires of the client. Goals are attainable in any case, I only ask for honesty reflection of self.
(269) 203-3555 View (269) 203-3555
Photo of Brandan Mitchell, Master Social Work in 49007, MI
Brandan Mitchell
Master Social Work, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Life experiences can impact us in surprising, often difficult and even traumatic ways leaving us feeling out of touch with ourselves and those around us. With over sixteen (16) years of experience working alongside individuals and families in a variety of clinical settings, my clinical approach begins with meeting you where you are at, without judgement or preconceived notions, to help create a safe, warm and welcoming environment for change. Combining my experience as a clinical social worker and as a parent, my aim is to provide resources and tools that can be used to breakdown the barriers that may exist in your life.
Life experiences can impact us in surprising, often difficult and even traumatic ways leaving us feeling out of touch with ourselves and those around us. With over sixteen (16) years of experience working alongside individuals and families in a variety of clinical settings, my clinical approach begins with meeting you where you are at, without judgement or preconceived notions, to help create a safe, warm and welcoming environment for change. Combining my experience as a clinical social worker and as a parent, my aim is to provide resources and tools that can be used to breakdown the barriers that may exist in your life.
(269) 241-8513 View (269) 241-8513

See more therapy options for 49007

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 49007

70+

Average cost per session

$145

Therapists in 49007 who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
86% Depression
81% Stress
78% Coping Skills
72% Trauma and PTSD
72% Self Esteem
69% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

94% BlueCross and BlueShield
73% Priority Health
68% Blue Care Network

How Therapists in 49007 see their clients

82% In Person and Online
18% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
18% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 49007?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.