Therapists in 45230

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Photo of Carin Ives-Clark, Counselor in 45230, OH
Carin Ives-Clark
Counselor, LPCC
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Carin Ives-Clark is a licensed professional clinical counselor who has been practicing since 2014. She earned her bachelor's degree in special education from the University of Cincinnati and her master's degree in counseling from Xavier University. Carin uses a holistic and supportive approach to treatment and believes clients need to be involved in working towards their treatment goals. Her experience includes working with a diverse population of children, adolescents and families. She provides individual and family therapy for mental health and school concerns.
Carin Ives-Clark is a licensed professional clinical counselor who has been practicing since 2014. She earned her bachelor's degree in special education from the University of Cincinnati and her master's degree in counseling from Xavier University. Carin uses a holistic and supportive approach to treatment and believes clients need to be involved in working towards their treatment goals. Her experience includes working with a diverse population of children, adolescents and families. She provides individual and family therapy for mental health and school concerns.
(513) 880-8839 View (513) 880-8839
Photo of Daring Well, LLC, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in 45230, OH
Daring Well, LLC
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC-S
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230  (Online Only)
Quickly uncover the barriers of mindset blocks, stress, and overwhelm that has kept you stuck so you can find more balance, attract more joy, and embrace a healthy mindset. I provide holistic wellness coaching for individuals on a journey to embrace holistic wellness & develop healthy coping skills. As a Wellness Coach, I offer holistic coaching to support growth through mindfulness, stress management, & mind and body practices. My expertise incorporates nearly a decade of experience in Mental Health & Wellness and over two decades in Business & Organizational Leadership and Human Resources.
Quickly uncover the barriers of mindset blocks, stress, and overwhelm that has kept you stuck so you can find more balance, attract more joy, and embrace a healthy mindset. I provide holistic wellness coaching for individuals on a journey to embrace holistic wellness & develop healthy coping skills. As a Wellness Coach, I offer holistic coaching to support growth through mindfulness, stress management, & mind and body practices. My expertise incorporates nearly a decade of experience in Mental Health & Wellness and over two decades in Business & Organizational Leadership and Human Resources.
(513) 880-1195 View (513) 880-1195
Photo of Brian Wright Counseling, Counselor in 45230, OH
Brian Wright Counseling
Counselor, LPCC, LICDC
Verified
7 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
I believe that counseling doesn't come with a manual or a "cookie-cutter" approach. You are a person with feelings and thoughts unique to your own concerns and issues. I don't approach our counseling relationship based on your diagnosis or societal labels. I try to assist according to how you see your world and recognize that we all make different choices. We don't have to be held captive to a mental illness and I will help you try to find the "keys to those locks".
I believe that counseling doesn't come with a manual or a "cookie-cutter" approach. You are a person with feelings and thoughts unique to your own concerns and issues. I don't approach our counseling relationship based on your diagnosis or societal labels. I try to assist according to how you see your world and recognize that we all make different choices. We don't have to be held captive to a mental illness and I will help you try to find the "keys to those locks".
(513) 327-7438 View (513) 327-7438
Photo of Taylor N Thomas, Licensed Professional Counselor in 45230, OH
Taylor N Thomas
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Welcome! Oftentimes, life can seem like one struggle after another. Whether it's dealing with the aftermath of a toxic relationship, wrestling with your sense of identity, or struggling with managing stress, you can be left feeling lost, broken, and unsure of what to do next. Therapy is a warm, safe place for you to breathe in the midst of the chaos. Your feelings are valid, even if you do not understand them yet. Your story matters, and you deserve the time and space you need to heal, grow, and thrive.
Welcome! Oftentimes, life can seem like one struggle after another. Whether it's dealing with the aftermath of a toxic relationship, wrestling with your sense of identity, or struggling with managing stress, you can be left feeling lost, broken, and unsure of what to do next. Therapy is a warm, safe place for you to breathe in the midst of the chaos. Your feelings are valid, even if you do not understand them yet. Your story matters, and you deserve the time and space you need to heal, grow, and thrive.
(513) 434-3240 View (513) 434-3240
Photo of Brittany Lauer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Brittany Lauer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW-S
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
I specialize in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Clients come to me with a variety of symptoms, ranging from the physical (chest pains, stomach pains) to the emotional (panic attacks, detachment). Some clients don't know what they are feeling, they just know they want to feel better. We work together to understand root causes and core beliefs, and then learn coping skills to change the way they think so they can change the way they feel. Clients leave our sessions feeling more empowered. Rather than life happening to them, I teach clients how to be an active player in their own life.
I specialize in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Clients come to me with a variety of symptoms, ranging from the physical (chest pains, stomach pains) to the emotional (panic attacks, detachment). Some clients don't know what they are feeling, they just know they want to feel better. We work together to understand root causes and core beliefs, and then learn coping skills to change the way they think so they can change the way they feel. Clients leave our sessions feeling more empowered. Rather than life happening to them, I teach clients how to be an active player in their own life.
(513) 845-3355 View (513) 845-3355
Photo of Melissa B. Frye, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in 45230, OH
Melissa B. Frye
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
6 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Are you experiencing feelings of overwhelm? Experiencing irritation and anger with your current life situation? Maybe you feel disconnected from your partner or loved ones, or you are experiencing loneliness and isolation. Life can be challenging. We are all vulnerable and sensitive beings trying our best to navigate life. Sometimes it can be confusing and challenging to know how to move through a negative situation. We can become frustrated with ourselves and situations, and we can get stuck in a place that creates an unhealthy and unhappy environment.
Are you experiencing feelings of overwhelm? Experiencing irritation and anger with your current life situation? Maybe you feel disconnected from your partner or loved ones, or you are experiencing loneliness and isolation. Life can be challenging. We are all vulnerable and sensitive beings trying our best to navigate life. Sometimes it can be confusing and challenging to know how to move through a negative situation. We can become frustrated with ourselves and situations, and we can get stuck in a place that creates an unhealthy and unhappy environment.
(513) 854-8636 View (513) 854-8636
Photo of Beth Beilstein, Psychologist in 45230, OH
Beth Beilstein
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Beth Beilstein received her masters and doctoral degrees in clinical psychology from Ohio University. She has been providing outpatient mental health services to children and adolescents and their families for over 20 years. Treatment approach includes behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Additionally, Beth has specialized training in the use of Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) for the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder as well as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) with children.
Beth Beilstein received her masters and doctoral degrees in clinical psychology from Ohio University. She has been providing outpatient mental health services to children and adolescents and their families for over 20 years. Treatment approach includes behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Additionally, Beth has specialized training in the use of Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) for the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder as well as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) with children.
(513) 450-3911 View (513) 450-3911
Photo of Denise A Ferree, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Denise A Ferree
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSSW, LSW, CSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Life is beautiful and messy. Recovery is not linear. And healing takes more than just time. It is our experiences from birth to the present that have shaped us to be who we are. Therapy can help peel back those layers of experiences and allow us to better understand how our experiences affected us and learn how to move beyond the past and reshape our future. Perhaps past trauma prevents you from feeling safe and happy or relationship issues are crushing your spirit. Maybe recent loss has triggered pain that seems unbearable or life transitions are very overwhelming.
Life is beautiful and messy. Recovery is not linear. And healing takes more than just time. It is our experiences from birth to the present that have shaped us to be who we are. Therapy can help peel back those layers of experiences and allow us to better understand how our experiences affected us and learn how to move beyond the past and reshape our future. Perhaps past trauma prevents you from feeling safe and happy or relationship issues are crushing your spirit. Maybe recent loss has triggered pain that seems unbearable or life transitions are very overwhelming.
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Photo of Sydney Brown, Licensed Professional Counselor in 45230, OH
Sydney Brown
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Currently Accepting New Clients. As someone who has been in the client chair before, I understand how difficult it can be to decide whether counseling is the right first step for you or how intimidating it is to discuss life’s hardships with another person. However, I can also attest to the benefits that counseling can produce in one’s life if given the proper time, effort, and care. Mental health is an integral component of overall health and well-being, and my goal as a counselor is to ease people through tough transition periods and to assist in cultivating meaningful lives.
Currently Accepting New Clients. As someone who has been in the client chair before, I understand how difficult it can be to decide whether counseling is the right first step for you or how intimidating it is to discuss life’s hardships with another person. However, I can also attest to the benefits that counseling can produce in one’s life if given the proper time, effort, and care. Mental health is an integral component of overall health and well-being, and my goal as a counselor is to ease people through tough transition periods and to assist in cultivating meaningful lives.
(513) 643-2027 View (513) 643-2027
Photo of Joshua A Runtenelli, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 45230, OH
Joshua A Runtenelli
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LISW-S, LICDC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Often times it is helpful to talk to a neutral party. Whether it is working on a serious issue, or just needing someone to bounce something off of, therapy can be very important. I am offering low out of pocket rates. Seeing adults for depression, anxiety, other mental health concerns, as well as substance abuse. I also have experience in couples'counseling. Confidential and accessible therapy as well as weekend appointments available. I have over 10 years experience working with adults, couples, and children. Call me today for an appointment.
Often times it is helpful to talk to a neutral party. Whether it is working on a serious issue, or just needing someone to bounce something off of, therapy can be very important. I am offering low out of pocket rates. Seeing adults for depression, anxiety, other mental health concerns, as well as substance abuse. I also have experience in couples'counseling. Confidential and accessible therapy as well as weekend appointments available. I have over 10 years experience working with adults, couples, and children. Call me today for an appointment.
(859) 904-5298 View (859) 904-5298
Photo of Ashley Morrison, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Ashley Morrison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LISW, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230  (Online Only)
I most enjoy working with college aged students and adults on a variety of concerns including anxiety, depression, self-esteem, disordered eating and body image, life transitions, and perfectionist tendencies. My ideal client is someone who is ready to get to work and motivated to change. They also might describe themself as a people pleaser or a person who cares for others before caring for themself.
I most enjoy working with college aged students and adults on a variety of concerns including anxiety, depression, self-esteem, disordered eating and body image, life transitions, and perfectionist tendencies. My ideal client is someone who is ready to get to work and motivated to change. They also might describe themself as a people pleaser or a person who cares for others before caring for themself.
(513) 676-3956 View (513) 676-3956
Photo of Giorgio Fabbri, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Giorgio Fabbri
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, MSW, LSW
Verified
4 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Hi, I'm Giorgio. Thank you for being here. I specialize in supporting individuals dealing with a range of psychological challenges, including grief, feelings of hopelessness, severe anxiety, panic disorders, addiction issues, relationship difficulties, and managing challenging life transitions.
Hi, I'm Giorgio. Thank you for being here. I specialize in supporting individuals dealing with a range of psychological challenges, including grief, feelings of hopelessness, severe anxiety, panic disorders, addiction issues, relationship difficulties, and managing challenging life transitions.
(513) 327-2631 View (513) 327-2631
Photo of Joanne Elizabeth Forsthoefel, Counselor in 45230, OH
Joanne Elizabeth Forsthoefel
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Life is a journey full of unexpected twists and turns that can leave us feeling overwhelmed, confused, stressed, anxious, angry and hurt. It happens. Sometimes when we are faced with an unexpected event or tragedy or we just feel like we "aren't ourselves "and we just aren't sure who to talk to or what to do, therapy can help. I would like to be there to help you through the twists and turns.
Life is a journey full of unexpected twists and turns that can leave us feeling overwhelmed, confused, stressed, anxious, angry and hurt. It happens. Sometimes when we are faced with an unexpected event or tragedy or we just feel like we "aren't ourselves "and we just aren't sure who to talk to or what to do, therapy can help. I would like to be there to help you through the twists and turns.
(513) 813-5297 x2 View (513) 813-5297 x2
Photo of Jamie Hinman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Jamie Hinman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW-S
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Jamie Hinman is a Licensed Independent Social Worker with nearly 30 years of experience. He earned a master's degree in clinical social work from the University of Cincinnati and a bachelor's degree in psychology at Eckerd College. He has provided diagnostics, psychotherapy, and case management to children, adolescents, adults, older adults, couples, and families, mainly in medical and community settings. He has also provided supervision and training to other behavioral health clinicians, as well as to a variety of healthcare and business professionals.
Jamie Hinman is a Licensed Independent Social Worker with nearly 30 years of experience. He earned a master's degree in clinical social work from the University of Cincinnati and a bachelor's degree in psychology at Eckerd College. He has provided diagnostics, psychotherapy, and case management to children, adolescents, adults, older adults, couples, and families, mainly in medical and community settings. He has also provided supervision and training to other behavioral health clinicians, as well as to a variety of healthcare and business professionals.
(513) 848-5478 View (513) 848-5478
Photo of Creekside Therapy Center, LLC, Counselor in 45230, OH
Creekside Therapy Center, LLC
Counselor, MEd, LPCC-S, CEDS-S
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
At Creekside Therapy Center, your mental health is our priority. Whether you’re facing mounting stress, paralyzing anxiety, gut-wrenching loss or you simply need someone to talk to, let us be there for you. Our clinicians have a wide range of experience and work with children, teens, adults and couples. Our prescriber can assist in managing medications you may be taking or provide an evaluation for potential medication implementation. We would be honored to walk this journey with you and encourage you to contact us to discuss whether we have a clinician who may meet your mental health needs.
At Creekside Therapy Center, your mental health is our priority. Whether you’re facing mounting stress, paralyzing anxiety, gut-wrenching loss or you simply need someone to talk to, let us be there for you. Our clinicians have a wide range of experience and work with children, teens, adults and couples. Our prescriber can assist in managing medications you may be taking or provide an evaluation for potential medication implementation. We would be honored to walk this journey with you and encourage you to contact us to discuss whether we have a clinician who may meet your mental health needs.
(513) 995-1737 View (513) 995-1737
Photo of Teresa Lawhead, Counselor in 45230, OH
Teresa Lawhead
Counselor, MA , LPCC-S
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Current Openings! I am here to empower your child to learn how to navigate feeling, thoughts, and behaviors. When children enter the play room, they are able to build skills and process through challenges through play or sharing. I support children through this growth ages 3-12years old.
Current Openings! I am here to empower your child to learn how to navigate feeling, thoughts, and behaviors. When children enter the play room, they are able to build skills and process through challenges through play or sharing. I support children through this growth ages 3-12years old.
(513) 434-6302 View (513) 434-6302
Photo of Amanda Earhart, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Amanda Earhart
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW-S, PMH-C
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
I am here to help both moms and young children learn new strategies for healthier, happier relationships and improved feeling management.Do you have a child under 8 years old who struggles with tantrums, defiance, hyperactivity, or problems getting along with peers? Do you as a mom struggle with depression, anxious thoughts, or feel overwhelmed? If those sound like YOUR current struggles reach out to me. I would love to partner with you to explore the root of the problem. Together we will find solutions catered to your situation. Life can be less difficult with support. I would love to help you increase your peace and joy at home!
I am here to help both moms and young children learn new strategies for healthier, happier relationships and improved feeling management.Do you have a child under 8 years old who struggles with tantrums, defiance, hyperactivity, or problems getting along with peers? Do you as a mom struggle with depression, anxious thoughts, or feel overwhelmed? If those sound like YOUR current struggles reach out to me. I would love to partner with you to explore the root of the problem. Together we will find solutions catered to your situation. Life can be less difficult with support. I would love to help you increase your peace and joy at home!
(513) 450-2005 View (513) 450-2005
Neil Trask, MSSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSSW, LISW, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230
I have specialized in helping individuals, couples, and families with life's problems for over 30 years. Along the way I have completed extensive training programs, worked in psychiatric and addiction settings, and learned from many wise and experienced senior professionals. My knowledge and experience are combined with a respectful, down-to-earth approach where clients may feel safe and supported. Help is given to better understand problems as well as concrete recommendations are offered regarding how to better manage and overcome them. Tools are offered and taught. My approach both guides and collaborates with the client towards making healthier choices and implementing them.
I have specialized in helping individuals, couples, and families with life's problems for over 30 years. Along the way I have completed extensive training programs, worked in psychiatric and addiction settings, and learned from many wise and experienced senior professionals. My knowledge and experience are combined with a respectful, down-to-earth approach where clients may feel safe and supported. Help is given to better understand problems as well as concrete recommendations are offered regarding how to better manage and overcome them. Tools are offered and taught. My approach both guides and collaborates with the client towards making healthier choices and implementing them.
(513) 449-2297 View (513) 449-2297
Photo of Gwendolyn M Niesen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 45230, OH
Gwendolyn M Niesen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230
Life truly is an adventure! We all have times when we feel like we can take on the world and times when we question the meaning of life. I would like you to be in the drivers seat of your life and not just passively riding along as a passenger. Sure, you will make mistakes on your way and that puts you in good company with the rest of us! If you're struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, loss, or any type of trauma. Do yourself a favor and get the help you deserve today. Taking care of yourself is your number 1 job in this life and I promise you, it will be well worth it!
Life truly is an adventure! We all have times when we feel like we can take on the world and times when we question the meaning of life. I would like you to be in the drivers seat of your life and not just passively riding along as a passenger. Sure, you will make mistakes on your way and that puts you in good company with the rest of us! If you're struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, loss, or any type of trauma. Do yourself a favor and get the help you deserve today. Taking care of yourself is your number 1 job in this life and I promise you, it will be well worth it!
(513) 643-8801 x9 View (513) 643-8801 x9
Photo of Diann B Klug, Marriage & Family Therapist in 45230, OH
Diann B Klug
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45230  (Online Only)
Hello, I’m Diann. Are you feeling out of balance in your relationships? Work? Health? Feeling crushed under the weight of your responsibilities and uncertain how to lighten your load? Come talk to me. Together, we will explore strategies for increased confidence, self-awareness, and personal effectiveness resulting in not only a more balanced and satisfying life, but also the ability to reach a potential you never thought possible!
Hello, I’m Diann. Are you feeling out of balance in your relationships? Work? Health? Feeling crushed under the weight of your responsibilities and uncertain how to lighten your load? Come talk to me. Together, we will explore strategies for increased confidence, self-awareness, and personal effectiveness resulting in not only a more balanced and satisfying life, but also the ability to reach a potential you never thought possible!
(513) 951-1987 View (513) 951-1987

See more therapy options for 45230

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 45230

60+

Average cost per session

$130

Therapists in 45230 who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
93% Depression
80% Relationship Issues
73% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
67% Coping Skills
67% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
65% Aetna
63% Other

How Therapists in 45230 see their clients

82% In Person and Online
18% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
28% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 45230?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.