Therapists in 32210

Photo of Empowered Sol Wellness Center, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Empowered Sol Wellness Center, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Hey! I am Terri. So many people that I have met describe having been stuck. They have been unable, with the tools they have had, to get unstuck. Typically, it seems that trauma in one form or another is behind that. We all have a story, right? The one that led you here. Trauma can be big trauma, like we think of car accidents or sexual assault but it can also be things like grief or loss, divorce, emotional abuse, etc. Things that get stuck, that mold us in a sense... those same things also make us strong and build character, once we learn how to build from them.
Hey! I am Terri. So many people that I have met describe having been stuck. They have been unable, with the tools they have had, to get unstuck. Typically, it seems that trauma in one form or another is behind that. We all have a story, right? The one that led you here. Trauma can be big trauma, like we think of car accidents or sexual assault but it can also be things like grief or loss, divorce, emotional abuse, etc. Things that get stuck, that mold us in a sense... those same things also make us strong and build character, once we learn how to build from them.
(904) 441-5985 View (904) 441-5985
Photo of Billi Jo Speth, Pre-Licensed Professional in 32210, FL
Billi Jo Speth
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Billi Jo Speth is a Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern. She enjoys working with adults and adolescents helping them find their way to the solutions that best work for them in their life. Billi Jo specializes in anxiety, depression, self-esteem, substance use, and coping skills. Billi Jo Completed her Master's in Clinical Mental Health and Substance Abuse at Nova Southeastern University & a Bachelor of Science in Physical Education at Athens State University. Billi Jo worked as an activity director at an Alzheimer's and Dementia nursing home.
Billi Jo Speth is a Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern. She enjoys working with adults and adolescents helping them find their way to the solutions that best work for them in their life. Billi Jo specializes in anxiety, depression, self-esteem, substance use, and coping skills. Billi Jo Completed her Master's in Clinical Mental Health and Substance Abuse at Nova Southeastern University & a Bachelor of Science in Physical Education at Athens State University. Billi Jo worked as an activity director at an Alzheimer's and Dementia nursing home.
(904) 293-1751 View (904) 293-1751
Photo of April Jones Sims, Pre-Licensed Professional in 32210, FL
April Jones Sims
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
April Sims is a Registered Mental Health Counseling Intern who strives to be open-minded and easy to confide in. April specializes in depression, anxiety, relationship issues, stress, life transitions, self-esteem issues, and education/career concerns. She has experience providing talk therapy to university students, student-athletes, and teams; facilitating equine-assisted therapy with individuals and groups; and treating stress and life transition issues in adults. April believes that progress takes time and patience, because your own feelings did not develop overnight.
April Sims is a Registered Mental Health Counseling Intern who strives to be open-minded and easy to confide in. April specializes in depression, anxiety, relationship issues, stress, life transitions, self-esteem issues, and education/career concerns. She has experience providing talk therapy to university students, student-athletes, and teams; facilitating equine-assisted therapy with individuals and groups; and treating stress and life transition issues in adults. April believes that progress takes time and patience, because your own feelings did not develop overnight.
(904) 830-5827 View (904) 830-5827
Photo of Serenity Wellness, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Serenity Wellness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CCATP
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Waitlist for new clients
I am aware that choosing to seek support from a mental health practitioner for our emotional/ mental health and life problems can be a scary process. However, therapy does not have to be a scary process if your are paired with a therapist who understands the value of starting where the client is and working to develop a strong therapeutic alliance. My primary goal is to offer a safe therapeutic environment where my clients are free to share their stories without judgement or fear, and be empowered to remove obstacles that interfere with personal freedom, growth, and personal satisfaction.
I am aware that choosing to seek support from a mental health practitioner for our emotional/ mental health and life problems can be a scary process. However, therapy does not have to be a scary process if your are paired with a therapist who understands the value of starting where the client is and working to develop a strong therapeutic alliance. My primary goal is to offer a safe therapeutic environment where my clients are free to share their stories without judgement or fear, and be empowered to remove obstacles that interfere with personal freedom, growth, and personal satisfaction.
(904) 351-0652 View (904) 351-0652
Photo of Lisa Bishop, Counselor in 32210, FL
Lisa Bishop
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Lisa is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC) has years experience in helping clients of all ages. She specializes in treating stress, anxiety, relationship issues, motivation, low self-esteem, confidence, grief, anxiety, and depression.
Lisa is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC) has years experience in helping clients of all ages. She specializes in treating stress, anxiety, relationship issues, motivation, low self-esteem, confidence, grief, anxiety, and depression.
(904) 694-3977 View (904) 694-3977
Photo of Shannon McFauls, Counselor in 32210, FL
Shannon McFauls
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
When people survive traumatic family relationships, we don't naturally get to form our own identity or learn how to manage our emotions or communicate in healthy ways. It's only about getting by until we can get out. Rather than finding safety in connection as human beings are built to do, we see connection as a threat, yet simultaneously crave it. We develop protective ways of relating to people we love, which often lead to feeling conflicted, distant, and unsatisfied. Have you felt like you are stuck in a loop, wanting to trust others but feeling like you can't because you'll only end up getting hurt again? We can change that.
When people survive traumatic family relationships, we don't naturally get to form our own identity or learn how to manage our emotions or communicate in healthy ways. It's only about getting by until we can get out. Rather than finding safety in connection as human beings are built to do, we see connection as a threat, yet simultaneously crave it. We develop protective ways of relating to people we love, which often lead to feeling conflicted, distant, and unsatisfied. Have you felt like you are stuck in a loop, wanting to trust others but feeling like you can't because you'll only end up getting hurt again? We can change that.
(904) 877-9343 View (904) 877-9343
Photo of Sheryl Johnson, Counselor in 32210, FL
Sheryl Johnson
Counselor, LMHC, MCAP, SAP, MAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210
I've made some questionable decisions in my life, some with devastating results. Each poor decision led to a habit becoming a lifestyle of misery. By improving my life in small daily steps I was able to overcome depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Changing a lifestyle takes daily practice and it's always being tweaked with new goals. Today, I help others make changes, develop action plans, resolve feelings of inadequacy, depression and fear. Together we work on accountability, moving forward on goals and into a lifestyle that serves them.
I've made some questionable decisions in my life, some with devastating results. Each poor decision led to a habit becoming a lifestyle of misery. By improving my life in small daily steps I was able to overcome depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Changing a lifestyle takes daily practice and it's always being tweaked with new goals. Today, I help others make changes, develop action plans, resolve feelings of inadequacy, depression and fear. Together we work on accountability, moving forward on goals and into a lifestyle that serves them.
(904) 712-5964 View (904) 712-5964
Photo of Bertha F Barrett, Counselor in 32210, FL
Bertha F Barrett
Counselor, LMHC, CCTP
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Trauma along with life experiences and changes can affect you in many ways. If you are struggling with trauma, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem or other distressful issues from the past or present help is available. If you are exhausted from trying to just get over it or you are unsure of what you're feeling, and why you're feeling it, as a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional, I'm here to assist you. I assist individuals with what they are experiencing from the comfort of their own private space via a secure HIPPA Compliant video conferencing therapy session.
Trauma along with life experiences and changes can affect you in many ways. If you are struggling with trauma, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem or other distressful issues from the past or present help is available. If you are exhausted from trying to just get over it or you are unsure of what you're feeling, and why you're feeling it, as a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional, I'm here to assist you. I assist individuals with what they are experiencing from the comfort of their own private space via a secure HIPPA Compliant video conferencing therapy session.
(904) 977-6295 View (904) 977-6295
Photo of Freda D Doxey, Counselor in 32210, FL
Freda D Doxey
Counselor, MA, LMHC, PhD
Verified
3 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Are you overwhelmed with life? Struggle with loneliness, anger, anxiety, depression, job stress, marital conflict, parenting issues, or some type of addiction? As a licensed mental health counselor, I am available to work with you in changing challenges into opportunities so you can live life to your full potential. Many of my clients, including couples, athletes and veterans, are now enjoying a stress-less life and making significant progress in their relationships, careers and life.
Are you overwhelmed with life? Struggle with loneliness, anger, anxiety, depression, job stress, marital conflict, parenting issues, or some type of addiction? As a licensed mental health counselor, I am available to work with you in changing challenges into opportunities so you can live life to your full potential. Many of my clients, including couples, athletes and veterans, are now enjoying a stress-less life and making significant progress in their relationships, careers and life.
(904) 245-1437 View (904) 245-1437
Photo of Omonoh Agbuduwe, Counselor in 32210, FL
Omonoh Agbuduwe
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210
My name is Omonoh Agbuduwe and I am a licensed mental health counselor FL and WI and have been working in the mental health field since 2016. I use cognitive behavioral therapy in order to help my clients see that their feelings, behaviors and actions are interconnected and how to change their actions for the better. Behavioral analysis and counseling have unique components that I am interested in combining to bring forth the best dynamic to treat, support, and help each person I see. I have experience in helping clients with depression, anxiety, parenting issues, grief, and adjustment issues.
My name is Omonoh Agbuduwe and I am a licensed mental health counselor FL and WI and have been working in the mental health field since 2016. I use cognitive behavioral therapy in order to help my clients see that their feelings, behaviors and actions are interconnected and how to change their actions for the better. Behavioral analysis and counseling have unique components that I am interested in combining to bring forth the best dynamic to treat, support, and help each person I see. I have experience in helping clients with depression, anxiety, parenting issues, grief, and adjustment issues.
(904) 774-2231 View (904) 774-2231
Photo of Kimberly Julia, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Kimberly Julia
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Life comes in waves for all of us. If right now feels overwhelming and awful for you, I want you to know you're not alone. I offer trauma-informed, individualized, neurodivergence-affirming telehealth services to access you right where you are with nuanced care and concern. I'm here to support you on this healing journey. Reach out to me here through email or phone (please leave me a voicemail). You can find more about me on my website healingmindful.com.
Life comes in waves for all of us. If right now feels overwhelming and awful for you, I want you to know you're not alone. I offer trauma-informed, individualized, neurodivergence-affirming telehealth services to access you right where you are with nuanced care and concern. I'm here to support you on this healing journey. Reach out to me here through email or phone (please leave me a voicemail). You can find more about me on my website healingmindful.com.
(904) 383-7757 View (904) 383-7757
Photo of Terrell Gunter, Pre-Licensed Professional in 32210, FL
Terrell Gunter
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Terrell Gunter is a Licensed Master Social Worker in the state of South Carolina and he completed his Master of Social Work at the University of South Carolina. He has experience treating several challenges, including family/relationship problems, sexual abuse, PTSD, low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. No matter if this is your first time in therapy or if you’ve seen counselor(s) in the past, finding someone you can trust can be a challenging process. Terrell understands this, and encourages regular feedback from clients to make sure that their needs are being met and to help them continue to make progress.
Terrell Gunter is a Licensed Master Social Worker in the state of South Carolina and he completed his Master of Social Work at the University of South Carolina. He has experience treating several challenges, including family/relationship problems, sexual abuse, PTSD, low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. No matter if this is your first time in therapy or if you’ve seen counselor(s) in the past, finding someone you can trust can be a challenging process. Terrell understands this, and encourages regular feedback from clients to make sure that their needs are being met and to help them continue to make progress.
(904) 644-1921 View (904) 644-1921
Photo of Michael P Flores, Counselor in 32210, FL
Michael P Flores
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Dr. Michael Petrosky Flores, EdD., LMHC is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in the State of Florida. He is an accomplished, multi-faceted clinician with expertise in crisis intervention, various psychotherapeutic modalities for the overall wellness of those with mental health conditions and an extensive background working with diverse client populations within the mental health and substance abuse fields.
Dr. Michael Petrosky Flores, EdD., LMHC is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in the State of Florida. He is an accomplished, multi-faceted clinician with expertise in crisis intervention, various psychotherapeutic modalities for the overall wellness of those with mental health conditions and an extensive background working with diverse client populations within the mental health and substance abuse fields.
(904) 872-6053 View (904) 872-6053
Photo of True Me Counseling, LLC, Counselor in 32210, FL
True Me Counseling, LLC
Counselor, LMHC , QSMH
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome! I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor, Certified Addiction Professional, and founder of True Me Counseling who is ecstatic to help you on your clinical journey. I have practiced in the community of Jacksonville for more than 10 years. I have been a licensed clinican for 8 years. I have experience conducting individual, family psychotherapy, group, initial diagnostic interviews, and crisis intervention in mental health settings. I am currently working in a school setting that addresses military related stressors.
Welcome! I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor, Certified Addiction Professional, and founder of True Me Counseling who is ecstatic to help you on your clinical journey. I have practiced in the community of Jacksonville for more than 10 years. I have been a licensed clinican for 8 years. I have experience conducting individual, family psychotherapy, group, initial diagnostic interviews, and crisis intervention in mental health settings. I am currently working in a school setting that addresses military related stressors.
(904) 606-9483 View (904) 606-9483
Photo of Chris Bartkowiak, Counselor in 32210, FL
Chris Bartkowiak
Counselor, LMHC, MEd
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Listening is an art form.From traditional counseling to life coaching, mindfulness, I draw on my extensive life experience and thousands of hours with clients in helping you with communication, anger, trauma, grief, PTSD, existential crisis, addictions. I work with adult clients of all ages. I also work with other therapists, first responders, health professionals, teachers in helping them process the trauma that they witness and hear.You will know within the first session whether I am the right therapist, life coach for you.Confidentiality is assured, sliding scale. c-904 476-5336. chriscoachingandcounseling.com
Listening is an art form.From traditional counseling to life coaching, mindfulness, I draw on my extensive life experience and thousands of hours with clients in helping you with communication, anger, trauma, grief, PTSD, existential crisis, addictions. I work with adult clients of all ages. I also work with other therapists, first responders, health professionals, teachers in helping them process the trauma that they witness and hear.You will know within the first session whether I am the right therapist, life coach for you.Confidentiality is assured, sliding scale. c-904 476-5336. chriscoachingandcounseling.com
(904) 476-5336 View (904) 476-5336
Photo of Danielle Dodds in 32210, FL
Danielle Dodds
FNP-BC, ARNP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
With over 14 years of healthcare experience under my belt, I've dedicated eight years of my career as a Nurse Practitioner. Throughout my journey, I've encountered a myriad of chronic illnesses, from diabetes and hypertension to anxiety and depression. My approach to patient care is rooted in a holistic perspective, although I'm not hesitant to provide support and prescribe medications when necessary. One of my areas of expertise revolves around treating patients with ADHD, employing a multifaceted treatment plan. While I refrain from prescribing stimulants, I've achieved considerable success in supporting and treating patients.
With over 14 years of healthcare experience under my belt, I've dedicated eight years of my career as a Nurse Practitioner. Throughout my journey, I've encountered a myriad of chronic illnesses, from diabetes and hypertension to anxiety and depression. My approach to patient care is rooted in a holistic perspective, although I'm not hesitant to provide support and prescribe medications when necessary. One of my areas of expertise revolves around treating patients with ADHD, employing a multifaceted treatment plan. While I refrain from prescribing stimulants, I've achieved considerable success in supporting and treating patients.
(904) 299-1927 View (904) 299-1927
Photo of Pooja Vala, Licensed Mental Health Counselor in 32210, FL
Pooja Vala
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Pooja Chandrasekhar is a Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern who has 4 years of experience working with adults and children in a therapeutic capacity to manage depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trauma, life stressors, psychosis, and family conflict. Pooja completed her Bachelor of Science (BS) in Psychology with a minor in Sociology at the University of Florida. She completed her Master of Science (MS) in Clinical Mental Health Counseling at the University of North Florida.
Pooja Chandrasekhar is a Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern who has 4 years of experience working with adults and children in a therapeutic capacity to manage depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trauma, life stressors, psychosis, and family conflict. Pooja completed her Bachelor of Science (BS) in Psychology with a minor in Sociology at the University of Florida. She completed her Master of Science (MS) in Clinical Mental Health Counseling at the University of North Florida.
(904) 842-2625 View (904) 842-2625
Photo of Chelita Holland, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Chelita Holland
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Humanistic approach designed to support each individual optimize their strengths, find balance within their daily lives, as well as identify and pursue their personal goals.
Humanistic approach designed to support each individual optimize their strengths, find balance within their daily lives, as well as identify and pursue their personal goals.
(904) 944-6545 View (904) 944-6545
Photo of Kate W Colley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Kate W Colley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
Hello and thank you for visiting my page! I specialize in working with children. I help children overcome trauma, manage big life changes, deal with anxiety and depression, and more. I am a source of emotional support for them, and do my best to elicit social growth and development. I will help your child deal with any mental health issues that they're struggling with at the moment. I am trained, educated, experienced and thoroughly enjoy the work I get to do everyday. I take an individualized approach to every patient and take all your child's specific needs into account.
Hello and thank you for visiting my page! I specialize in working with children. I help children overcome trauma, manage big life changes, deal with anxiety and depression, and more. I am a source of emotional support for them, and do my best to elicit social growth and development. I will help your child deal with any mental health issues that they're struggling with at the moment. I am trained, educated, experienced and thoroughly enjoy the work I get to do everyday. I take an individualized approach to every patient and take all your child's specific needs into account.
(904) 344-5136 View (904) 344-5136
Photo of Stephanie Lugo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32210, FL
Stephanie Lugo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
I have experience in helping clients with stress and anxiety, motivation, self-esteem, confidence, career difficulties, & depression. I believe in treating everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion. I will tailor our dialog and treatment plan to meet your unique and specific needs. Taking the first step to seeking a more fulfilling and happier life takes courage. I am here to support you in that process.
I have experience in helping clients with stress and anxiety, motivation, self-esteem, confidence, career difficulties, & depression. I believe in treating everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion. I will tailor our dialog and treatment plan to meet your unique and specific needs. Taking the first step to seeking a more fulfilling and happier life takes courage. I am here to support you in that process.
(904) 601-0296 View (904) 601-0296

See more therapy options for 32210

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 32210

70+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in 32210 who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
82% Depression
70% Stress
68% Coping Skills
66% Self Esteem
65% Trauma and PTSD
64% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% Aetna
90% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
85% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 32210 see their clients

64% In Person and Online
36% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
25% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 32210?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.