Photo of Rodney G. Larson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 31792, GA
Rodney G. Larson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, BCN, NCC, CHT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792
Waitlist for new clients
Are you feeling overwhelmed, disorganized, or forgetful or unfocused? Do you swing from feeling “stressed-out” to depressed? Are you experiencing the long term effects from early childhood trauma - neglect or physical abuse- that culminated in Complex P.T.S.D. symptoms. You may be dealing with other bio-psycho-social issues which contribute to feeling anxious or moody or brain issues such as ADD, P.T.S.D. or T.B.I. Although my focus is on providing brain training with biofeedback/neurofeedback, my approach is holistic and compassionate, encouraging clients to explore their wise mind, body and brain for positive change.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, disorganized, or forgetful or unfocused? Do you swing from feeling “stressed-out” to depressed? Are you experiencing the long term effects from early childhood trauma - neglect or physical abuse- that culminated in Complex P.T.S.D. symptoms. You may be dealing with other bio-psycho-social issues which contribute to feeling anxious or moody or brain issues such as ADD, P.T.S.D. or T.B.I. Although my focus is on providing brain training with biofeedback/neurofeedback, my approach is holistic and compassionate, encouraging clients to explore their wise mind, body and brain for positive change.
(678) 971-0199 View (678) 971-0199
Photo of Lori Allison Stubbs, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 31792, GA
Lori Allison Stubbs
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAMSII
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
Not accepting new clients
Everyone has a story. What’s yours? I aim to supply you with the tools and resources you need to navigate your story. I provide a safe space for individuals to feel listened to and accepted. I am inclusive in many lifestyles and am LGBTQIA+ and neurodiverse affirming. I enjoy working with those looking to transition into what life offers them.
Everyone has a story. What’s yours? I aim to supply you with the tools and resources you need to navigate your story. I provide a safe space for individuals to feel listened to and accepted. I am inclusive in many lifestyles and am LGBTQIA+ and neurodiverse affirming. I enjoy working with those looking to transition into what life offers them.
(229) 267-3914 View (229) 267-3914
Photo of Adrian Stowers, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 31792, GA
Adrian Stowers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MAC
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
I am very passionate about helping adults and adolescents with mental health and substance abuse problems. I offer a safe, non-judgmental setting where people can express themselves and know that they will be heard. I focus on seeing each person as a valued individual, not just the symptoms they display or labels they have been given. I am very welcoming to I members of the LGBTQIA+ community. My practice works with a wide variety of problems such as anxiety, depression, grief and loss, trauma, addiction (all kinds), adjustment problems, family problems, consequences of legal problems and many others.
I am very passionate about helping adults and adolescents with mental health and substance abuse problems. I offer a safe, non-judgmental setting where people can express themselves and know that they will be heard. I focus on seeing each person as a valued individual, not just the symptoms they display or labels they have been given. I am very welcoming to I members of the LGBTQIA+ community. My practice works with a wide variety of problems such as anxiety, depression, grief and loss, trauma, addiction (all kinds), adjustment problems, family problems, consequences of legal problems and many others.
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Photo of Truth Is Therapy & More, Licensed Professional Counselor in 31792, GA
Truth Is Therapy & More
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CADC-II, CAM-S
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
Do you feel pulled in a million directions, unable to fit it all in? Are you struggling to keep up with your relationships, work, and health? Is it hard to be kind to yourself? I help high performers manage anxiety and avoid burnout. Together, we can identify what's not working and get you back to balance. We'll use a whole-self approach, addressing the needs of your mind, body and spirit. I also integrate mindfulness, self-care, art, and therapeutic journaling to help you develop a stronger relationship with yourself.
Do you feel pulled in a million directions, unable to fit it all in? Are you struggling to keep up with your relationships, work, and health? Is it hard to be kind to yourself? I help high performers manage anxiety and avoid burnout. Together, we can identify what's not working and get you back to balance. We'll use a whole-self approach, addressing the needs of your mind, body and spirit. I also integrate mindfulness, self-care, art, and therapeutic journaling to help you develop a stronger relationship with yourself.
(229) 252-3602 View (229) 252-3602
Photo of La'Trina Annette O'Neal, Marriage & Family Therapist in 31792, GA
La'Trina Annette O'Neal
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
I am a thoughtful and creative therapist with a passion for seeing family’s restored. I am committed to helping families/individuals heal and flourish. I will help you tap into the skills and tools you need to live your best life. Together you will realize your strength and call upon your courage to be filled up and live a life poured out.
I am a thoughtful and creative therapist with a passion for seeing family’s restored. I am committed to helping families/individuals heal and flourish. I will help you tap into the skills and tools you need to live your best life. Together you will realize your strength and call upon your courage to be filled up and live a life poured out.
(229) 261-1018 View (229) 261-1018
Photo of J. J. Widener, Marriage & Family Therapist in 31792, GA
J. J. Widener
Marriage & Family Therapist, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792
Waitlist for new clients
Up front, I'm not the therapist for everyone. I don't have a flowery sales pitch about self-fulfillment and safe spaces, I'll probably be wearing an old t-shirt and jeans, I encourage expressive profanity, and I have more tattoos than your average therapist. Most of my caseload is trauma and PTSD. Much of the trauma work involves complex trauma with co-occurring dissociation, personality disorders, substance abuse, and anger. My work with trauma clients includes adult and adolescent survivors of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, both active duty and retired military personnel, and first responders.
Up front, I'm not the therapist for everyone. I don't have a flowery sales pitch about self-fulfillment and safe spaces, I'll probably be wearing an old t-shirt and jeans, I encourage expressive profanity, and I have more tattoos than your average therapist. Most of my caseload is trauma and PTSD. Much of the trauma work involves complex trauma with co-occurring dissociation, personality disorders, substance abuse, and anger. My work with trauma clients includes adult and adolescent survivors of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, both active duty and retired military personnel, and first responders.
(678) 719-0929 View (678) 719-0929
Photo of Shannon P Williams, Licensed Professional Counselor in 31792, GA
Shannon P Williams
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSP, LPC
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
Shannon is a Licensed Professional Counselor in multiple settings. He has extensive experience with multiple age groups, genders and nationalities. Shannon maintains critical and creative thinking skills essential to counseling and therapy. He is inventive in the implementation of new ideas and or initiatives, with a focus on client interaction. Shannon has worked in a Home for troubled youth, a Church youth counselor for over five years, as well with the elementary, teen, adult, elderly, disabled, and substance abuse populations. Shannon is a strong communicator, listener and motivator. Shannon considers helping others his "passion and gift".
Shannon is a Licensed Professional Counselor in multiple settings. He has extensive experience with multiple age groups, genders and nationalities. Shannon maintains critical and creative thinking skills essential to counseling and therapy. He is inventive in the implementation of new ideas and or initiatives, with a focus on client interaction. Shannon has worked in a Home for troubled youth, a Church youth counselor for over five years, as well with the elementary, teen, adult, elderly, disabled, and substance abuse populations. Shannon is a strong communicator, listener and motivator. Shannon considers helping others his "passion and gift".
(229) 798-4971 View (229) 798-4971
Photo of Ana Serena Weeks, Counselor in 31792, GA
Ana Serena Weeks
Counselor, MS, NCC, LMHCI, LAPC
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
I have significant experience working with women with addiction issues and trauma. I look forward to collaborating with you by offering support, compassion, and strategies to aid you in your journey. I have a keen interest in working with persons who have experienced sexual trauma as well as trauma as a result of medical and/or dental procedures.
I have significant experience working with women with addiction issues and trauma. I look forward to collaborating with you by offering support, compassion, and strategies to aid you in your journey. I have a keen interest in working with persons who have experienced sexual trauma as well as trauma as a result of medical and/or dental procedures.
(229) 304-2173 View (229) 304-2173
Photo of Rosemary R Gamin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 31792, GA
Rosemary R Gamin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
Rosemary is honored to walk alongside another person in their pursuit of personal, relational, spiritual growth, insight and healing. Rosemary specializes in women's issues, working with both adults and adolescents, with treatment goals that address trauma resolution, eating disorders, relationship strain, and areas that affect overall mental health. She also has significant experience working with couples and families to promote healthy communication, relational healing and connection. In compliance with the No Surprises Act, consumers have the right to receive a Good Faith Estimate upon the start of treatment.
Rosemary is honored to walk alongside another person in their pursuit of personal, relational, spiritual growth, insight and healing. Rosemary specializes in women's issues, working with both adults and adolescents, with treatment goals that address trauma resolution, eating disorders, relationship strain, and areas that affect overall mental health. She also has significant experience working with couples and families to promote healthy communication, relational healing and connection. In compliance with the No Surprises Act, consumers have the right to receive a Good Faith Estimate upon the start of treatment.
(229) 658-4699 View (229) 658-4699
Lori L Nelson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
I consider it an honor to be a counselor -- to help a person gain greater freedom, integration, and connectedness. I will provide my expertise, compassion, and steady support; I look for you to bring your openness and faith in your own renewal.
I consider it an honor to be a counselor -- to help a person gain greater freedom, integration, and connectedness. I will provide my expertise, compassion, and steady support; I look for you to bring your openness and faith in your own renewal.
(229) 234-1881 View (229) 234-1881
Photo of Yoheved Arzi, Marriage & Family Therapist in 31792, GA
Yoheved Arzi
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MS
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
ASSISTING INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES,CHILDREN,WHO STRUGGLE WITH DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, GRIEF & LOSS, TRAUMA, RELATIONSHIPS, COMMUNICATION, MARITAL PROBLEMS, DIVORCE, PARENTING, ADOPTION, SEXUALITY,ADHD, CHRONIC PAIN. http://yochevetnovels.com/?page_id=21
ASSISTING INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES,CHILDREN,WHO STRUGGLE WITH DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, GRIEF & LOSS, TRAUMA, RELATIONSHIPS, COMMUNICATION, MARITAL PROBLEMS, DIVORCE, PARENTING, ADOPTION, SEXUALITY,ADHD, CHRONIC PAIN. http://yochevetnovels.com/?page_id=21
(229) 234-2191 View (229) 234-2191
Photo of Claire E Brown, Psychologist in 31792, GA
Claire E Brown
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
If you are seeking a therapist for help with psychological or neuropsychological problems including depression, relationship conflict , fear and anxiety, work issues, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, or other psychological, neuropsychological, or emotional difficulties, I am happy to meet with you to explore possibilities for work together. I offer psychotherapy from an eclectic perspective drawing primarily from object relations, cognitive, and neuropsychodynamic approaches.
If you are seeking a therapist for help with psychological or neuropsychological problems including depression, relationship conflict , fear and anxiety, work issues, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, or other psychological, neuropsychological, or emotional difficulties, I am happy to meet with you to explore possibilities for work together. I offer psychotherapy from an eclectic perspective drawing primarily from object relations, cognitive, and neuropsychodynamic approaches.
(229) 473-0926 View (229) 473-0926
Photo of Amanda Renee Parparian, Art Therapist in 31792, GA
Amanda Renee Parparian
Art Therapist, ATR-P
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
Welcome to my page. It is so important to find a therapist you feel is a good fit for you! As an art therapist, I'm passionate about fostering a nurturing and inclusive space where individuals can embark on a creative journey of self-discovery and healing. I understand that each person's path is unique, and I celebrate the diverse ways in which thoughts, feelings, and experiences are expressed through art. My approach is rooted in neurodiversity-affirming principles, recognizing and honoring the strengths and perspectives of each individual.
Welcome to my page. It is so important to find a therapist you feel is a good fit for you! As an art therapist, I'm passionate about fostering a nurturing and inclusive space where individuals can embark on a creative journey of self-discovery and healing. I understand that each person's path is unique, and I celebrate the diverse ways in which thoughts, feelings, and experiences are expressed through art. My approach is rooted in neurodiversity-affirming principles, recognizing and honoring the strengths and perspectives of each individual.
(850) 752-1059 View (850) 752-1059
Photo of Dr. Sherry L Aaker, Licensed Professional Counselor in 31792, GA
Dr. Sherry L Aaker
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
Empower your journey to mental health wellness with expert guidance, as I am accepting new clients for counseling to ensure a seamless experience for healing. If you need help healing and moving forward with all life has to offer, such as with getting older, life changes, anxiety, depression, or trauma, I can help you with dealing with pain, sadness, loneliness, or anxiety. Remember, you are not alone.
Empower your journey to mental health wellness with expert guidance, as I am accepting new clients for counseling to ensure a seamless experience for healing. If you need help healing and moving forward with all life has to offer, such as with getting older, life changes, anxiety, depression, or trauma, I can help you with dealing with pain, sadness, loneliness, or anxiety. Remember, you are not alone.
(229) 999-4652 View (229) 999-4652
Photo of Take Flight Counseling & Consulting, LLC, Counselor in 31792, GA
Take Flight Counseling & Consulting, LLC
Counselor, LMHC, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
You DESERVE to Re-SET, To Re-FUEL, To Re-CHARGE. And then TAKE FLIGHT! Since entering the field of therapy I have learned to ascribe to the adage “all behavior has meaning.” Yes, ALL behavior. A deep curiosity for why we all act and think the way we do coupled with my own life’s challenges and experiences has led me to a place of compassion for not only my own life choices, but compassion for others. Our thoughts lead to feelings, which leads to action. We are not always proud of our actions. This is a no judgement zone and if you are seeking a different feeling and action in your life then you have landed at the right place!
You DESERVE to Re-SET, To Re-FUEL, To Re-CHARGE. And then TAKE FLIGHT! Since entering the field of therapy I have learned to ascribe to the adage “all behavior has meaning.” Yes, ALL behavior. A deep curiosity for why we all act and think the way we do coupled with my own life’s challenges and experiences has led me to a place of compassion for not only my own life choices, but compassion for others. Our thoughts lead to feelings, which leads to action. We are not always proud of our actions. This is a no judgement zone and if you are seeking a different feeling and action in your life then you have landed at the right place!
(772) 238-6118 View (772) 238-6118
Photo of Michelle Alden Counseling Services, Licensed Professional Counselor in 31792, GA
Michelle Alden Counseling Services
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC, CAMS, II
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
I am a fully licensed, bilingual clinician working with a diverse population. Since 2010, I have worked with Adolescents and Children as well as with families, and groups. The populations were diverse anywhere from depression, multiple personalities, trauma victims, alcohol abuse, physical/emotional and sexual abuse, anxiety, anger management, self-mutilators, bipolar, bullying victims, OCD, conduct/Oppositional, some eating disorders, grief self-esteem to name a few.
I am a fully licensed, bilingual clinician working with a diverse population. Since 2010, I have worked with Adolescents and Children as well as with families, and groups. The populations were diverse anywhere from depression, multiple personalities, trauma victims, alcohol abuse, physical/emotional and sexual abuse, anxiety, anger management, self-mutilators, bipolar, bullying victims, OCD, conduct/Oppositional, some eating disorders, grief self-esteem to name a few.
(844) 842-2462 View (844) 842-2462
Louisa H Martin
Marriage & Family Therapist, MEd, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792
I would love an opportunity to walk with you through the trials you are facing. You are unique, and should choose someone whose approach and values are a good fit. Your family, friends, and faith can be sources of great support, but also of deep pain at times. The way through may not be easy, but there IS HOPE! When life seems to be falling apart, you need a safe place to share your burdens and find that grace, mercy, and reconciliation are more than just words. I consider my office a "toxic waste dump"... and God recycles!
I would love an opportunity to walk with you through the trials you are facing. You are unique, and should choose someone whose approach and values are a good fit. Your family, friends, and faith can be sources of great support, but also of deep pain at times. The way through may not be easy, but there IS HOPE! When life seems to be falling apart, you need a safe place to share your burdens and find that grace, mercy, and reconciliation are more than just words. I consider my office a "toxic waste dump"... and God recycles!
(850) 304-2031 View (850) 304-2031
Photo of Kathryn Scrivener, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 31792, GA
Kathryn Scrivener
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792
Life can take us to places we don't want to go, and give us an education for which we did not want to pay. I understand this and can help you navigate life's uncertainties. I have assisted clients learn to love themselves, find the resources they need, and heal from the situations life brings to us. I offer a compassionate and non-judgmental safe place to explore, process, and heal. You might not feel like it, but you are stronger than you know. I will be your biggest cheerleader, your advocate, your support in times of stress. I will also challenge the old ways of thinking and doing things.
Life can take us to places we don't want to go, and give us an education for which we did not want to pay. I understand this and can help you navigate life's uncertainties. I have assisted clients learn to love themselves, find the resources they need, and heal from the situations life brings to us. I offer a compassionate and non-judgmental safe place to explore, process, and heal. You might not feel like it, but you are stronger than you know. I will be your biggest cheerleader, your advocate, your support in times of stress. I will also challenge the old ways of thinking and doing things.
(850) 318-8460 View (850) 318-8460
Photo of Nicole Washington Gatlin, Counselor in 31792, GA
Nicole Washington Gatlin
Counselor, LPC, RPT-S, NCACII, CEAP, CCS
Verified Verified
Thomasville, GA 31792
I believe that everyone was born with the ability to live a rewarding life. In my work I strive to assist individuals in identifying and bringing this ability to the forefront. Through a partnership of commitment we can explore the avenue to healing
I believe that everyone was born with the ability to live a rewarding life. In my work I strive to assist individuals in identifying and bringing this ability to the forefront. Through a partnership of commitment we can explore the avenue to healing
(229) 228-5545 View (229) 228-5545
Photo of Angela Durant Turner, Counselor in 31792, GA
Angela Durant Turner
Counselor, LMHC, NCC, BCC, EdS, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Thomasville, GA 31792  (Online Only)
I offer help for a wide variety of situations in your life or the life of a loved one. My practice is limited to teletherapy ONLY. I take insurance that allows for teletherapy or you can pay out-of-pocket ($100 all appts.). I see adults 18+ years old. I provide help for adjustment issues, life coaching, parenting, & many additional concerns. I am a licensed mental health counselor (DOH MH11535), National Certified Counselor (NBCC 242003), & a Board Certified Life Coach (CCE 1980). Please email or text me for an appointment. Thank you & I look forward to meeting you.
I offer help for a wide variety of situations in your life or the life of a loved one. My practice is limited to teletherapy ONLY. I take insurance that allows for teletherapy or you can pay out-of-pocket ($100 all appts.). I see adults 18+ years old. I provide help for adjustment issues, life coaching, parenting, & many additional concerns. I am a licensed mental health counselor (DOH MH11535), National Certified Counselor (NBCC 242003), & a Board Certified Life Coach (CCE 1980). Please email or text me for an appointment. Thank you & I look forward to meeting you.
(850) 564-8586 View (850) 564-8586

See more therapy options for 31792

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 31792

20+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 31792 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
88% Depression
80% Trauma and PTSD
68% Grief
64% Self Esteem
60% Relationship Issues
60% Anger Management

Average years in practice

18 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
71% BlueCross and BlueShield
65% Aetna

How Therapists in 31792 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

87% Female
13% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 31792?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.