Photo of Dr. Adeline McTavous - Emotional Wellness Counseling LLC, PhD, LPC, LMHC, CCS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Emotional Wellness Counseling LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, LMHC, CCS
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Emotional Wellness is the ability to deal and cope with unforeseen challenges that may suddenly affect a person's life. With the impact of social media, unpredictable disasters, losses and uncertainties, we are often left wondering what is going to happen next . My goal is to teach you skills, to reduce your feelings of fear, depression, anxiety, as you work through losses, trauma, and relationship challenges, my ultimate goal is equip you with skills to cope in a world that is filled with uncertainties. I am committed to providing you with the highest level of care, and I welcome the opportunity to work with you and your family.
Emotional Wellness is the ability to deal and cope with unforeseen challenges that may suddenly affect a person's life. With the impact of social media, unpredictable disasters, losses and uncertainties, we are often left wondering what is going to happen next . My goal is to teach you skills, to reduce your feelings of fear, depression, anxiety, as you work through losses, trauma, and relationship challenges, my ultimate goal is equip you with skills to cope in a world that is filled with uncertainties. I am committed to providing you with the highest level of care, and I welcome the opportunity to work with you and your family.
(912) 400-0442 View (912) 400-0442
Photo of Ellinor Rozecki Burke, PhD, Psychologist
Ellinor Rozecki Burke
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
I'm a psychologist licensed in the state of Georgia. I've been in practice for more than 20 years and I've struggled with some of the same issues many of you do. I have developed effective treatments for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder because I have dealt with this disorder myself. If you're looking for an effective treatment I have one. It's an approach that uses cognitive behavioral therapy. Many of us are worriers and have anxiety related to this. Anxiety can have a draining effect on your life but it is treatable. This is your opportunity to get help so that you can have the life you deserve.
I'm a psychologist licensed in the state of Georgia. I've been in practice for more than 20 years and I've struggled with some of the same issues many of you do. I have developed effective treatments for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder because I have dealt with this disorder myself. If you're looking for an effective treatment I have one. It's an approach that uses cognitive behavioral therapy. Many of us are worriers and have anxiety related to this. Anxiety can have a draining effect on your life but it is treatable. This is your opportunity to get help so that you can have the life you deserve.
(609) 323-5663 View (609) 323-5663
Photo of Nannette Marie Brannon, LPC, NCC, CPCS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nannette Marie Brannon
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CPCS
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
I have over 18 years' experience providing counseling to adult, children, and families. I have experience with military issues. also have experience dealing with grief counseling. I have also provided counseling addictive issues. Individualize all counseling to meet the specific need of that person that I am counseling at the time.
I have over 18 years' experience providing counseling to adult, children, and families. I have experience with military issues. also have experience dealing with grief counseling. I have also provided counseling addictive issues. Individualize all counseling to meet the specific need of that person that I am counseling at the time.
(912) 324-7890 View (912) 324-7890
Photo of Christi Johnson Hedgepeth, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Christi Johnson Hedgepeth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Change only occurs in chaos or crisis. If everything is ok, why change? If you are uncomfortable in your life because of your job, your relationships, or even yourself, I challenge you to lean into the discomfort. Can you imagine walking into a room and feeling completely at peace and authentically you? If you can’t imagine this life, you are missing out on the authenticity of it all!
Change only occurs in chaos or crisis. If everything is ok, why change? If you are uncomfortable in your life because of your job, your relationships, or even yourself, I challenge you to lean into the discomfort. Can you imagine walking into a room and feeling completely at peace and authentically you? If you can’t imagine this life, you are missing out on the authenticity of it all!
(912) 452-5921 View (912) 452-5921
Photo of Patricia Jackson Whalen, LPC, NCC, CST, Licensed Professional Counselor
Patricia Jackson Whalen
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CST
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Are you searching for a counselor because it feels like your life is falling apart? Well, you are not alone. You may have experienced a difficult childhood and convinced yourself “It’s in the past…It was no big deal.” Except, it is a big deal because, the past affects our present. Shame convinces individuals that they are bad instead of understanding that something bad happened. Having a counselor that can listen with an open mind and heart, and validate your pain is a start. I too have been where you are. I know how to walk beside you in your journey of healing and restoration.
Are you searching for a counselor because it feels like your life is falling apart? Well, you are not alone. You may have experienced a difficult childhood and convinced yourself “It’s in the past…It was no big deal.” Except, it is a big deal because, the past affects our present. Shame convinces individuals that they are bad instead of understanding that something bad happened. Having a counselor that can listen with an open mind and heart, and validate your pain is a start. I too have been where you are. I know how to walk beside you in your journey of healing and restoration.
(470) 252-4526 View (470) 252-4526
Photo of Molly McCue - Family Matters of Coastal Georgia Inc, LPC, CPCS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Family Matters of Coastal Georgia Inc
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CPCS
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
At Family Matters of Coastal Georgia, we understand the importance of mental health and the challenges that many individuals face in their day-to-day lives. We are here to provide you with a safe and supportive space to embark on your journey towards better mental well-being. Our team of highly trained and compassionate therapists is dedicated to helping you navigate through life's obstacles, offering guidance, support, and evidence-based therapies tailored to your unique needs.
At Family Matters of Coastal Georgia, we understand the importance of mental health and the challenges that many individuals face in their day-to-day lives. We are here to provide you with a safe and supportive space to embark on your journey towards better mental well-being. Our team of highly trained and compassionate therapists is dedicated to helping you navigate through life's obstacles, offering guidance, support, and evidence-based therapies tailored to your unique needs.
(912) 207-8265 View (912) 207-8265
Photo of Shanice Rice, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Shanice Rice
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
Are you feeling stuck mentally and emotionally? Are you struggling with your sense of self and finding ways to make yourself a priority without feeling like your letting down those closest to you? As a Licensed therapist, I specialize in helping adults transform their lives by addressing and identifying problematic patterns, traumas and stressors reducing their quality of life through both spiritual and therapeutic interventions. I believe that there's a you that you have yet to discover. My approach is individualized and I utilize CBT, Mindfulness, DBT to address things like anxiety, depression, identity, and grief.
Are you feeling stuck mentally and emotionally? Are you struggling with your sense of self and finding ways to make yourself a priority without feeling like your letting down those closest to you? As a Licensed therapist, I specialize in helping adults transform their lives by addressing and identifying problematic patterns, traumas and stressors reducing their quality of life through both spiritual and therapeutic interventions. I believe that there's a you that you have yet to discover. My approach is individualized and I utilize CBT, Mindfulness, DBT to address things like anxiety, depression, identity, and grief.
(912) 378-1521 View (912) 378-1521
Photo of Anna C Miller, LMHC, LPC, NBCC, MCAP, CRPS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Anna C Miller
Licensed Professional Counselor, LMHC, LPC, NBCC, MCAP, CRPS
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
I specialize in providing support and guidance for individuals facing a range of challenges, including anxiety, depression, life stressors, addiction, and trauma. Through a holistic and compassionate approach, I work with individuals to navigate their experiences, build coping strategies, and foster resilience. My expertise lies in creating a safe and non-judgmental space where individuals can explore their feelings, identify patterns, and work towards healing and growth. If you are seeking a supportive ally on your journey towards mental well-being, I am here to help.
I specialize in providing support and guidance for individuals facing a range of challenges, including anxiety, depression, life stressors, addiction, and trauma. Through a holistic and compassionate approach, I work with individuals to navigate their experiences, build coping strategies, and foster resilience. My expertise lies in creating a safe and non-judgmental space where individuals can explore their feelings, identify patterns, and work towards healing and growth. If you are seeking a supportive ally on your journey towards mental well-being, I am here to help.
(912) 372-5120 View (912) 372-5120
Photo of Alessandra Ellis-Lodmell - Redesign Your Life Counseling, LLC, LCSW, CAM-II, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Redesign Your Life Counseling, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAM-II
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
Life' s experiences can be both unexpectedly extraordinary or very painful, whether they are or not a result of our choices, both experiences can teach us lessons. The way we perceive these experiences can make us of brake us. This is why is so important to identify the silver lining of each event, even if you don't see it at this time. Whether you want to process trauma, learning coping skills, or reduce/manage distressful symptoms, reauthoring the narrative we tell ourselves can place you as the commander of your own life. We only have one life, live it at its full capacity.
Life' s experiences can be both unexpectedly extraordinary or very painful, whether they are or not a result of our choices, both experiences can teach us lessons. The way we perceive these experiences can make us of brake us. This is why is so important to identify the silver lining of each event, even if you don't see it at this time. Whether you want to process trauma, learning coping skills, or reduce/manage distressful symptoms, reauthoring the narrative we tell ourselves can place you as the commander of your own life. We only have one life, live it at its full capacity.
(912) 301-4686 View (912) 301-4686
Photo of Donna Thrash - Donna Thrash Counseling, MA, LMHC, LPC, Counselor
Donna Thrash Counseling
Counselor, MA, LMHC, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Overwhelmed? Overloaded? Maybe it's time to ask for help. Managing the uncertainty of work, struggling with the loneliness of remaining at home, transitioning back to work, feeling cut off from people and places that brought you comfort, can all trigger or worsen depression and anxiety and often leads to unhealthy coping habits such as isolating, overeating, drinking, internet use and more and can take a toll on your health, relationships and work performance. Probably you've tried on your own to feel better, my guess is that it has not worked. Or maybe has stopped working. Why wait for the world to change? Treatment works!
Overwhelmed? Overloaded? Maybe it's time to ask for help. Managing the uncertainty of work, struggling with the loneliness of remaining at home, transitioning back to work, feeling cut off from people and places that brought you comfort, can all trigger or worsen depression and anxiety and often leads to unhealthy coping habits such as isolating, overeating, drinking, internet use and more and can take a toll on your health, relationships and work performance. Probably you've tried on your own to feel better, my guess is that it has not worked. Or maybe has stopped working. Why wait for the world to change? Treatment works!
(321) 252-1868 View (321) 252-1868
Photo of Cassey Lyn St. Rose - Healing House Counseling , MEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Healing House Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Are you struggling with loneliness in your marriage? Do you want to connect with your spouse on a deeper more intimate level? I can help. I offer a faith-based approach to healing. I believe marriages are worth saving and healing from self-destructive behaviors is possible.
Are you struggling with loneliness in your marriage? Do you want to connect with your spouse on a deeper more intimate level? I can help. I offer a faith-based approach to healing. I believe marriages are worth saving and healing from self-destructive behaviors is possible.
(912) 405-9791 View (912) 405-9791
Photo of Ciara Jenkins, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ciara Jenkins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
Do you feel like you're doing the emotional equivalent of a hamster on a wheel, turning worries over and over again inside your head? Let's work together to break that cycle and get you moving forward.
Do you feel like you're doing the emotional equivalent of a hamster on a wheel, turning worries over and over again inside your head? Let's work together to break that cycle and get you moving forward.
View
Laurie Fairall
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
In the busy world of today, it can be difficult to "make it all work." I strive to help my clients and their families find balance, harmony and success in a way that leaves each person feeling complete, fulfilled and worthy of the happiness they have earned. Whether it's keeping your marriage on track, raising healthy, well-adjusted children or caring for loved ones in need...it is my goal to help you reach optimal satisfaction by addressing the issues that matter most...to you!
In the busy world of today, it can be difficult to "make it all work." I strive to help my clients and their families find balance, harmony and success in a way that leaves each person feeling complete, fulfilled and worthy of the happiness they have earned. Whether it's keeping your marriage on track, raising healthy, well-adjusted children or caring for loved ones in need...it is my goal to help you reach optimal satisfaction by addressing the issues that matter most...to you!
(904) 209-9614 View (904) 209-9614
Photo of Richard Soper, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Richard Soper
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
My name is Richard Soper and I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I've been in practice for 7 years helping patients with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, and coping with diabetes. I believe that by acknowledging and nurturing our talents and positive attributes we can outgrow any problem. I use a variety of Strengths-Based Techniques and Cognitive Therapies (CBT, CT-R).
My name is Richard Soper and I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I've been in practice for 7 years helping patients with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, and coping with diabetes. I believe that by acknowledging and nurturing our talents and positive attributes we can outgrow any problem. I use a variety of Strengths-Based Techniques and Cognitive Therapies (CBT, CT-R).
(404) 923-8306 View (404) 923-8306
Photo of Valery Dickinson, MS, LPC, CHT, RT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Valery Dickinson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CHT, RT
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Hello there! Here is the message to my new clients: I want you to be happy and succeed. I want you to know it is very possible and all I need from you is your willingness to do the work - a little  but consistent work under my supervision. Allow me to guide you in the process. Even professional athletes are working constantly to maintain and improve their performance. I will teach you how to manage your emotions, your behavior, resolve past/childhood wounds and how to get the best out of yourself, your relationships and the life in general. I am here to teach you skills you will apply independently for the rest of your life.
Hello there! Here is the message to my new clients: I want you to be happy and succeed. I want you to know it is very possible and all I need from you is your willingness to do the work - a little  but consistent work under my supervision. Allow me to guide you in the process. Even professional athletes are working constantly to maintain and improve their performance. I will teach you how to manage your emotions, your behavior, resolve past/childhood wounds and how to get the best out of yourself, your relationships and the life in general. I am here to teach you skills you will apply independently for the rest of your life.
(678) 605-9935 View (678) 605-9935
Photo of Aneesah Landry, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Aneesah Landry
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
I'm Aneesah Landry, a licensed professional counseling in the state of Georgia. I mostly provide therapy based on the needs of the client. It is my goal to tailor the sessions to fit your desired goals in order to relieve or reduce the burden you may be feeling. I work with a variety of clients, but the majority of my clients suffer from anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse, or relationship issues. I am comfortable treating a variety of issues, but I love an opportunity to consult with you in order to see if I will be able to assist you.
I'm Aneesah Landry, a licensed professional counseling in the state of Georgia. I mostly provide therapy based on the needs of the client. It is my goal to tailor the sessions to fit your desired goals in order to relieve or reduce the burden you may be feeling. I work with a variety of clients, but the majority of my clients suffer from anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse, or relationship issues. I am comfortable treating a variety of issues, but I love an opportunity to consult with you in order to see if I will be able to assist you.
(470) 284-1611 View (470) 284-1611
Photo of Michael Gilliard II, LPC, NCC, CPCS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Michael Gilliard II
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CPCS
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Saint Marys, GA 31558  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
There may be something you’ve always wanted to do, but have not started or worked on it for some reason. Maybe you’ve realized that you need some assistance or feedback however, you don't feel comfortable sharing these issues within your circle. You don’t have to solve those problems alone. We can find a resolution together. It may be a motivational push, words of encouragement, exploring internal issues, or knowing someone will be holding you accountable which helps you work on improving. We’ll identify your goals, break them down, and do what is needed in order to help you work towards achieving them one step at a time.
There may be something you’ve always wanted to do, but have not started or worked on it for some reason. Maybe you’ve realized that you need some assistance or feedback however, you don't feel comfortable sharing these issues within your circle. You don’t have to solve those problems alone. We can find a resolution together. It may be a motivational push, words of encouragement, exploring internal issues, or knowing someone will be holding you accountable which helps you work on improving. We’ll identify your goals, break them down, and do what is needed in order to help you work towards achieving them one step at a time.
(912) 574-2658 View (912) 574-2658
Photo of Joanne Oestmann, EdD, LMHC, LPC, LPCS, Counselor
Joanne Oestmann
Counselor, EdD, LMHC, LPC, LPCS
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Want to learn new ways to strengthen your life skills and relationships? Bring more meaning to your life? You can begin a coaching journey to help you develop mindfulness, deepen relationships, strengthen communications, build parenting skills, and become a better you. Say YES to you today!
Want to learn new ways to strengthen your life skills and relationships? Bring more meaning to your life? You can begin a coaching journey to help you develop mindfulness, deepen relationships, strengthen communications, build parenting skills, and become a better you. Say YES to you today!
(904) 639-5548 View (904) 639-5548
Photo of Ara C. Trembly, MS, ACHt, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ara C. Trembly
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, ACHt, LPC
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Hello, I'm Ara Trembly, Licensed Professional Counselor, former Adjunct Professor at Cairn University's Institute for Higher Learning, and Board-Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist.. Are you (or someone you love) struggling with fears, depression, autism, ADHD, phobias, marriage issues, spiritual problems, destructive habits, academic/sports performance, self-confidence issues, divorce, adjustment disorders, sleep disturbances, pain management, or other life problems? If so, I have a variety of ways to help. I provide both counseling and clinical hypnotherapy from a Christian perspective.
Hello, I'm Ara Trembly, Licensed Professional Counselor, former Adjunct Professor at Cairn University's Institute for Higher Learning, and Board-Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist.. Are you (or someone you love) struggling with fears, depression, autism, ADHD, phobias, marriage issues, spiritual problems, destructive habits, academic/sports performance, self-confidence issues, divorce, adjustment disorders, sleep disturbances, pain management, or other life problems? If so, I have a variety of ways to help. I provide both counseling and clinical hypnotherapy from a Christian perspective.
(904) 572-1412 View (904) 572-1412
Photo of Kelly Sayers, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kelly Sayers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saint Marys, GA 31558
Are depression, anxiety or adjusting to new life changes weighing you down? You do not need to go thru this alone. How you are feeling right now can be changed. Often, we are uncomfortable taking the first step to speak to someone about our personal issues. However once coming to therapy many people find it comforting having a safe place to speak their mind, with a therapist who is there to listen and guide them. Please email me directly from my website as I have not been getting my emails from Psychology Today!
Are depression, anxiety or adjusting to new life changes weighing you down? You do not need to go thru this alone. How you are feeling right now can be changed. Often, we are uncomfortable taking the first step to speak to someone about our personal issues. However once coming to therapy many people find it comforting having a safe place to speak their mind, with a therapist who is there to listen and guide them. Please email me directly from my website as I have not been getting my emails from Psychology Today!
(904) 447-2781 View (904) 447-2781
1

See more therapy options for 31558

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 31558

30+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 31558 who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
88% Depression
82% Relationship Issues
82% Coping Skills
73% Self Esteem
73% Stress
70% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

92% Aetna
79% BlueCross and BlueShield
75% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 31558 see their clients

64% In Person and Online
36% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 31558?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.