Photo of Courtney Watson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Courtney Watson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPD, NCC
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
I want to provide a space to pause with you so you don't have to feel alone. My goal is to provide a safe space for you to unpack and process your thoughts and feelings, whether it be about a life transition, parenting your child or teen, or blending and merging families. I believe the therapeutic relationship is the most important aspect of therapy and I want to ensure that you feel safe and heard when we are in the same space together. I want you to be comfortable to tell your story so that I can help you build your individual strengths as well as learn effective coping skills to navigate the daily challenges of life.
I want to provide a space to pause with you so you don't have to feel alone. My goal is to provide a safe space for you to unpack and process your thoughts and feelings, whether it be about a life transition, parenting your child or teen, or blending and merging families. I believe the therapeutic relationship is the most important aspect of therapy and I want to ensure that you feel safe and heard when we are in the same space together. I want you to be comfortable to tell your story so that I can help you build your individual strengths as well as learn effective coping skills to navigate the daily challenges of life.
(470) 684-5316 View (470) 684-5316
Photo of April Noriega, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
April Noriega
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
April Noriega is a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Georgia and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. April has a long history of working with a diverse population of clients and disorders. As a military spouse, a mom of three, and a survivor of past trauma, April brings a wide array of skill sets and real-world experiences. Her hope is through therapy, you will see improvements and gain the tools you need to benefit your journey to a healthier you. April has worked with clients of all ages and has worked in private practice, in-home settings, in clinics, and via telehealth.
April Noriega is a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Georgia and a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. April has a long history of working with a diverse population of clients and disorders. As a military spouse, a mom of three, and a survivor of past trauma, April brings a wide array of skill sets and real-world experiences. Her hope is through therapy, you will see improvements and gain the tools you need to benefit your journey to a healthier you. April has worked with clients of all ages and has worked in private practice, in-home settings, in clinics, and via telehealth.
(770) 230-5525 View (770) 230-5525
Photo of Chrissy McClain Miller, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Chrissy McClain Miller
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
During this time of uncertainty, are you struggling to remain calm, confident, and positive? While keeping your social distance, are you feeling disconnected? I would love to become a resource during this time of chaos. For a period, I am offering reduced rates in order to provide the care that you need during this time.
During this time of uncertainty, are you struggling to remain calm, confident, and positive? While keeping your social distance, are you feeling disconnected? I would love to become a resource during this time of chaos. For a period, I am offering reduced rates in order to provide the care that you need during this time.
(770) 765-2399 View (770) 765-2399
Photo of Hannah Onians, Counselor in 30341, GA
Hannah Onians
Counselor, MS, NCC, APC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chamblee, GA 30341
With a heart-centered presence, I welcome in clients that are curious to deepen relationship with themselves in an empowered, gentle, and compassionate way. I offer a collaborative, warm space that is focused on cultivating a sense of safety and empathetic understanding as we move through what naturally arises in therapy. I work with recovery from sexual abuse, exploring sexuality, childhood trauma, loneliness and shyness, existential issues, grief, emotional abuse, and ptsd symptoms.
With a heart-centered presence, I welcome in clients that are curious to deepen relationship with themselves in an empowered, gentle, and compassionate way. I offer a collaborative, warm space that is focused on cultivating a sense of safety and empathetic understanding as we move through what naturally arises in therapy. I work with recovery from sexual abuse, exploring sexuality, childhood trauma, loneliness and shyness, existential issues, grief, emotional abuse, and ptsd symptoms.
(770) 758-5908 View (770) 758-5908
Photo of Michael E Stoneking in 30341, GA
Michael E Stoneking
PhD, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
I DO NOT CHARGE A FEE FOR ANY OF MY SERVICES; donations are appreciated with no expectations . I am well experienced in all areas of Counseling ,. Treatment is individualized and structured for your specific issue The client and myself together develops an individualized plan. I work by listening, hearing and helping my client gain a deeper understanding of obstacles, which are causing repeating patterns of negative behavior,and how to overcome struggles. My clients find me engaging and sensitive to their issues. Phone sessions and E-life advisement for those too busy , or desiring anonymity !
I DO NOT CHARGE A FEE FOR ANY OF MY SERVICES; donations are appreciated with no expectations . I am well experienced in all areas of Counseling ,. Treatment is individualized and structured for your specific issue The client and myself together develops an individualized plan. I work by listening, hearing and helping my client gain a deeper understanding of obstacles, which are causing repeating patterns of negative behavior,and how to overcome struggles. My clients find me engaging and sensitive to their issues. Phone sessions and E-life advisement for those too busy , or desiring anonymity !
(404) 500-8652 View (404) 500-8652
Photo of Jamila K Harleston, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Jamila K Harleston
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, CAADC, MAC, LPC
Verified Verified
Chamblee, GA 30341  (Online Only)
Are you stuck? Do you experience depression, anxiety, difficulty navigating life's challenges? Do you want to live a life of meaning and abundance? Let me help you.
Are you stuck? Do you experience depression, anxiety, difficulty navigating life's challenges? Do you want to live a life of meaning and abundance? Let me help you.
(770) 758-6672 View (770) 758-6672
Photo of Grant D. Sparks, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Grant D. Sparks
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CGT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chamblee, GA 30341  (Online Only)
Do you love video games? Comic books? Dungeons and Dragons? Do feel nervous or afraid all the time? Or sad, disconnected? Have you ever felt like an outcast, misfit, or weirdo? Have you ever asked yourself "Is any of this even real?" or "Am I an NPC?" If so, you may have just found your therapist. I work with geeks, nerds, dorks, and dweebs, LGBTQIA folx, the Kink and Polyamory/ENM communities and people of all cultures and spiritualities. So let's play Minecraft while you process, write fanfic about overcoming adversity, or if you're brave, use Dark Souls to practice coping with big emotions. Makes therapy sound kinda fun, right?
Do you love video games? Comic books? Dungeons and Dragons? Do feel nervous or afraid all the time? Or sad, disconnected? Have you ever felt like an outcast, misfit, or weirdo? Have you ever asked yourself "Is any of this even real?" or "Am I an NPC?" If so, you may have just found your therapist. I work with geeks, nerds, dorks, and dweebs, LGBTQIA folx, the Kink and Polyamory/ENM communities and people of all cultures and spiritualities. So let's play Minecraft while you process, write fanfic about overcoming adversity, or if you're brave, use Dark Souls to practice coping with big emotions. Makes therapy sound kinda fun, right?
(678) 928-5779 View (678) 928-5779
Photo of Tieshekia Fowlks, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Tieshekia Fowlks
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341
We all have areas where we want to improve and better ourselves. As a therapist, I am honored to help others find those areas where they are experiencing distress or discomfort, and then identify the barriers to change. My hope is to help you find personal empowerment and relief through a solution focused approach. My philosophy of therapy is focused on finding a way forward and becoming your best personal self.
We all have areas where we want to improve and better ourselves. As a therapist, I am honored to help others find those areas where they are experiencing distress or discomfort, and then identify the barriers to change. My hope is to help you find personal empowerment and relief through a solution focused approach. My philosophy of therapy is focused on finding a way forward and becoming your best personal self.
(404) 468-4558 View (404) 468-4558
Photo of Meade Fields, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Meade Fields
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341
Working from a person-centered perspective, I believe that the therapeutic relationship is one of the most important components for change. I offer an empathic space to explore your goals toward recovery. I use a variety of theoretical approaches, including CBT, existential, and interpersonal therapies. Specializing in eating disorders, I begin the therapeutic relationship by meeting clients where they are in the recovery process. I understand that the development of an eating disorder is complex, and that there is no "one size fits all" approach to treatment. I can help you learn positive coping skills and address body image, identity, and self-esteem issues.
Working from a person-centered perspective, I believe that the therapeutic relationship is one of the most important components for change. I offer an empathic space to explore your goals toward recovery. I use a variety of theoretical approaches, including CBT, existential, and interpersonal therapies. Specializing in eating disorders, I begin the therapeutic relationship by meeting clients where they are in the recovery process. I understand that the development of an eating disorder is complex, and that there is no "one size fits all" approach to treatment. I can help you learn positive coping skills and address body image, identity, and self-esteem issues.
(770) 285-5675 View (770) 285-5675
Photo of Jennifer Paveglio, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30341, GA
Jennifer Paveglio
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
Welcome. Here is a little something about me. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) in Georgia and Florida with 13 years of clinical experience, currently working with clients statewide via telehealth. I believe in treating everyone with genuine care, absolute respect, acceptance, and compassion. Taking the first step in seeking healing and a more fulfilling, happier life takes courage. I am here to support you in that process.
Welcome. Here is a little something about me. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) in Georgia and Florida with 13 years of clinical experience, currently working with clients statewide via telehealth. I believe in treating everyone with genuine care, absolute respect, acceptance, and compassion. Taking the first step in seeking healing and a more fulfilling, happier life takes courage. I am here to support you in that process.
(404) 737-0942 View (404) 737-0942
Photo of Amanda Kriegel, Psychologist in 30341, GA
Amanda Kriegel
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
I specialize in supporting children and families using a strength-based approach. I believe in neurodiversity and that there is not a "one size fits all" intervention. I work with children, adolescents, young adults ,and late diagnosed adults who have been diagnosed with Autism, Sensory Processing Disorder, Developmental Disabilities, ADHD and/or Anxiety. I help families to see their child's potential and advocate for education services.
I specialize in supporting children and families using a strength-based approach. I believe in neurodiversity and that there is not a "one size fits all" intervention. I work with children, adolescents, young adults ,and late diagnosed adults who have been diagnosed with Autism, Sensory Processing Disorder, Developmental Disabilities, ADHD and/or Anxiety. I help families to see their child's potential and advocate for education services.
(470) 236-5835 View (470) 236-5835
Photo of Enricka Maddox, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Enricka Maddox
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341  (Online Only)
I am Enricka Maddox, the founder of Morning Dew Family & Consulting Services in Georgia and a Licensed Professional Counselor (2014) and a specialized coach. I have a Master of Arts Degree in Professional Counseling and for 20+ years, I have worked in various social service sectors. I specialize in providing adults with individual therapy to address self esteem, anxiety, low moods, and manage stress/embrace healthy coping strategies to deal with life transitions, women issues, educator's self-care, work/life balance, life fulfillment/satisfaction, boundary setting, fertility challenges, and pre/post cosmetic surgical procedures.
I am Enricka Maddox, the founder of Morning Dew Family & Consulting Services in Georgia and a Licensed Professional Counselor (2014) and a specialized coach. I have a Master of Arts Degree in Professional Counseling and for 20+ years, I have worked in various social service sectors. I specialize in providing adults with individual therapy to address self esteem, anxiety, low moods, and manage stress/embrace healthy coping strategies to deal with life transitions, women issues, educator's self-care, work/life balance, life fulfillment/satisfaction, boundary setting, fertility challenges, and pre/post cosmetic surgical procedures.
(678) 679-6149 View (678) 679-6149
Photo of North Atlanta Psychotherapy, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
North Atlanta Psychotherapy
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341
It's not easy for men to ask for help. First, we have to admit that what we're doing isn't working and we can't fix it. So, I know it was difficult to begin the process of looking for the right therapist. "Who do I trust?" Will he understand the challenges I'm facing? With my relationship, my anxiety, my stress, my sexuality? With so many risks that come along with asking for help, no wonder men are substantially underserved in mental health - we aren't reaching out.
It's not easy for men to ask for help. First, we have to admit that what we're doing isn't working and we can't fix it. So, I know it was difficult to begin the process of looking for the right therapist. "Who do I trust?" Will he understand the challenges I'm facing? With my relationship, my anxiety, my stress, my sexuality? With so many risks that come along with asking for help, no wonder men are substantially underserved in mental health - we aren't reaching out.
(678) 369-4101 View (678) 369-4101
Photo of Tanesha Richards, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30341, GA
Tanesha Richards
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chamblee, GA 30341  (Online Only)
I love working with professionals in the throes of their careers as well as parents dealing with the stresses of everyday life including raising children, living with adult children or children with special needs, or dealing with aging parents. My clients desire to improve their circumstances, but do not have the resources to make their goals a reality (yet). They may feel stuck in a limited situation with their careers or family situation but yearn to address what is going on their own terms.
I love working with professionals in the throes of their careers as well as parents dealing with the stresses of everyday life including raising children, living with adult children or children with special needs, or dealing with aging parents. My clients desire to improve their circumstances, but do not have the resources to make their goals a reality (yet). They may feel stuck in a limited situation with their careers or family situation but yearn to address what is going on their own terms.
(678) 580-4306 View (678) 580-4306
Photo of Mary Lett, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30341, GA
Mary Lett
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Chamblee, GA 30341
Do you feel not good enough and like you have to be or appear perfect to be loved? Are you overwhelmed or tired and struggling with anxiety and sadness? Do you feel unsatisfied in life and lonely but also protective of your needs for quiet time as an introvert? You need a place where you can say absolutely anything. Where nothing is too big, or too small, to discuss. Where you can practice taking off the mask and just being you in all your messiness.
Do you feel not good enough and like you have to be or appear perfect to be loved? Are you overwhelmed or tired and struggling with anxiety and sadness? Do you feel unsatisfied in life and lonely but also protective of your needs for quiet time as an introvert? You need a place where you can say absolutely anything. Where nothing is too big, or too small, to discuss. Where you can practice taking off the mask and just being you in all your messiness.
(678) 582-8862 View (678) 582-8862
Photo of Elham Bagheri, Psychologist in 30341, GA
Elham Bagheri
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Chamblee, GA 30341
Not accepting new clients
You do not need to be fixed. You need to feel cared for, understood, and accepted, by yourself and others! These are core human needs and when they are met we are better equipped to feel authentic connections to ourselves and others, cope with distress, and find inner happiness. Within us lies incredible resources for healing and transformation. My goal is to foster an environment that activates your innate healing resources, leading to mental, emotional, and physical well being.
You do not need to be fixed. You need to feel cared for, understood, and accepted, by yourself and others! These are core human needs and when they are met we are better equipped to feel authentic connections to ourselves and others, cope with distress, and find inner happiness. Within us lies incredible resources for healing and transformation. My goal is to foster an environment that activates your innate healing resources, leading to mental, emotional, and physical well being.
(404) 975-2911 View (404) 975-2911
Photo of Daniel P. David, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30341, GA
Daniel P. David
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341  (Online Only)
When you're struggling with life-controlling problems, it's important to get the help that you need. I specialize in working with men from all backgrounds. I provide clients with a full range of therapy options as well as affordable fees. Your mental health and wellness begins by you taking the first step. Call me and we can begin your road to recovery today. I offer years of real world experiences outside of the therapist's consultation room. I have worked with all sorts men from adolescents to business professionals, medical professionals, lawyers, small business owners, young career seekers and senior statesmen.
When you're struggling with life-controlling problems, it's important to get the help that you need. I specialize in working with men from all backgrounds. I provide clients with a full range of therapy options as well as affordable fees. Your mental health and wellness begins by you taking the first step. Call me and we can begin your road to recovery today. I offer years of real world experiences outside of the therapist's consultation room. I have worked with all sorts men from adolescents to business professionals, medical professionals, lawyers, small business owners, young career seekers and senior statesmen.
(770) 450-5610 View (770) 450-5610
Photo of Kim Tate, LPC, MAC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30341, GA
Kim Tate, LPC, MAC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341
Are you tired of feeling like things aren't getting better? I'm a licensed professional counselor who has a passion for helping others take that initial step toward personal growth and change. I have a master's degree in counseling with a master's certification in addiction to address substance abuse issues, and teach coping skills to manage daily life stressors. I'm trained in multiple disciplines such as CBT, DBT, and Attachment Styles to help with Trauma and other personal issues. Never lose hope. Life is a journey, start yours today!
Are you tired of feeling like things aren't getting better? I'm a licensed professional counselor who has a passion for helping others take that initial step toward personal growth and change. I have a master's degree in counseling with a master's certification in addiction to address substance abuse issues, and teach coping skills to manage daily life stressors. I'm trained in multiple disciplines such as CBT, DBT, and Attachment Styles to help with Trauma and other personal issues. Never lose hope. Life is a journey, start yours today!
(404) 800-6730 View (404) 800-6730
Photo of Xcel Arnold in 30341, GA
Xcel Arnold
MBA, BA
Verified Verified
Atlanta, GA 30341
I have a tremendous amount of success with dealing with clients, that have anxiety (diagnosed, diagnosed). The therapies that is used in our sessions are quite different than most mainstream psychologist. The goal is to help you become well overall and without dependence on medication. Coping strategies will be identified and you will leave sessions with a new awareness of issues that are problematic for you. We will engage in Client-Centered therapy; in such, I will personally help you navigate to help arrive to the best possible outcome for you. Consider me as your personal navigator!
I have a tremendous amount of success with dealing with clients, that have anxiety (diagnosed, diagnosed). The therapies that is used in our sessions are quite different than most mainstream psychologist. The goal is to help you become well overall and without dependence on medication. Coping strategies will be identified and you will leave sessions with a new awareness of issues that are problematic for you. We will engage in Client-Centered therapy; in such, I will personally help you navigate to help arrive to the best possible outcome for you. Consider me as your personal navigator!
(678) 264-3163 View (678) 264-3163
Photo of Shirsten Dreyer, Counselor in 30341, GA
Shirsten Dreyer
Counselor, LPC, CCTP, NCC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Atlanta, GA 30341
Life certainly takes unexpected turns! How, then, do we live balanced, authentic lives in the midst of intense stress, loss, and change? My goal is to help you examine, heal, grow, and gain perspective. Like peeling back layers of an onion, therapy provides clients the opportunity to see that many life events are interconnected by family patterns, past trauma, grief and loss, boundary issues, and learned coping strategies, to name a few. Therapy also gives clients opportunities to strategically prepare for the future, explore personal values and spirituality, strengthen relationships, and clarify goals.
Life certainly takes unexpected turns! How, then, do we live balanced, authentic lives in the midst of intense stress, loss, and change? My goal is to help you examine, heal, grow, and gain perspective. Like peeling back layers of an onion, therapy provides clients the opportunity to see that many life events are interconnected by family patterns, past trauma, grief and loss, boundary issues, and learned coping strategies, to name a few. Therapy also gives clients opportunities to strategically prepare for the future, explore personal values and spirituality, strengthen relationships, and clarify goals.
(678) 498-6234 View (678) 498-6234

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 30341

100+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in 30341 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
85% Depression
76% Coping Skills
75% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
68% Stress
63% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

87% Aetna
81% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
76% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in 30341 see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
16% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 30341?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.