Photo of Veronica Faith Lockridge, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Veronica Faith Lockridge
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CCM
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 14 years of experience. I am dedicated to providing a safe space for client's to process through major and minor life changes, discover new ways to help reduce anxiety and increase overall well being. One of my greatest passions is working with adolescents (ages 10 and up) and young adults. I believe in becoming the best version of yourself and have seen many clients thrive through our work together. I believe that my clients are the experts on their lives and I feel so grateful that they have chosen me to help guide them through various chapters of this life.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 14 years of experience. I am dedicated to providing a safe space for client's to process through major and minor life changes, discover new ways to help reduce anxiety and increase overall well being. One of my greatest passions is working with adolescents (ages 10 and up) and young adults. I believe in becoming the best version of yourself and have seen many clients thrive through our work together. I believe that my clients are the experts on their lives and I feel so grateful that they have chosen me to help guide them through various chapters of this life.
(770) 659-7785 View (770) 659-7785
Photo of Courtney Holmes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Courtney Holmes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
Courtney works with individuals who are looking to gain insight into themselves to improve their quality of life. She seeks to understand each individual holistically, including their backgrounds and the strengths they already possess to provide an individualized approach. Courtney believes in meeting people where they are and that establishing a strong alliance with her clients is essential to getting the most of out of therapy and creating lasting change. Through this alliance, she partners with her clients to explore and address thought and behavior patterns that serve as barriers to enjoying life fully.
Courtney works with individuals who are looking to gain insight into themselves to improve their quality of life. She seeks to understand each individual holistically, including their backgrounds and the strengths they already possess to provide an individualized approach. Courtney believes in meeting people where they are and that establishing a strong alliance with her clients is essential to getting the most of out of therapy and creating lasting change. Through this alliance, she partners with her clients to explore and address thought and behavior patterns that serve as barriers to enjoying life fully.
(470) 664-6954 View (470) 664-6954
Photo of Tiana Britton, Associate Professional Counselor in 30114, GA
Tiana Britton
Associate Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
Welcome to a sanctuary where empathy becomes transformation, the genesis of your healing journey. Here, I offer a haven for exploration, allowing you to delve into the core of your being, unraveling the 'why' behind your actions. As your guide, I specialize in accompanying those navigating the intricate realms of depression, anxiety, trauma, self-image concerns, and struggles with self-concept and self-efficacy. In our therapeutic space, I extend deep empathy and an authentic commitment to comprehend your unique experiences, honoring the entirety of who you are including unveiling your intrinsic worth.
Welcome to a sanctuary where empathy becomes transformation, the genesis of your healing journey. Here, I offer a haven for exploration, allowing you to delve into the core of your being, unraveling the 'why' behind your actions. As your guide, I specialize in accompanying those navigating the intricate realms of depression, anxiety, trauma, self-image concerns, and struggles with self-concept and self-efficacy. In our therapeutic space, I extend deep empathy and an authentic commitment to comprehend your unique experiences, honoring the entirety of who you are including unveiling your intrinsic worth.
(678) 293-9284 View (678) 293-9284
Photo of Jonathan House, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 30114, GA
Jonathan House
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CACII, BSPP, CES, ARBS
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
​I have been in the recovery field for 7 years and have seen a wide range of issues related to addiction. Addiction in itself can be a traumatic event as it causes us to go against our morals. Addiction often contributes to shame and can produce anger, anxiety, depression and other struggles. I have created individualized treatment plans for every issue my clients have presented with as related to addiction. Each client has a different set of issues, needs and goals so I take a person-centered approach to best meet those needs. It's important to identify our strengths and capitalize on these rather than focusing on the problem.
​I have been in the recovery field for 7 years and have seen a wide range of issues related to addiction. Addiction in itself can be a traumatic event as it causes us to go against our morals. Addiction often contributes to shame and can produce anger, anxiety, depression and other struggles. I have created individualized treatment plans for every issue my clients have presented with as related to addiction. Each client has a different set of issues, needs and goals so I take a person-centered approach to best meet those needs. It's important to identify our strengths and capitalize on these rather than focusing on the problem.
(470) 517-7747 View (470) 517-7747
Photo of Shae Chisman, Marriage & Family Therapist in 30114, GA
Shae Chisman
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Finding an inclusive, affirming, and radical therapist in the South can be disheartening. I am here to help marginalized/minority people and their relations to navigate the challenges our society places on them. As a mixed-Indigenous, queer, cisgender woman, I welcome adult clients who are exploring their multi-layered identity, navigating difficult family/community dynamics, searching for chosen family, and healing from past/current trauma. I warmly invite neurodiverse folks who want to empower themselves and learn more about their inherent strengths. I am kink and poly/nonmonogamy affirming too! All are welcome here.
Finding an inclusive, affirming, and radical therapist in the South can be disheartening. I am here to help marginalized/minority people and their relations to navigate the challenges our society places on them. As a mixed-Indigenous, queer, cisgender woman, I welcome adult clients who are exploring their multi-layered identity, navigating difficult family/community dynamics, searching for chosen family, and healing from past/current trauma. I warmly invite neurodiverse folks who want to empower themselves and learn more about their inherent strengths. I am kink and poly/nonmonogamy affirming too! All are welcome here.
(404) 476-7064 View (404) 476-7064
Photo of Jennifer O'gorman, Counselor in 30114, GA
Jennifer O'gorman
Counselor, APC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
Jennifer earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology from Nova Southeastern University. She is currently attending Southern New Hampshire University working towards her Master of Arts degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. Jennifer believes that there is a mind-body connection. She promotes positive self-talk, self-reflection, and self-awareness. She understands that developing healthy coping skills and reflecting on feelings can create a foundation for healthy change and growth.
Jennifer earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology from Nova Southeastern University. She is currently attending Southern New Hampshire University working towards her Master of Arts degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. Jennifer believes that there is a mind-body connection. She promotes positive self-talk, self-reflection, and self-awareness. She understands that developing healthy coping skills and reflecting on feelings can create a foundation for healthy change and growth.
(470) 748-0871 View (470) 748-0871
Photo of Kellye Mills, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30114, GA
Kellye Mills
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
Life does not come with an instruction manual. We all find ourselves at times feeling overwhelmed, lost, or in need to reconnect with ourselves and our goals and values. Whether you are dealing with a significant life issue or want to learn skills and techniques to help you better understand yourself, I will guide you through your individual process. Let's work together to evaluate what is working in your life and your strengths and areas you'd like to focus on to improve. Through a collaborative approach, we will create goals, and a pathway to enable you to become your best self!
Life does not come with an instruction manual. We all find ourselves at times feeling overwhelmed, lost, or in need to reconnect with ourselves and our goals and values. Whether you are dealing with a significant life issue or want to learn skills and techniques to help you better understand yourself, I will guide you through your individual process. Let's work together to evaluate what is working in your life and your strengths and areas you'd like to focus on to improve. Through a collaborative approach, we will create goals, and a pathway to enable you to become your best self!
(470) 236-5307 View (470) 236-5307
Photo of Lydia Bishop, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Lydia Bishop
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
Building a relationship is the core foundation for long lasting change in the therapeutic work. It is important to me that no matter my client's struggles, they feel safe in working with me. I work with clients dealing with many different kinds of struggles from anxiety, depression, family issues, divorce/separation, addiction, parenting struggles, and relationship issues. I have also worked with many clients around building self-esteem and self-love.
Building a relationship is the core foundation for long lasting change in the therapeutic work. It is important to me that no matter my client's struggles, they feel safe in working with me. I work with clients dealing with many different kinds of struggles from anxiety, depression, family issues, divorce/separation, addiction, parenting struggles, and relationship issues. I have also worked with many clients around building self-esteem and self-love.
(678) 647-6373 View (678) 647-6373
Photo of Penny Haynes, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 30114, GA
Penny Haynes
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CADC II, CAMS I
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
I guide Christians through the pain of their past so they can live in peace and joy in the present. I am a Licensed Pastoral Counselor, Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor, and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. I am the Director of Good Shepherd Recovery House for men and Ruth House Ministries for women. My husband and I pastor Ministry House (a Recovery-based church) and Celebrate Recovery (Christian 12-Step Program). I have decades of personal experience with depression, anxiety, codependency and eating disorders. I offer an affordable Online Counseling Membership Program at http://PennyHaynes.com.
I guide Christians through the pain of their past so they can live in peace and joy in the present. I am a Licensed Pastoral Counselor, Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor, and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. I am the Director of Good Shepherd Recovery House for men and Ruth House Ministries for women. My husband and I pastor Ministry House (a Recovery-based church) and Celebrate Recovery (Christian 12-Step Program). I have decades of personal experience with depression, anxiety, codependency and eating disorders. I offer an affordable Online Counseling Membership Program at http://PennyHaynes.com.
(770) 796-5289 View (770) 796-5289
Photo of Brittany Jourdan, Counselor in 30114, GA
Brittany Jourdan
Counselor, APC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
Brittany holds a Masters degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Capella University. With admiration for hard work and working together, Brittany creates a warm environment for clients to accomplish their goals. Brittany works with a diverse population, including children, adolescents, adults, and couples. Brittany has experience in anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and other severe and persistent mental illnesses. Using an empathic frame of mind, Brittany allows clients to develop and express goals. In addition to being empathic, Brittany understands the importance of genuineness and individuality.
Brittany holds a Masters degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Capella University. With admiration for hard work and working together, Brittany creates a warm environment for clients to accomplish their goals. Brittany works with a diverse population, including children, adolescents, adults, and couples. Brittany has experience in anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and other severe and persistent mental illnesses. Using an empathic frame of mind, Brittany allows clients to develop and express goals. In addition to being empathic, Brittany understands the importance of genuineness and individuality.
(470) 431-4385 View (470) 431-4385
Photo of Heather Fass, Marriage & Family Therapist in 30114, GA
Heather Fass
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
Do you feel stuck in your life or do you see your child struggling in theirs? Do you keep trying to find new ways to navigate your life or relationships but find yourself repeating the same cycles and struggling to move forward? If you are looking to make personal changes or think your teen could benefit from some therapeutic support, I'd like to be there to help with that process. Change isn't easy and sometimes people need someone that is outside of their daily world to share thoughts, feelings and problems with in order to gain insight about themselves and help them reach their goals. I'd like to be that person for you.
Do you feel stuck in your life or do you see your child struggling in theirs? Do you keep trying to find new ways to navigate your life or relationships but find yourself repeating the same cycles and struggling to move forward? If you are looking to make personal changes or think your teen could benefit from some therapeutic support, I'd like to be there to help with that process. Change isn't easy and sometimes people need someone that is outside of their daily world to share thoughts, feelings and problems with in order to gain insight about themselves and help them reach their goals. I'd like to be that person for you.
(404) 981-7534 View (404) 981-7534
Photo of Elizabeth D. Green, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Elizabeth D. Green
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Located off Riverstone in Canton I am also the Director of ATL Behavioral & Mental Health Counseling. Allow me to introduce proven interventions as well as real life wisdom. I am results oriented and am passionate about my work as a fully licensed therapist.
Located off Riverstone in Canton I am also the Director of ATL Behavioral & Mental Health Counseling. Allow me to introduce proven interventions as well as real life wisdom. I am results oriented and am passionate about my work as a fully licensed therapist.
(470) 660-4502 View (470) 660-4502
Photo of Angela Dixon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Angela Dixon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
Life can feel overwhelming sometimes. Do you struggle with anxiety, depression, a challenging relationship or a loss of a sense of self that affects how you function? Do you feel sad, exhausted or overwhelmed by how you are feeling? I believe that you can overcome your feelings and circumstances: it should not be so hard to live better, there is hope.
Life can feel overwhelming sometimes. Do you struggle with anxiety, depression, a challenging relationship or a loss of a sense of self that affects how you function? Do you feel sad, exhausted or overwhelmed by how you are feeling? I believe that you can overcome your feelings and circumstances: it should not be so hard to live better, there is hope.
(770) 562-7132 View (770) 562-7132
Photo of Kelsey Scott, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Kelsey Scott
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Hi, I’m so happy that you're here! Searching for a therapist and starting therapy can be so daunting. I am so proud of you for taking that first step! From the start of our journey together, I will be cheering you on. When you can’t find your hope, I’ll hold it for you. When we’re together, regardless if we are in the office or on Telehealth - this is a judgement free zone. You are in a safe space with me and there is no failing in our time together. We will focus on your strengths and use those to build a foundation for your challenges.
Hi, I’m so happy that you're here! Searching for a therapist and starting therapy can be so daunting. I am so proud of you for taking that first step! From the start of our journey together, I will be cheering you on. When you can’t find your hope, I’ll hold it for you. When we’re together, regardless if we are in the office or on Telehealth - this is a judgement free zone. You are in a safe space with me and there is no failing in our time together. We will focus on your strengths and use those to build a foundation for your challenges.
(770) 525-9379 View (770) 525-9379
Photo of Brooke Schafer, Pre-Licensed Professional in 30114, GA
Brooke Schafer
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Waitlist for new clients
Empowering young minds to thrive and flourish! As an MSW, I am driven by a profound passion for helping children grow and develop. With a focus on therapy, my mission is to equip your little ones with the essential tools to navigate the newness of each moment in their little lives successfully.
Empowering young minds to thrive and flourish! As an MSW, I am driven by a profound passion for helping children grow and develop. With a focus on therapy, my mission is to equip your little ones with the essential tools to navigate the newness of each moment in their little lives successfully.
(678) 872-2127 View (678) 872-2127
Photo of Devon A. Harness, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Devon A. Harness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Not accepting new clients
As a general practitioner, I am able to help with many problems, including stress, anxiety, depression, couples counseling. personal relationships, school or work performance, and other family problems.
As a general practitioner, I am able to help with many problems, including stress, anxiety, depression, couples counseling. personal relationships, school or work performance, and other family problems.
(678) 820-7795 View (678) 820-7795
Photo of Justin Carson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30114, GA
Justin Carson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
Not accepting new clients
I am temporarily not accepting new clients. Life inevitably presents us with challenges, some larger than others. It is how we tap into our resiliency and take ownership for our lives that determines how effective we feel. Everyone at one point or another experiences feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, confusion, isolation, anger, fear and anxiety. It is not about how we banish these feelings but rather how we learn to cope with them, forgive ourselves and others, and take control of our lives back.
I am temporarily not accepting new clients. Life inevitably presents us with challenges, some larger than others. It is how we tap into our resiliency and take ownership for our lives that determines how effective we feel. Everyone at one point or another experiences feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, confusion, isolation, anger, fear and anxiety. It is not about how we banish these feelings but rather how we learn to cope with them, forgive ourselves and others, and take control of our lives back.
(404) 609-1321 View (404) 609-1321
Photo of Jack Burns, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30114, GA
Jack Burns
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114
"Restoring Hope....Rebuilding Lives".....this is what I've helped others like you accomplish for thirty years. Whatever you're facing, I will help you to identify the problem, develop a game plan and then lead you toward the peace and happiness you desire. You must have a qualified, experienced and compassionate therapist in order to successfully overcome what's keeping you from living a happy, balanced life. I offer either Conventional or Christian counseling in a supportive and non-judgmental environment. Since 1987, I have been licensed in the State of Georgia as a LPC - Licensed Professional Counselor.
"Restoring Hope....Rebuilding Lives".....this is what I've helped others like you accomplish for thirty years. Whatever you're facing, I will help you to identify the problem, develop a game plan and then lead you toward the peace and happiness you desire. You must have a qualified, experienced and compassionate therapist in order to successfully overcome what's keeping you from living a happy, balanced life. I offer either Conventional or Christian counseling in a supportive and non-judgmental environment. Since 1987, I have been licensed in the State of Georgia as a LPC - Licensed Professional Counselor.
(678) 558-2049 View (678) 558-2049
Photo of Marjorie Kurtz, Licensed Professional Counselor in 30114, GA
Marjorie Kurtz
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Canton, GA 30114  (Online Only)
My love of the arts and engaging in the creative process for healing and personal growth naturally led me to the field of therapy. I see the therapeutic process as infinitely creative! My practice draws from years of training in art therapy, mindfulness, psychodynamic approaches, and Internal Family Systems (IFS). Being that each person enters therapy with their own unique perspectives and needs, we will work together to incorporate the tools that are most effective for accomplishing your goals.
My love of the arts and engaging in the creative process for healing and personal growth naturally led me to the field of therapy. I see the therapeutic process as infinitely creative! My practice draws from years of training in art therapy, mindfulness, psychodynamic approaches, and Internal Family Systems (IFS). Being that each person enters therapy with their own unique perspectives and needs, we will work together to incorporate the tools that are most effective for accomplishing your goals.
(678) 928-6492 View (678) 928-6492
Photo of Bonnie Petrie Craemer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 30114, GA
Bonnie Petrie Craemer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Canton, GA 30114
Not accepting new clients
Thank you for checking out my profile! Finding the right therapist can be daunting and I welcome any questions you may have prior to scheduling an appointment. The main request I ask of my clients is that they come willing to get curious about their thoughts and behaviors. AWhen we become curious about ourselves in an environment where we feel safe and cared for can grow in ways they didn't know were possible. This is our foundation. From there I draw upon different treatment modalities including including ACT (Acceptance & Commitment therapy), mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy, solution focused therapy and motivational interviewing.
Thank you for checking out my profile! Finding the right therapist can be daunting and I welcome any questions you may have prior to scheduling an appointment. The main request I ask of my clients is that they come willing to get curious about their thoughts and behaviors. AWhen we become curious about ourselves in an environment where we feel safe and cared for can grow in ways they didn't know were possible. This is our foundation. From there I draw upon different treatment modalities including including ACT (Acceptance & Commitment therapy), mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy, solution focused therapy and motivational interviewing.
(770) 766-3174 View (770) 766-3174

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 30114

100+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in 30114 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
90% Depression
64% Self Esteem
64% Stress
62% Life Transitions
61% Grief
61% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% Aetna
83% Cigna and Evernorth
69% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 30114 see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 30114?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.