Photo of Michael T Helfer, PhD, Psychologist
Michael T Helfer
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Waitlist for new clients
I work to provide a judgment-free space where I can help others discuss and manage life’s challenges. I try to be transparent in my thoughts and advice. I am comfortable exploring topics that people may have a hard time communicating. I like to create a sense of warmth and humor, while also matching the tone of the interaction. I realize people have their own unique background, values, and culture. I appreciate these differences, and I want to help others in a way that feels right for them. My areas of work include but are not limited to anxiety, relationship issues (all types), men’s issues, trauma, and depression.
I work to provide a judgment-free space where I can help others discuss and manage life’s challenges. I try to be transparent in my thoughts and advice. I am comfortable exploring topics that people may have a hard time communicating. I like to create a sense of warmth and humor, while also matching the tone of the interaction. I realize people have their own unique background, values, and culture. I appreciate these differences, and I want to help others in a way that feels right for them. My areas of work include but are not limited to anxiety, relationship issues (all types), men’s issues, trauma, and depression.
(910) 543-8153 View (910) 543-8153
Photo of Hillary Stevens, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hillary Stevens
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in the ever changing demands of womanhood. In session, I pair humor with sincerity and empathy. I also have a special place in my heart for young women struggling with anxiety as they juggle the pressures of school, society, and finding their rhythm as an adult. I am passionate about supporting individuals as they develop healthy coping skills and routines that meet their specific needs. You can schedule an initial appointment with me at the following link: https:/hillarystevenslcsw.clientsecure.me/
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in the ever changing demands of womanhood. In session, I pair humor with sincerity and empathy. I also have a special place in my heart for young women struggling with anxiety as they juggle the pressures of school, society, and finding their rhythm as an adult. I am passionate about supporting individuals as they develop healthy coping skills and routines that meet their specific needs. You can schedule an initial appointment with me at the following link: https:/hillarystevenslcsw.clientsecure.me/
(910) 623-9110 View (910) 623-9110
Photo of Pamela Penrose, MA, LCMHCA
Pamela Penrose
Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate, MA, LCMHCA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
Pamela works primarily with adults and young adults. She is passionate about creating space for clients to feel seen, heard, and valued. She offers a steady presence as clients process their experiences and emotions. Pamela firmly believes in the power of the counseling relationship in that it has the potential to serve as a catalyst for individual insight, progressive change and overall mental health wellness. She believes change, healing, and growth are always available to us and values each individual's unique journey.
Pamela works primarily with adults and young adults. She is passionate about creating space for clients to feel seen, heard, and valued. She offers a steady presence as clients process their experiences and emotions. Pamela firmly believes in the power of the counseling relationship in that it has the potential to serve as a catalyst for individual insight, progressive change and overall mental health wellness. She believes change, healing, and growth are always available to us and values each individual's unique journey.
(910) 708-4890 View (910) 708-4890
Photo of Richard Brice, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Richard Brice
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
My name is Richard Brice. My counseling with you will be centered on your being "a whole person" not you being a collection of diagnoses. I will work with you in finding specific strategies that will help you in the treatment of your problems and concerns. Our overall goal will be for you to reach a state of wellness in your life. I am offering you a place of counsel where you can find peace, understanding and knowledge-you will never be judged-you will be respected and accepted.
My name is Richard Brice. My counseling with you will be centered on your being "a whole person" not you being a collection of diagnoses. I will work with you in finding specific strategies that will help you in the treatment of your problems and concerns. Our overall goal will be for you to reach a state of wellness in your life. I am offering you a place of counsel where you can find peace, understanding and knowledge-you will never be judged-you will be respected and accepted.
(910) 493-3794 View (910) 493-3794
Photo of Tori Morgan, MSW, LCSWA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tori Morgan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSWA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
Do you feel worried, unmotivated, or like you're struggling with your relationships? You're not alone. Sometimes we can feel overwhelmed by our thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to create a safe, non-judgmental space for working collaboratively with you to learn new ways of overcoming life’s challenges. Focusing on building connections and improving communication with the people we love the most can improve your quality of life. Often times the best first step to getting better is simply the act of being heard and feeling truly understood.
Do you feel worried, unmotivated, or like you're struggling with your relationships? You're not alone. Sometimes we can feel overwhelmed by our thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to create a safe, non-judgmental space for working collaboratively with you to learn new ways of overcoming life’s challenges. Focusing on building connections and improving communication with the people we love the most can improve your quality of life. Often times the best first step to getting better is simply the act of being heard and feeling truly understood.
(910) 541-5812 View (910) 541-5812
Photo of Jen Johnson, MS, MFA, CRC, BCC, LCMHC
Jen Johnson
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MS, MFA, CRC, BCC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with stress, anxiety, self-criticism, perfectionism, or feelings of overwhelm? Struggling to come to terms with challenging times, loss, grief, transitions, or illness? Do you dream about being more creative but struggle with fear or other creative blocks? It's possible to learn how to develop a greater sense of inner calm, happiness, creativity, and resilience. It's possible to learn how to handle life's challenges with greater ease and resilience and embrace life's joy and beauty.
Are you struggling with stress, anxiety, self-criticism, perfectionism, or feelings of overwhelm? Struggling to come to terms with challenging times, loss, grief, transitions, or illness? Do you dream about being more creative but struggle with fear or other creative blocks? It's possible to learn how to develop a greater sense of inner calm, happiness, creativity, and resilience. It's possible to learn how to handle life's challenges with greater ease and resilience and embrace life's joy and beauty.
(910) 653-1690 View (910) 653-1690
Photo of Nina Hayhurst-Chacon, MA, LPA, Psychological Associate
Nina Hayhurst-Chacon
Psychological Associate, MA, LPA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
People come from all walks of life, no two are the same. With each unique challenge, there is a unique individual striving for change. Trauma and depression can significantly alter an individual's life leaving one feeling completely isolated and confused. My job is to encourage and provide a non-judgmental environment to facilitate healing and positive change.
People come from all walks of life, no two are the same. With each unique challenge, there is a unique individual striving for change. Trauma and depression can significantly alter an individual's life leaving one feeling completely isolated and confused. My job is to encourage and provide a non-judgmental environment to facilitate healing and positive change.
(910) 343-6890 View (910) 343-6890
Photo of Jeanne Marshall, LCSW, LADC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jeanne Marshall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LADC
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Taking new clients. For the last several years, I've worked with military service members and their families. I'm a Veteran myself, though I've worked with a wide variety of people. I work with adults, couples, families, adolescents and school age children. Areas of specific expertise are trauma, addictions (addicts and their families including adult children of alcoholics) GLBTQIA issues and parenting. I focus on empowerment, helping you to find the strength to accomplish your goals.
Taking new clients. For the last several years, I've worked with military service members and their families. I'm a Veteran myself, though I've worked with a wide variety of people. I work with adults, couples, families, adolescents and school age children. Areas of specific expertise are trauma, addictions (addicts and their families including adult children of alcoholics) GLBTQIA issues and parenting. I focus on empowerment, helping you to find the strength to accomplish your goals.
(910) 685-7579 View (910) 685-7579
Photo of Elizabeth W Watson
Elizabeth W Watson
Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Hi! I'm Elizabeth. If you're reading this, you or someone you care about might be interested in seeking counseling services. Working through relationship and family of origin issues, challenging negative belief systems and improving unhelpful habits/thoughts are a few areas worked on often in therapy. I have worked with those who are adjusting to change, grieving, experiencing depression/anxiety (postpartum or otherwise) as well as teenagers coping with change, and children and families coping with divorce. My desire is to walk alongside clients to help navigate whatever issue is before them.
Hi! I'm Elizabeth. If you're reading this, you or someone you care about might be interested in seeking counseling services. Working through relationship and family of origin issues, challenging negative belief systems and improving unhelpful habits/thoughts are a few areas worked on often in therapy. I have worked with those who are adjusting to change, grieving, experiencing depression/anxiety (postpartum or otherwise) as well as teenagers coping with change, and children and families coping with divorce. My desire is to walk alongside clients to help navigate whatever issue is before them.
(910) 335-2648 View (910) 335-2648
Photo of Lisa Layman, MA, LCMHC, LCAS, CSAT, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Lisa Layman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCMHC, LCAS, CSAT, NCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
I specialize in Sex & Porn addiction believe that everyone is entitled to have his or her own unique experience in therapy and that a strong individualized therapeutic relationship is central to the healing process. It is my goal to provide a safe and open space where clients feel comfortable freely expressing their thoughts and feelings, without judgment. I utilize EMDR to reduce the thoughts that motivate unhealthy behaviors and decrease distressing symptoms.
I specialize in Sex & Porn addiction believe that everyone is entitled to have his or her own unique experience in therapy and that a strong individualized therapeutic relationship is central to the healing process. It is my goal to provide a safe and open space where clients feel comfortable freely expressing their thoughts and feelings, without judgment. I utilize EMDR to reduce the thoughts that motivate unhealthy behaviors and decrease distressing symptoms.
(910) 202-4353 View (910) 202-4353
Photo of Buffy Taylor, LCSW, LCAS, CCS, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Buffy Taylor
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LCAS, CCS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
I specialize in supporting individuals who face depression, anxiety, mood/behavioral issues, and trauma. My expertise lies in working with survivors of sexual trauma and abuse, offering compassionate guidance and utilizing evidence-based therapies such as EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) to help process and overcome past barriers. Additionally, as an Addictions Specialist, I am committed to assisting those navigating substance use and recovery.
I specialize in supporting individuals who face depression, anxiety, mood/behavioral issues, and trauma. My expertise lies in working with survivors of sexual trauma and abuse, offering compassionate guidance and utilizing evidence-based therapies such as EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) to help process and overcome past barriers. Additionally, as an Addictions Specialist, I am committed to assisting those navigating substance use and recovery.
(910) 812-3496 View (910) 812-3496
Photo of Melissa Jaworowski, MS, LCMHCA, Counselor
Melissa Jaworowski
Counselor, MS, LCMHCA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
When your best thinking isn't helping you move forward through a challenge, finding a skilled therapist is such courageous thing to do. I am here to help guide you through those challenges, so that you can become the very best version of yourself. My goal is to create a safe environment where we can be partners and collaborate in order to address life’s stressors and challenges head on!
When your best thinking isn't helping you move forward through a challenge, finding a skilled therapist is such courageous thing to do. I am here to help guide you through those challenges, so that you can become the very best version of yourself. My goal is to create a safe environment where we can be partners and collaborate in order to address life’s stressors and challenges head on!
(910) 348-7083 View (910) 348-7083
Photo of Kimberly Horrell, MA, LCMHCA, LMHC, Counselor
Kimberly Horrell
Counselor, MA, LCMHCA, LMHC
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Let's face it, life can be really messy. People fail you, situations don't turn out like you planned, emotions feel overwhelming—all these things come together to create what can feel like an unsurmountable obstacle. What you desire are solutions to the very situations you are facing, a sense of peace regardless of circumstances, and hope for a much better future. This is where I can help. I work alongside my clients to create lives in which they feel fulfilled, confident, and hopeful for the future. I empower my clients with the skills they need to have joy and peace in their lives and relationships.
Let's face it, life can be really messy. People fail you, situations don't turn out like you planned, emotions feel overwhelming—all these things come together to create what can feel like an unsurmountable obstacle. What you desire are solutions to the very situations you are facing, a sense of peace regardless of circumstances, and hope for a much better future. This is where I can help. I work alongside my clients to create lives in which they feel fulfilled, confident, and hopeful for the future. I empower my clients with the skills they need to have joy and peace in their lives and relationships.
(910) 857-5692 x3011 View (910) 857-5692 x3011
Photo of Eva Church, MSW, LCSW, LCASA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Eva Church
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LCASA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
Reaching out for help can be scary, yet here you are! Congrats on taking that first step. Sometimes we have to do the scary thing when we want more for ourselves. Something I hear again and again from my clients is: after they asked for help, some of the weight they had been carrying around came off. I hope the same will be true for you. Therapy has brought me hope. And I believe it can do the same for you. Human beings are profoundly resilient. We have this ability to come back from our struggles. Therapy offers a reset to figure out our next step and how to get there.
Reaching out for help can be scary, yet here you are! Congrats on taking that first step. Sometimes we have to do the scary thing when we want more for ourselves. Something I hear again and again from my clients is: after they asked for help, some of the weight they had been carrying around came off. I hope the same will be true for you. Therapy has brought me hope. And I believe it can do the same for you. Human beings are profoundly resilient. We have this ability to come back from our struggles. Therapy offers a reset to figure out our next step and how to get there.
(910) 679-9811 View (910) 679-9811
Photo of Maddie Haddock, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Maddie Haddock
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
I am a bilingual therapist (Spanish and English) who has a special interest in providing therapy to adults, teens, and tweens from a variety of backgrounds and cultures. Therapy with me can help with symptoms such as depression, trauma, anxiety, stress, grief, relationship problems, sleep issues, and any other difficulties you might be facing. When coming into therapy, you can expect a calm, welcoming, confidential environment where you can talk openly with a highly-trained practitioner.
I am a bilingual therapist (Spanish and English) who has a special interest in providing therapy to adults, teens, and tweens from a variety of backgrounds and cultures. Therapy with me can help with symptoms such as depression, trauma, anxiety, stress, grief, relationship problems, sleep issues, and any other difficulties you might be facing. When coming into therapy, you can expect a calm, welcoming, confidential environment where you can talk openly with a highly-trained practitioner.
(910) 460-6067 View (910) 460-6067
Photo of Ashley Strack, MSW, LCSWA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ashley Strack
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSWA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
Do you feel stressed, anxious, frustrated, stuck, sad, lonely, or misunderstood? Curious to learn about who you are? Therapy can help you better understand yourself and navigate the different feelings and situations that come up in your life. You are about to take your first step forward toward growth, change and improving the quality of your life. Your decision to start therapy is a commitment to yourself. I enjoy supporting clients and meeting them where they are at to help them reach their goals to be their best. Asking for help is not easy, but taking the first step is the hardest part in your journey to finding clari
Do you feel stressed, anxious, frustrated, stuck, sad, lonely, or misunderstood? Curious to learn about who you are? Therapy can help you better understand yourself and navigate the different feelings and situations that come up in your life. You are about to take your first step forward toward growth, change and improving the quality of your life. Your decision to start therapy is a commitment to yourself. I enjoy supporting clients and meeting them where they are at to help them reach their goals to be their best. Asking for help is not easy, but taking the first step is the hardest part in your journey to finding clari
(910) 696-6909 View (910) 696-6909
Photo of Alan Brailsford de Lopez, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Alan Brailsford de Lopez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
For as long as you can remember, you’ve felt different. You learned early on that to avoid ostracization and torment, you had to hide parts of yourself. Now, you’re an adult and a proud member of the LGBTQ+ community, but things still aren’t easy. You still have residual shame from years of concealing your true self. And the simple act of living authentically in a society dictated by heteronormative standards makes you feel like an outcast. Over the years, you’ve unwittingly internalized people’s judgments and have started harshly criticizing yourself. You wish there were a way to live free of this pain, but you don’t know how.
For as long as you can remember, you’ve felt different. You learned early on that to avoid ostracization and torment, you had to hide parts of yourself. Now, you’re an adult and a proud member of the LGBTQ+ community, but things still aren’t easy. You still have residual shame from years of concealing your true self. And the simple act of living authentically in a society dictated by heteronormative standards makes you feel like an outcast. Over the years, you’ve unwittingly internalized people’s judgments and have started harshly criticizing yourself. You wish there were a way to live free of this pain, but you don’t know how.
(910) 537-6352 View (910) 537-6352
Photo of Emily Savard Barlas, MA, LCMHC, PMH-C, Licensed Professional Counselor
Emily Savard Barlas
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCMHC, PMH-C
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
I especially enjoy helping people through life transitions - from young adults adjusting to college to pregnant women and new moms. Adapting to new roles and making changes is exhausting, draining, and can leave you feeling lost and overwhelmed. Together, we can work to help you better manage these changes and integrate new roles - helping you feel empowered and more like yourself.
I especially enjoy helping people through life transitions - from young adults adjusting to college to pregnant women and new moms. Adapting to new roles and making changes is exhausting, draining, and can leave you feeling lost and overwhelmed. Together, we can work to help you better manage these changes and integrate new roles - helping you feel empowered and more like yourself.
(910) 356-9633 View (910) 356-9633
Photo of Nicole Pipitone, MAAT, LPC, LCMHC
Nicole Pipitone
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MAAT, LPC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Not accepting new clients
Making change takes courage and strength. I am here to help navigate and continue to guide you through the process of change. Do you struggle with binge eating or restrictive behaviors? How about struggling with liking yourself, inside or out? Have you recently had a big change in your life, school? work? separation or divorce? A normal part of life is the anxiety that comes with change and battling the endless stream of thoughts can be difficult. I am here to help you identify your goals and used solution focused therapeutic approaches to help you reach those goals.
Making change takes courage and strength. I am here to help navigate and continue to guide you through the process of change. Do you struggle with binge eating or restrictive behaviors? How about struggling with liking yourself, inside or out? Have you recently had a big change in your life, school? work? separation or divorce? A normal part of life is the anxiety that comes with change and battling the endless stream of thoughts can be difficult. I am here to help you identify your goals and used solution focused therapeutic approaches to help you reach those goals.
(910) 400-0805 View (910) 400-0805
Photo of Carol Horwath, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carol Horwath
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
I look forward to meeting clients who seek a calm, home-like environment in which to safely explore the various ways their lives may be improved. I can help anyone who is inspired to engage in self-exploration and insight-building in order to release what is old and not working and develop new habits that increase function and improve quality of life. My goal is to meet you where you are and help you to get where you would like to go.
I look forward to meeting clients who seek a calm, home-like environment in which to safely explore the various ways their lives may be improved. I can help anyone who is inspired to engage in self-exploration and insight-building in order to release what is old and not working and develop new habits that increase function and improve quality of life. My goal is to meet you where you are and help you to get where you would like to go.
(910) 519-8671 View (910) 519-8671

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 28401

100+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 28401 who prioritize treating:

88% Anxiety
82% Depression
74% Relationship Issues
74% Self Esteem
73% Trauma and PTSD
68% Coping Skills
66% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% BlueCross and BlueShield
62% Aetna
61% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 28401 see their clients

68% In Person and Online
32% Online Only

Gender breakdown

84% Female
16% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 28401?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.