Photo of Linnie Daniel, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 24015, VA
Linnie Daniel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015  (Online Only)
Life throws us challenges that can feel like you're stuck in survival mode. You might feel disconnected from the world, having difficulty with relationships, or a sense of confusion about the future.
Life throws us challenges that can feel like you're stuck in survival mode. You might feel disconnected from the world, having difficulty with relationships, or a sense of confusion about the future.
(757) 517-8364 View (757) 517-8364
Photo of Chad Runyon, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Chad Runyon
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015  (Online Only)
I'm a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) based in Virginia who believes that a tailored mix of experiential processes and existential discussions can contribute to a greater awareness of self and a more meaningful life. I work best with adults who feel stuck, trapped or left behind and are also willing to to take healthy, manageable risks that can open new doors to their future.
I'm a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) based in Virginia who believes that a tailored mix of experiential processes and existential discussions can contribute to a greater awareness of self and a more meaningful life. I work best with adults who feel stuck, trapped or left behind and are also willing to to take healthy, manageable risks that can open new doors to their future.
(571) 506-7109 View (571) 506-7109
Photo of Jennifer J. Slusher, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Jennifer J. Slusher
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
We all have times when we feel stuck or feel like something is off. Life can be challenging, and navigating those challenges can be difficult. Processing the struggles and transitions we face with a professional is often necessary, Additionally, certain past issues or traumas need to be explored in order to move forward. I would love the opportunity to meet with you, hear your story, and see how I can help. Together, we will find the most comfortable and best approach to help you get "unstuck" and move toward a more fulfilling life.
We all have times when we feel stuck or feel like something is off. Life can be challenging, and navigating those challenges can be difficult. Processing the struggles and transitions we face with a professional is often necessary, Additionally, certain past issues or traumas need to be explored in order to move forward. I would love the opportunity to meet with you, hear your story, and see how I can help. Together, we will find the most comfortable and best approach to help you get "unstuck" and move toward a more fulfilling life.
(540) 402-9532 View (540) 402-9532
Photo of Meade Eggleston, Psychologist in 24015, VA
Meade Eggleston
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Do you feel stuck and want help moving forward? I enjoy helping people who are struggling with addiction. If you have an addiction, I can also help with related problems like anxiety, PTSD and trauma, and anger. You do not have to do this alone. We can work together to help you build insight into why you struggle and then connect to the knowledge, skills, and resources to do things differently. I value building a safe, open environment for therapy that supports integrity, wellness, and joy. I firmly believe recovery is possible.
Do you feel stuck and want help moving forward? I enjoy helping people who are struggling with addiction. If you have an addiction, I can also help with related problems like anxiety, PTSD and trauma, and anger. You do not have to do this alone. We can work together to help you build insight into why you struggle and then connect to the knowledge, skills, and resources to do things differently. I value building a safe, open environment for therapy that supports integrity, wellness, and joy. I firmly believe recovery is possible.
(540) 524-2055 View (540) 524-2055
Photo of Jennifer G. Oginz, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Jennifer G. Oginz
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
I’ve worked 30+ years as a therapist and am very lucky to have found my passion. My love has been nonprofit community mental health, and I have dedicated many years of service to nonprofits. I have worked extensively with clients of all ages and stages in life, facilitated recovery groups and provided family/couples therapy. This is an LGBTQ+ friendly practice. It is a privilege to be invited into someone's life story. I have gained a great many things from the clients that I have served. I can only hope, I've helped them along their pathway in life.
I’ve worked 30+ years as a therapist and am very lucky to have found my passion. My love has been nonprofit community mental health, and I have dedicated many years of service to nonprofits. I have worked extensively with clients of all ages and stages in life, facilitated recovery groups and provided family/couples therapy. This is an LGBTQ+ friendly practice. It is a privilege to be invited into someone's life story. I have gained a great many things from the clients that I have served. I can only hope, I've helped them along their pathway in life.
(540) 712-6173 View (540) 712-6173
Photo of Three Valley Wellness LLC, Counselor in 24015, VA
Three Valley Wellness LLC
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Roanoke, VA 24015
Immediate openings for neurofeedback! A short wait for psychotherapy. I am a trauma-focused therapist who is ready to do the deeper work to clean out what gets in your way of having an easier life. My philosophy is to find the root cause of the problem and work on that instead of staying on the surface. I am ready to go deep. Are you feeling like something is wrong or holding you back, but you don’t know what it is? Are you aware of your past traumas and are ready to work on them? You might be surprised how much trauma is responsible for how we feel about ourselves and how we live our lives.
Immediate openings for neurofeedback! A short wait for psychotherapy. I am a trauma-focused therapist who is ready to do the deeper work to clean out what gets in your way of having an easier life. My philosophy is to find the root cause of the problem and work on that instead of staying on the surface. I am ready to go deep. Are you feeling like something is wrong or holding you back, but you don’t know what it is? Are you aware of your past traumas and are ready to work on them? You might be surprised how much trauma is responsible for how we feel about ourselves and how we live our lives.
(540) 202-1436 View (540) 202-1436
Photo of Gail Evans, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Gail Evans
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
All people struggle at some point in their lives. Each of us has difficulty managing, especially when life throws us a curve ball – like a diagnosis of chronic illness, failure in school or work, a relationship that blows up or the death of a loved one. Times like these can leave us feeling lost and alone. We may even have thoughts like “I’m a failure” or “I will never get over this”. I understand. And I want you to know that I can help. I can help you feel better, find your joy and live the healthiest life possible.
All people struggle at some point in their lives. Each of us has difficulty managing, especially when life throws us a curve ball – like a diagnosis of chronic illness, failure in school or work, a relationship that blows up or the death of a loved one. Times like these can leave us feeling lost and alone. We may even have thoughts like “I’m a failure” or “I will never get over this”. I understand. And I want you to know that I can help. I can help you feel better, find your joy and live the healthiest life possible.
(540) 905-8569 View (540) 905-8569
Photo of Amy Papageorge, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Amy Papageorge
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Everyone has problems from time to time. Therapy can help. Choosing to seek help for depression, anxiety or other problems that are getting in the way of your happiness can be difficult and scary. My approach is direct and open, and focuses on enhancing your personal growth and ability to cope with life's problems. You are most likely to see benefits from therapy if you are motivated, honest, and willing to work at self-improvement and self-awareness. I will treat you with dignity and respect, and work with you to help you achieve your goals.
Everyone has problems from time to time. Therapy can help. Choosing to seek help for depression, anxiety or other problems that are getting in the way of your happiness can be difficult and scary. My approach is direct and open, and focuses on enhancing your personal growth and ability to cope with life's problems. You are most likely to see benefits from therapy if you are motivated, honest, and willing to work at self-improvement and self-awareness. I will treat you with dignity and respect, and work with you to help you achieve your goals.
(540) 354-2003 View (540) 354-2003
Photo of Laura Ely, Ph.D, LCP, Psychologist in 24015, VA
Laura Ely, Ph.D, LCP
Psychologist, PhD, LCP
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
I am a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (OCD, hair pulling, skin picking, etc.), Tics/Tourette's, Anxiety, Depression, and trauma/PTSD. The core of my approach is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). I also treat trauma in adults with Written Exposure Therapy (a brief, structured treatment). I'm glad to speak with you for a free brief consultation on the phone (initial 90 min. session fee is $142 and an hour session is $125). I see ALL ages for tics/Tourette's and BFRBs (hair pulling, skin picking, nail biting, etc.). For all other treatment I see clients age 18 and older.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (OCD, hair pulling, skin picking, etc.), Tics/Tourette's, Anxiety, Depression, and trauma/PTSD. The core of my approach is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). I also treat trauma in adults with Written Exposure Therapy (a brief, structured treatment). I'm glad to speak with you for a free brief consultation on the phone (initial 90 min. session fee is $142 and an hour session is $125). I see ALL ages for tics/Tourette's and BFRBs (hair pulling, skin picking, nail biting, etc.). For all other treatment I see clients age 18 and older.
(540) 655-2751 View (540) 655-2751
Photo of Kelley Ott, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Kelley Ott
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
What would life be like if you could spend more time doing what really matters instead of just making it through the day and surviving? Have you experienced hard things in your past that still affect you today, and you wish that would change? Do you feel that sharp twinge in your chest when you think about just how far away you are from the relationships you want? If you have ever struggled with motivation, meaning, a difficult childhood, or a relationship that has lost its fire and hope, you understand how painful and gray the world can be when life isn't working.
What would life be like if you could spend more time doing what really matters instead of just making it through the day and surviving? Have you experienced hard things in your past that still affect you today, and you wish that would change? Do you feel that sharp twinge in your chest when you think about just how far away you are from the relationships you want? If you have ever struggled with motivation, meaning, a difficult childhood, or a relationship that has lost its fire and hope, you understand how painful and gray the world can be when life isn't working.
(540) 210-1529 View (540) 210-1529
Photo of Jessica Conway, Marriage & Family Therapist in 24015, VA
Jessica Conway
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Roanoke, VA 24015
Waitlist for new clients
It's great news that you're here! My name is Jes Conway and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with 20+ years of experience working with individuals and couples in a wide range of settings. Whether you are seeking to address a specific problem/situation or you are interested in taking a general personal inventory, you're acknowledging that you would like things to be different. What we often don't realize is that change requires taking action, and that in itself is a skill to learn and practice. I am excited to meet you and to see how I might be of service.
It's great news that you're here! My name is Jes Conway and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with 20+ years of experience working with individuals and couples in a wide range of settings. Whether you are seeking to address a specific problem/situation or you are interested in taking a general personal inventory, you're acknowledging that you would like things to be different. What we often don't realize is that change requires taking action, and that in itself is a skill to learn and practice. I am excited to meet you and to see how I might be of service.
(540) 385-4584 View (540) 385-4584
Photo of Sheri Meixner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 24015, VA
Sheri Meixner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
I believe the therapeutic process is a powerful tool for clients to grow and become healthier individuals and/or couples. My clinical experience settings include private practice, mental/behavioral health agencies, community college and medical social work services. Areas of experience include crisis work, substance use dependence, depression & anxiety, bipolar disorder, grief and loss, chronic illness, autism, and relationship issues. My therapeutic approach is eclectic, client centered, utilizing cognitive behavioral, solution focused, insight oriented, trauma informed and motivational interviewing and mindfulness.
I believe the therapeutic process is a powerful tool for clients to grow and become healthier individuals and/or couples. My clinical experience settings include private practice, mental/behavioral health agencies, community college and medical social work services. Areas of experience include crisis work, substance use dependence, depression & anxiety, bipolar disorder, grief and loss, chronic illness, autism, and relationship issues. My therapeutic approach is eclectic, client centered, utilizing cognitive behavioral, solution focused, insight oriented, trauma informed and motivational interviewing and mindfulness.
(540) 870-0554 View (540) 870-0554
Photo of Dr. Jeannie B Berger, Psychologist in 24015, VA
Dr. Jeannie B Berger
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Are you feeling anxious, stressed, or stuck? Are you and your partner trapped in repetitive arguments that go nowhere? Juggling work, finances, and parenting children leaves little room to prioritize your relationship. Your emotional and physical connection suffers. You’re caught in unhealthy patterns but don’t know how to change them. Or perhaps you’re redefining your relationship with adult children or caring for aging parents. Negotiating new family roles can be challenging. You crave healthier connections with your family, but you aren’t sure where to start. Therapy provides a soothing refuge amid life's chaos.
Are you feeling anxious, stressed, or stuck? Are you and your partner trapped in repetitive arguments that go nowhere? Juggling work, finances, and parenting children leaves little room to prioritize your relationship. Your emotional and physical connection suffers. You’re caught in unhealthy patterns but don’t know how to change them. Or perhaps you’re redefining your relationship with adult children or caring for aging parents. Negotiating new family roles can be challenging. You crave healthier connections with your family, but you aren’t sure where to start. Therapy provides a soothing refuge amid life's chaos.
(540) 302-2682 View (540) 302-2682
Photo of Brandon D. McGhee, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 24015, VA
Brandon D. McGhee
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Not accepting new clients
It can be difficult to make that first step. The fact that you are reading this shows your understanding that self care is a top priority. We are living through challenging times which has brought attention to different feelings and emotions. Therapy is a journey and a useful tool to guide you through your most challenging times. My goal is for you to feel safe and be able to have someone help you identify and achieve your therapeutic goals.
It can be difficult to make that first step. The fact that you are reading this shows your understanding that self care is a top priority. We are living through challenging times which has brought attention to different feelings and emotions. Therapy is a journey and a useful tool to guide you through your most challenging times. My goal is for you to feel safe and be able to have someone help you identify and achieve your therapeutic goals.
(540) 988-3108 View (540) 988-3108
Photo of Cynthia C Lissau, Marriage & Family Therapist in 24015, VA
Cynthia C Lissau
Marriage & Family Therapist, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
I enjoy "MAKING LIFE & LOVE BETTER." . With my 20 plus years of experience as a relationship counselor, my goal is to provide personal counseling for individuals and couples (married or partnered). My approach incorporates a combination of traditional, contemporary and holistic counseling techniques. You will find my office to be a comfortable living-room like setting conducive to privacy, safety and relaxation. Each session is tailored to meet the special needs of the client or clients. CONFIDENTIALITY is always in place except when permission is given by the client.
I enjoy "MAKING LIFE & LOVE BETTER." . With my 20 plus years of experience as a relationship counselor, my goal is to provide personal counseling for individuals and couples (married or partnered). My approach incorporates a combination of traditional, contemporary and holistic counseling techniques. You will find my office to be a comfortable living-room like setting conducive to privacy, safety and relaxation. Each session is tailored to meet the special needs of the client or clients. CONFIDENTIALITY is always in place except when permission is given by the client.
(540) 986-4135 View (540) 986-4135
Photo of Christina Dormstetter-O'Keefe, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Christina Dormstetter-O'Keefe
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CCATP
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with individuals from adolescence to older adults who want to improve their ability to enjoy life. I have particular strengths in supporting individuals in management of anxiety, stress, and depression as well as chronic medical conditions such as cancer. I think it is important for each individual to be able to identify strengths and value in themselves independent of societal norms and pressures.
I enjoy working with individuals from adolescence to older adults who want to improve their ability to enjoy life. I have particular strengths in supporting individuals in management of anxiety, stress, and depression as well as chronic medical conditions such as cancer. I think it is important for each individual to be able to identify strengths and value in themselves independent of societal norms and pressures.
(540) 516-4336 View (540) 516-4336
Photo of Josh Shorter, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 24015, VA
Josh Shorter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
My passion is driven through the use of self, and fostering an environment that can lead to self-actualization. We often ask ourselves, how can we become better and feel like we have self-worth? Do you find yourself often thinking, how can I take the next step to better my overall emotional health and live a life of purpose and fulfillment? Therapy can lead to a better understanding of our own mental health and reveal underlining causes that are often caused by our own self-disrupting behaviors. I believe that each and every person has the toolbelt they need to overcome their daily struggles, but we often just need some assistance.
My passion is driven through the use of self, and fostering an environment that can lead to self-actualization. We often ask ourselves, how can we become better and feel like we have self-worth? Do you find yourself often thinking, how can I take the next step to better my overall emotional health and live a life of purpose and fulfillment? Therapy can lead to a better understanding of our own mental health and reveal underlining causes that are often caused by our own self-disrupting behaviors. I believe that each and every person has the toolbelt they need to overcome their daily struggles, but we often just need some assistance.
(540) 501-7887 View (540) 501-7887
Photo of Carol Stockton LPC, Marriage & Family Therapist in 24015, VA
Carol Stockton LPC
Marriage & Family Therapist, LPC, LMFT, NCC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Waitlist for new clients
If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
(540) 707-0731 View (540) 707-0731
Photo of Nenden Stillman-Runyon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 24015, VA
Nenden Stillman-Runyon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Not accepting new clients
Thank you for taking a step towards exploring yourself, cultivating more internal awareness, and identifying areas in your life where you seek healing and strive for growth. I can offer guidance during this sometimes intense and hopefully enlightening process. Being in therapy brings challenging emotions to the surface. I'll help you lean into emotions such as fear, sadness, guilt, shame, anger, jealousy. Therapy can be a very co-creative process between us—the work stems from your intent, openness and motivation to witness yourself objectively, see patterns and start shifting those patterns. (Only accept Anthem/BCBS or Private Pay)
Thank you for taking a step towards exploring yourself, cultivating more internal awareness, and identifying areas in your life where you seek healing and strive for growth. I can offer guidance during this sometimes intense and hopefully enlightening process. Being in therapy brings challenging emotions to the surface. I'll help you lean into emotions such as fear, sadness, guilt, shame, anger, jealousy. Therapy can be a very co-creative process between us—the work stems from your intent, openness and motivation to witness yourself objectively, see patterns and start shifting those patterns. (Only accept Anthem/BCBS or Private Pay)
(540) 305-3690 View (540) 305-3690
Photo of Heidi Ann Taylor, Licensed Professional Counselor in 24015, VA
Heidi Ann Taylor
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Roanoke, VA 24015
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome. You have taken the first courageous step in seeking help. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with over thirty years of clinical experience. I work with adults and couples who are dealing with: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, grief, family of origin issues and codependency. I have a master's degree in Counseling from West Virginia University and am certified in Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR). Additionally, I am a certified Clinical Supervisor and am open to supervising counseling residents as well as licensed professionals.
Welcome. You have taken the first courageous step in seeking help. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with over thirty years of clinical experience. I work with adults and couples who are dealing with: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, grief, family of origin issues and codependency. I have a master's degree in Counseling from West Virginia University and am certified in Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR). Additionally, I am a certified Clinical Supervisor and am open to supervising counseling residents as well as licensed professionals.
(540) 253-1479 View (540) 253-1479

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 24015

30+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in 24015 who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
84% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Trauma and PTSD
78% Relationship Issues
76% Coping Skills
68% Grief

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

74% Anthem | Elevance
55% Aetna
55% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in 24015 see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 24015?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.