Photo of Elizabeth Malin, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23454, VA
Elizabeth Malin
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
Elizabeth (Liz) Malin is a Resident in Counseling (RIC) with over 7 years of experience in treating adults, teens, couples, and families seeking help with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, low self-esteem, workplace stressors, life transitions, and more.
Elizabeth (Liz) Malin is a Resident in Counseling (RIC) with over 7 years of experience in treating adults, teens, couples, and families seeking help with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, low self-esteem, workplace stressors, life transitions, and more.
(757) 210-5861 View (757) 210-5861
Photo of Karen Schanck, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23454, VA
Karen Schanck
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
I specialize in seeing children who are in foster care and children who have been adopted from foster care, ages 6-12, for counseling. I provide trauma-informed therapy and utilize self-regulation psychoeducation and experiential practice, play therapy, CBT, and EMDR. Children who have experienced trauma (abuse, neglect, grief) often experience emotional dysregulation, behavioral challenges, anxiety, depression, and attachment issues. My office is designed to be a safe place for foster/adopted children to explore, express, and process their feelings and thoughts with an emphasis on calming the nervous system.
I specialize in seeing children who are in foster care and children who have been adopted from foster care, ages 6-12, for counseling. I provide trauma-informed therapy and utilize self-regulation psychoeducation and experiential practice, play therapy, CBT, and EMDR. Children who have experienced trauma (abuse, neglect, grief) often experience emotional dysregulation, behavioral challenges, anxiety, depression, and attachment issues. My office is designed to be a safe place for foster/adopted children to explore, express, and process their feelings and thoughts with an emphasis on calming the nervous system.
(757) 798-7506 View (757) 798-7506
Photo of Thomas Baker, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23454, VA
Thomas Baker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I see people who are depressed, anxious, dual diagnosis, going through life changes such as divorce, grief and spiritual crisis. I have a small specialty in couples counseling, especially from a spiritual perspective and informed by the work of Dr. John Gottman. I am a former Roman Catholic priest (10 yrs.) and have been a licensed psychotherapist for 22 years. It is my conviction that everyone has the seeds of healing already within them and with the proper help those seeds can bear fruit. Initial appointments are about one to two weeks out.
I see people who are depressed, anxious, dual diagnosis, going through life changes such as divorce, grief and spiritual crisis. I have a small specialty in couples counseling, especially from a spiritual perspective and informed by the work of Dr. John Gottman. I am a former Roman Catholic priest (10 yrs.) and have been a licensed psychotherapist for 22 years. It is my conviction that everyone has the seeds of healing already within them and with the proper help those seeds can bear fruit. Initial appointments are about one to two weeks out.
(757) 272-1337 View (757) 272-1337
Photo of Steven F. Waranch, Psychologist in 23454, VA
Steven F. Waranch
Psychologist, PsyD, CSAC
Verified Verified
When people face personal problems or internal conflict, they benefit from taking time to talk with an experienced psychologist. It is an opportunity to talk confidentially with someone, outside of your family and friends, who is trained in mental health diagnostics and problem solving. Usually self esteem regulation, anger, anxiety, unhappiness, family conflict or maladaptive coping with substance misuse bring people for help. The purpose of counseling is to resolve conflict and go forward facing life's challenges with more strength and maturity.
When people face personal problems or internal conflict, they benefit from taking time to talk with an experienced psychologist. It is an opportunity to talk confidentially with someone, outside of your family and friends, who is trained in mental health diagnostics and problem solving. Usually self esteem regulation, anger, anxiety, unhappiness, family conflict or maladaptive coping with substance misuse bring people for help. The purpose of counseling is to resolve conflict and go forward facing life's challenges with more strength and maturity.
(757) 799-1208 View (757) 799-1208
Photo of Kristin Barton Cuthriell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23454, VA
Kristin Barton Cuthriell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, MEd, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kristin is an experienced licensed psychotherapist who specializes in working with individuals and couples. She helps build strong marriages and relationships by teaching effective communication skills. She focuses on skills to resolve conflict, increase intimacy and let go of resentment. Kristin has worked in the mental health field for eighteen years in various settings. Prior to entering the mental health field, Kristin worked for ten years as an elementary and middle school teacher. Kristin strives to build a strong rapport with her clients by providing a setting based on respect, acceptance, and trust.
Kristin is an experienced licensed psychotherapist who specializes in working with individuals and couples. She helps build strong marriages and relationships by teaching effective communication skills. She focuses on skills to resolve conflict, increase intimacy and let go of resentment. Kristin has worked in the mental health field for eighteen years in various settings. Prior to entering the mental health field, Kristin worked for ten years as an elementary and middle school teacher. Kristin strives to build a strong rapport with her clients by providing a setting based on respect, acceptance, and trust.
(757) 797-5204 View (757) 797-5204
Photo of Healing Connections, LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in 23454, VA
Healing Connections, LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Our clients are couples and individuals pursuing healing and understanding through their interactions with their significant others and with the world. For the most part, couples attend our center to understand themselves and their significant others and to creating meaningful changes, resulting in genuine connection with one another.
Our clients are couples and individuals pursuing healing and understanding through their interactions with their significant others and with the world. For the most part, couples attend our center to understand themselves and their significant others and to creating meaningful changes, resulting in genuine connection with one another.
(757) 231-3169 View (757) 231-3169
Photo of Mind Over Matter Therapy, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23454, VA
Mind Over Matter Therapy
Pre-Licensed Professional, RIC, ME
Verified Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
My name is Michael Sheffield and alongside obtaining my Master's degree, I have been working in the counseling field with people for 3 years. Life is hitting you hard right now and you're stuck. Maybe you feel alone. Maybe you struggle doing what you need or want to get done. Maybe you struggle with the way your mind works. Or just maybe you feel like there's not much meaning in your life. My life and training are lent towards working with people experiencing depressed mood, anxiety, overactive/judgemental minds, relationship stress, pessimism, trauma, sleep disturbance, OCD, uncontrolled anger/mood, workaholism, and chronic pain.
My name is Michael Sheffield and alongside obtaining my Master's degree, I have been working in the counseling field with people for 3 years. Life is hitting you hard right now and you're stuck. Maybe you feel alone. Maybe you struggle doing what you need or want to get done. Maybe you struggle with the way your mind works. Or just maybe you feel like there's not much meaning in your life. My life and training are lent towards working with people experiencing depressed mood, anxiety, overactive/judgemental minds, relationship stress, pessimism, trauma, sleep disturbance, OCD, uncontrolled anger/mood, workaholism, and chronic pain.
(757) 231-3952 View (757) 231-3952
Photo of Sarah Pitzen, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Sarah Pitzen
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Life throws all kinds of challenges our way, and sometimes we need support from a professional to assist in looking at things from a different perspective. As a Licensed Professional Counselor and a registered Art Therapist, I offer more than a traditional talk therapy experience by using cutting-edge integrative methods of the creative art process, mindful-based interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to support trauma recovery and address the root of anxiety, self-esteem issues, limiting beliefs, emotional instabilities, and unhelpful behavioral patterns.
Life throws all kinds of challenges our way, and sometimes we need support from a professional to assist in looking at things from a different perspective. As a Licensed Professional Counselor and a registered Art Therapist, I offer more than a traditional talk therapy experience by using cutting-edge integrative methods of the creative art process, mindful-based interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to support trauma recovery and address the root of anxiety, self-esteem issues, limiting beliefs, emotional instabilities, and unhelpful behavioral patterns.
(757) 637-6464 View (757) 637-6464
Photo of Tedra Ballard, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23454, VA
Tedra Ballard
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMSW
Verified Verified
Tedra is a master-level Clinical Social Worker at Thriveworks under licensed supervision. She holds over 5 years of experience across various roles within the human services field. In her career, she’s worked primarily with female clients with generalized/social anxiety, depression, ADD/ADHD, adjustment difficulties, childhood trauma, sexual trauma, low self-esteem, strained parent-child relationships, exposure to narcissistic abuse, and transitions to adulthood. Tedra earned her dual Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Human Services from Old Dominion University and her Master of Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University.
Tedra is a master-level Clinical Social Worker at Thriveworks under licensed supervision. She holds over 5 years of experience across various roles within the human services field. In her career, she’s worked primarily with female clients with generalized/social anxiety, depression, ADD/ADHD, adjustment difficulties, childhood trauma, sexual trauma, low self-esteem, strained parent-child relationships, exposure to narcissistic abuse, and transitions to adulthood. Tedra earned her dual Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Human Services from Old Dominion University and her Master of Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University.
(757) 996-5776 View (757) 996-5776
Photo of Gwendolyn Fisher, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Gwendolyn Fisher
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
Gwendolyn Fisher is a Licensed Professional Counselor who has over 3 years of experience helping children and adults seeking help with depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders, bipolar, oppositional defiance, trauma, PTSD, family relationships, and crisis stabilization. Gwendolyn earned her Bachelor's degree from Virginia Wesleyan University and her Master's degree in Professional Counseling from Liberty University.
Gwendolyn Fisher is a Licensed Professional Counselor who has over 3 years of experience helping children and adults seeking help with depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders, bipolar, oppositional defiance, trauma, PTSD, family relationships, and crisis stabilization. Gwendolyn earned her Bachelor's degree from Virginia Wesleyan University and her Master's degree in Professional Counseling from Liberty University.
(757) 210-7230 View (757) 210-7230
Photo of Rebecca Cohen, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Rebecca Cohen
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
Let's be honest; life is challenging. Even some of the most successful, strong people have periods of struggle. Whether you are having difficulty with relationship dynamics, trying to find your identity in this busy world, or coping with depression, anxiety, or stress, therapy can be of great assistance to you. Therapy is a safe space to share your thoughts and feelings with a nonjudgmental provider and gain insight into how to address what is bothering you. I honor your courage in taking the first steps to seek healing and improvement.
Let's be honest; life is challenging. Even some of the most successful, strong people have periods of struggle. Whether you are having difficulty with relationship dynamics, trying to find your identity in this busy world, or coping with depression, anxiety, or stress, therapy can be of great assistance to you. Therapy is a safe space to share your thoughts and feelings with a nonjudgmental provider and gain insight into how to address what is bothering you. I honor your courage in taking the first steps to seek healing and improvement.
(757) 997-6883 View (757) 997-6883
Photo of Michael Scott, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Michael Scott
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Michael Scott is a Licensed Professional Counselor with 14 years experience working in the mental health field. He has a passion for supporting families and children and is especially sensitive to the unique challenges of a military career. He has significant experience in and a passion for supporting military families and children in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Michael specializes in providing short-term, solution-focused support for individuals, couples, and families dealing with relationship issues, stress, depression, anxiety, adoption, adjustment and life's many unexpected turns.
Michael Scott is a Licensed Professional Counselor with 14 years experience working in the mental health field. He has a passion for supporting families and children and is especially sensitive to the unique challenges of a military career. He has significant experience in and a passion for supporting military families and children in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Michael specializes in providing short-term, solution-focused support for individuals, couples, and families dealing with relationship issues, stress, depression, anxiety, adoption, adjustment and life's many unexpected turns.
(757) 517-8455 View (757) 517-8455
Photo of Jessica Oszman, Resident in Counseling in 23454, VA
Jessica Oszman
Resident in Counseling, MS
Verified Verified
I’m glad you’re here. Whether you’re looking to heal from trauma, experiencing difficult emotions or thoughts, navigating major life events, or just needing support, I am here to meet you where you're at and help you see your potential. I believe that each person I have the privilege of meeting is unique, unlike any other client, and deserves to see their strengths. Our sessions will be collaborative, honest, and specifically tailored to you.
I’m glad you’re here. Whether you’re looking to heal from trauma, experiencing difficult emotions or thoughts, navigating major life events, or just needing support, I am here to meet you where you're at and help you see your potential. I believe that each person I have the privilege of meeting is unique, unlike any other client, and deserves to see their strengths. Our sessions will be collaborative, honest, and specifically tailored to you.
(757) 908-6317 x704 View (757) 908-6317 x704
Photo of Kelly Conner, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23454, VA
Kelly Conner
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
Kelly Conner has been a resident in counseling for over a year. Kelly has over 10 years of experience in the mental field with both children and adults. She specializes in treating kids on the autism spectrum, divorce, anxiety, depression, PTSD, ADHD, sensory processing disorders, and OCD diagnoses. Kelly has a background of being a registered behavior technician (RBT) for ABA therapy with children on the autism spectrum for several years. Kelly also has a creative side to help children and families with new perspectives and techniques tailored for each individual.
Kelly Conner has been a resident in counseling for over a year. Kelly has over 10 years of experience in the mental field with both children and adults. She specializes in treating kids on the autism spectrum, divorce, anxiety, depression, PTSD, ADHD, sensory processing disorders, and OCD diagnoses. Kelly has a background of being a registered behavior technician (RBT) for ABA therapy with children on the autism spectrum for several years. Kelly also has a creative side to help children and families with new perspectives and techniques tailored for each individual.
(757) 982-9742 View (757) 982-9742
Photo of Julie Kramer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23454, VA
Julie Kramer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
Julie Kramer has been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker for the past 30 years, licensed in Missouri and now Virginia. Her clients of choice are between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. She enjoys working with individuals and couples. She has worked in alcoholism, codependency, dual diagnosis, marriage counseling, and as an OB/GYN with babies born positive for drugs. Every area can be rewarding or an area to learn from in order to increase your knowledge base.
Julie Kramer has been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker for the past 30 years, licensed in Missouri and now Virginia. Her clients of choice are between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. She enjoys working with individuals and couples. She has worked in alcoholism, codependency, dual diagnosis, marriage counseling, and as an OB/GYN with babies born positive for drugs. Every area can be rewarding or an area to learn from in order to increase your knowledge base.
(757) 859-9028 View (757) 859-9028
Photo of Kerry Craymer, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Kerry Craymer
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) dedicated to helping my clients foster growth and healing through a collaborative therapeutic relationship. I am a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional certified through IATP (International Association of Trauma Professionals) and a Certified EMDR Clinician through EMDRIA (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing International Association). I specialize in helping clients work through anxiety, panic attacks, and trauma.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) dedicated to helping my clients foster growth and healing through a collaborative therapeutic relationship. I am a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional certified through IATP (International Association of Trauma Professionals) and a Certified EMDR Clinician through EMDRIA (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing International Association). I specialize in helping clients work through anxiety, panic attacks, and trauma.
(757) 996-5893 x708 View (757) 996-5893 x708
Photo of Cheyenne Fisher, Psychologist in 23454, VA
Cheyenne Fisher
Psychologist, PsyD, LCP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
One of my favorite things to do is understand how people work. This drives my treatment approach to include deep exploration of symptoms to get to the root of maladaptive patterns. I believe long term change stems from understanding and processing how one’s past is currently influencing one’s present. This includes a focus on using self-reflection and self-examination to explore and change the psychological root of emotional distress.
One of my favorite things to do is understand how people work. This drives my treatment approach to include deep exploration of symptoms to get to the root of maladaptive patterns. I believe long term change stems from understanding and processing how one’s past is currently influencing one’s present. This includes a focus on using self-reflection and self-examination to explore and change the psychological root of emotional distress.
(757) 828-5927 View (757) 828-5927
Photo of Hannah Maxwell, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23454, VA
Hannah Maxwell
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Hannah Maxwell is an LPC in the state of Virginia with two years of clinical experience, including residential and outpatient therapy settings, and she has worked with adults seeking support for depression, anxiety, trauma, school and career-related stress, substance use, and issues often associated with LGBTQ+ identities. She is a strong ally, prioritizes advocating for clients both in session and in her community, and is committed to providing care with cultural humility. Hannah uses a person-centered and strengths-based approach in therapy and works to create a collaborative relationship with clients.
Hannah Maxwell is an LPC in the state of Virginia with two years of clinical experience, including residential and outpatient therapy settings, and she has worked with adults seeking support for depression, anxiety, trauma, school and career-related stress, substance use, and issues often associated with LGBTQ+ identities. She is a strong ally, prioritizes advocating for clients both in session and in her community, and is committed to providing care with cultural humility. Hannah uses a person-centered and strengths-based approach in therapy and works to create a collaborative relationship with clients.
(757) 703-3100 View (757) 703-3100
Photo of Andrea M Valerio, Psychologist in 23454, VA
Andrea M Valerio
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
I specialize in relationships, sex therapy, recovery from dysfunctional and abusive families, healing the inner child, loss and grief, stress, life transitions, women's issues, and personal empowerment. I also help people with anxiety, panic attacks, and depression issues. I have taught many college psychology courses, including: Basic Interviewing and Counseling Skills, Psychotherapy Principles and Practices, Women's Issues, and Human Sexuality. I have also written a helpful book on relationships and sexuality. My compassion and genuine desire to help my clients find their authentic connection with their Higher Selves serves to enrich the process of therapy. Trust Your Inner Wisdom!
I specialize in relationships, sex therapy, recovery from dysfunctional and abusive families, healing the inner child, loss and grief, stress, life transitions, women's issues, and personal empowerment. I also help people with anxiety, panic attacks, and depression issues. I have taught many college psychology courses, including: Basic Interviewing and Counseling Skills, Psychotherapy Principles and Practices, Women's Issues, and Human Sexuality. I have also written a helpful book on relationships and sexuality. My compassion and genuine desire to help my clients find their authentic connection with their Higher Selves serves to enrich the process of therapy. Trust Your Inner Wisdom!
(757) 260-4440 View (757) 260-4440
Photo of Ashley Frantz, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23454, VA
Ashley Frantz
Pre-Licensed Professional, PhD, MA, MS
Verified Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23454  (Online Only)
I work with adults and children as young as six years old. I work primarily with anxiety, depression, trauma, and military issues however I have worked with various issues. I use variety of treatment methods including DBT, CBT, art therapy, and animal therapy to best serve the client and help them treating the source of the issue not just the symptoms. I try to help the client resolve whatever their underlying difficulties are to enhance all aspects of their life.
I work with adults and children as young as six years old. I work primarily with anxiety, depression, trauma, and military issues however I have worked with various issues. I use variety of treatment methods including DBT, CBT, art therapy, and animal therapy to best serve the client and help them treating the source of the issue not just the symptoms. I try to help the client resolve whatever their underlying difficulties are to enhance all aspects of their life.
(757) 942-4234 View (757) 942-4234

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 23454

100+

Average cost per session

$130

Therapists in 23454 who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
91% Depression
70% Trauma and PTSD
67% Relationship Issues
67% Self Esteem
64% Coping Skills
64% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% Aetna
71% Anthem | Elevance
70% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 23454 see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 23454?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.