Photo of Kerrie Shively, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 23185, VA
Kerrie Shively
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CSAC, CTRS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
I have worked in the mental health field since 2011 and is a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist and a Certified Substance Abuse Counselor in Virginia. My expertise is in helping those dealing with addictive disorders find a path of healing. I have worked extensively work treating active duty, veterans, and their families and come from a military family. I have worked in inpatient mental health setting, partial hospitalizations program, and outpatient settings with clients ranging from ages 4 to 95.
I have worked in the mental health field since 2011 and is a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist and a Certified Substance Abuse Counselor in Virginia. My expertise is in helping those dealing with addictive disorders find a path of healing. I have worked extensively work treating active duty, veterans, and their families and come from a military family. I have worked in inpatient mental health setting, partial hospitalizations program, and outpatient settings with clients ranging from ages 4 to 95.
(757) 859-9938 View (757) 859-9938
Photo of Carter W Summerville, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Carter W Summerville
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185  (Online Only)
Complex issues arise in our lives that we struggle to understand, cope with, and move on from. From a young age to an old one, mental health symptoms can interfere with day to day life. That's where therapy comes in! You or your teen's therapeutic journey will be tailored to the unique needs, behaviors, and background present. Working together collaboratively is key in helping you or your teen to learn about emotional wellbeing, ways to change or manage behavior, and how to cope with emotions in a healthy and appropriate way.
Complex issues arise in our lives that we struggle to understand, cope with, and move on from. From a young age to an old one, mental health symptoms can interfere with day to day life. That's where therapy comes in! You or your teen's therapeutic journey will be tailored to the unique needs, behaviors, and background present. Working together collaboratively is key in helping you or your teen to learn about emotional wellbeing, ways to change or manage behavior, and how to cope with emotions in a healthy and appropriate way.
(757) 704-5436 View (757) 704-5436
Photo of Frederick Ruzanski, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Frederick Ruzanski
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CCMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
I work primarily with adults. I have spent my career helping people to overcome depression, anxiety, transition, grief and loss and other life challenging issues. I am interested in working with people who are in recovery from substance use. So often during the recovery process, issues that have been long covered over by years of substance use begin to surface. We work together to root out and resolve some of the life-long concerns that may have been contributing factors to substance use.
I work primarily with adults. I have spent my career helping people to overcome depression, anxiety, transition, grief and loss and other life challenging issues. I am interested in working with people who are in recovery from substance use. So often during the recovery process, issues that have been long covered over by years of substance use begin to surface. We work together to root out and resolve some of the life-long concerns that may have been contributing factors to substance use.
(757) 610-9457 View (757) 610-9457
Photo of Coty Alan Mills, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23185, VA
Coty Alan Mills
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Waitlist for new clients
"People only seriously consider change when they feel accepted for exactly who they are" -Carl Rogers I believe that if a person is given the appropriate environment and support they can become their best self. Together we can take a look inward and work toward developing and unlocking the best you. For years we often hold ourselves prisoner, allow me the privilege to assist with developing personal insight into past traumas and future successes. By developing the capacity to live in the moment, we tap into our 5 senses and allow ourselves to truly live in the moment free of our past or future.
"People only seriously consider change when they feel accepted for exactly who they are" -Carl Rogers I believe that if a person is given the appropriate environment and support they can become their best self. Together we can take a look inward and work toward developing and unlocking the best you. For years we often hold ourselves prisoner, allow me the privilege to assist with developing personal insight into past traumas and future successes. By developing the capacity to live in the moment, we tap into our 5 senses and allow ourselves to truly live in the moment free of our past or future.
(757) 347-8763 View (757) 347-8763
Photo of Craig Foster, Psychologist in 23185, VA
Craig Foster
Psychologist, PhD, LCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Life is complicated but thankfully, therapy can help. I am honored to help each of my clients better understand themselves and make meaning of their lives using a collaborative and integrative approach. I work with each of my clients to identify the unique aspects of their situation and together, we develop a plan for how to reach their treatment goals. The relationship created between client and therapist is the most important aspect of my work, and I strive to understand the specific concerns which bring a person to therapy. By building trust over time, positive change is possible.
Life is complicated but thankfully, therapy can help. I am honored to help each of my clients better understand themselves and make meaning of their lives using a collaborative and integrative approach. I work with each of my clients to identify the unique aspects of their situation and together, we develop a plan for how to reach their treatment goals. The relationship created between client and therapist is the most important aspect of my work, and I strive to understand the specific concerns which bring a person to therapy. By building trust over time, positive change is possible.
(757) 780-1382 View (757) 780-1382
Photo of Jennifer Russell, Supervisee in Clinical Social Work in 23185, VA
Jennifer Russell
Supervisee in Clinical Social Work, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not accepting new clients
I specialize in early childhood mental health and social emotional development with children ages 0-12. My clients are typically children struggling with anxiety, school-related issues, working through complex trauma, or demonstrating behavioral concerns. I offer a perspective of lived-experience for neurodiverse and military families.
I specialize in early childhood mental health and social emotional development with children ages 0-12. My clients are typically children struggling with anxiety, school-related issues, working through complex trauma, or demonstrating behavioral concerns. I offer a perspective of lived-experience for neurodiverse and military families.
(757) 654-2193 View (757) 654-2193
Sarah Mcneely Byrne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not accepting new clients
I believe all of us have an infinite capacity to heal ourselves. Accessing that capacity is not always easy. Fear blocks our ability to think clearly and creatively and to act with confidence. When our fears are taken seriously and addressed completely with compassion and curiosity they relax and we are able to access the qualities within ourselves that give us the ability to face our challenges. I enjoy helping adults (18 to 80+), couples and families move from feeling stuck, frustrated, anxious, hopeless and overwhelmed to feeling confident in their ability to meet the the challenges of their lives.
I believe all of us have an infinite capacity to heal ourselves. Accessing that capacity is not always easy. Fear blocks our ability to think clearly and creatively and to act with confidence. When our fears are taken seriously and addressed completely with compassion and curiosity they relax and we are able to access the qualities within ourselves that give us the ability to face our challenges. I enjoy helping adults (18 to 80+), couples and families move from feeling stuck, frustrated, anxious, hopeless and overwhelmed to feeling confident in their ability to meet the the challenges of their lives.
(757) 793-2263 View (757) 793-2263
Photo of Betsy Dye Nichols, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Betsy Dye Nichols
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Booking Online Clients Only. I work with those whose lives seem to be going pretty well on the outside – but privately, they're hurting. Sometimes the source of the hurt is clearly known, other times it’s waiting to be discovered. Either way, something needs to be addressed in order to thrive, and my clients are willing to do the work to address it. We face tremendous pressure to be the perfect person, parent, and partner, yet we are not explicitly taught how to exist and grow in relationships or juggle the demands of everyday life. I have a special interest in working with women, couples and new parents.
Booking Online Clients Only. I work with those whose lives seem to be going pretty well on the outside – but privately, they're hurting. Sometimes the source of the hurt is clearly known, other times it’s waiting to be discovered. Either way, something needs to be addressed in order to thrive, and my clients are willing to do the work to address it. We face tremendous pressure to be the perfect person, parent, and partner, yet we are not explicitly taught how to exist and grow in relationships or juggle the demands of everyday life. I have a special interest in working with women, couples and new parents.
(757) 909-6731 x608 View (757) 909-6731 x608
Photo of Maxi T. Trent, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23185, VA
Maxi T. Trent
Pre-Licensed Professional, LPC , QHMP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
I have spent my entire career working to help make the lives of others better. From working with the victims of Hurricane Katrina to working and serving the homeless in Washington, DC. The majority of my life has been spent in the service of others. I graduated from Liberty University with a master’s in Professional Counseling and a Master of Arts in Human Services Counseling: Addiction and Treatment. I have learned to help effectively and efficiently those suffering from mental illness. I believe in treating the whole person, and sometimes that includes working with their families.
I have spent my entire career working to help make the lives of others better. From working with the victims of Hurricane Katrina to working and serving the homeless in Washington, DC. The majority of my life has been spent in the service of others. I graduated from Liberty University with a master’s in Professional Counseling and a Master of Arts in Human Services Counseling: Addiction and Treatment. I have learned to help effectively and efficiently those suffering from mental illness. I believe in treating the whole person, and sometimes that includes working with their families.
(757) 854-9390 View (757) 854-9390
Photo of Amber Butler, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Amber Butler
Licensed Professional Counselor, M Ed, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185  (Online Only)
Life can be tough...especially when we try to tackle its challenges alone. No matter the size of your struggles, they are valid and worth addressing. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, relationship challenges, depression, low self-esteem, or just feeling a bit overwhelmed, I am here to support, guide, and empower you to make positive changes in your life. I will walk with you on your personal journey and help you face the obstacles that are on your path…and if you don’t yet know where you want your path to lead and you are struggling to find your sense of meaning and purpose, I am here to help you with that too.
Life can be tough...especially when we try to tackle its challenges alone. No matter the size of your struggles, they are valid and worth addressing. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, relationship challenges, depression, low self-esteem, or just feeling a bit overwhelmed, I am here to support, guide, and empower you to make positive changes in your life. I will walk with you on your personal journey and help you face the obstacles that are on your path…and if you don’t yet know where you want your path to lead and you are struggling to find your sense of meaning and purpose, I am here to help you with that too.
(757) 453-1392 View (757) 453-1392
Photo of Karli Covell, Resident in Counseling in 23185, VA
Karli Covell
Resident in Counseling, MSEd
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Life can come with changes and some life circumstances can be challenging to our mental being. My goal as a counselor is to help others navigate their thoughts and feelings surrounding their concerns and help them develop self-constructive tools.
Life can come with changes and some life circumstances can be challenging to our mental being. My goal as a counselor is to help others navigate their thoughts and feelings surrounding their concerns and help them develop self-constructive tools.
(757) 993-4920 View (757) 993-4920
Photo of Elizabeth Bailey-Grincius, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Elizabeth Bailey-Grincius
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not accepting new clients
NOT ACCEPTING CLIENTS AT THIS TIME. Sometimes it seems like things are never going to get better. Life feels unbearable. You didn’t plan for this. It’s unfair. You have suffered for a long time. You deserve support from a therapist who is validating, competent, tolerant, reliable, and authentic, who values your honest feedback in sessions, and is unafraid to speak up and say what needs to be said. You are doing the best you can AND have it in you to try harder and do better with the right support.
NOT ACCEPTING CLIENTS AT THIS TIME. Sometimes it seems like things are never going to get better. Life feels unbearable. You didn’t plan for this. It’s unfair. You have suffered for a long time. You deserve support from a therapist who is validating, competent, tolerant, reliable, and authentic, who values your honest feedback in sessions, and is unafraid to speak up and say what needs to be said. You are doing the best you can AND have it in you to try harder and do better with the right support.
(757) 906-3841 View (757) 906-3841
Photo of Kimberly Harlow, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Kimberly Harlow
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MEd, NCC
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
The most important aspect of counseling is to establish clear goals that the client and counselor set together. I have worked with many families in the Juvenile Justice Department as well as individual and couples counseling. Life can be overwhelming at times and that is why goals and collaborative contracts within the therapeutic relationship help to sort each issue out individually while working towards the desired outcome. I have treated symptoms of anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, adjustment disorders, marital conflict, tic disorders, and oppositional defiant disorder as well as conduct disorder.
The most important aspect of counseling is to establish clear goals that the client and counselor set together. I have worked with many families in the Juvenile Justice Department as well as individual and couples counseling. Life can be overwhelming at times and that is why goals and collaborative contracts within the therapeutic relationship help to sort each issue out individually while working towards the desired outcome. I have treated symptoms of anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, adjustment disorders, marital conflict, tic disorders, and oppositional defiant disorder as well as conduct disorder.
(757) 517-3865 View (757) 517-3865
Photo of Emma Taylor, Pre-Licensed Professional in 23185, VA
Emma Taylor
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, EdS
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
My therapeutic style is strengths-based, client-centered, and collaborative. It is my belief that all of us possess skills that can be identified and adapted to serve us for the better. I incorporate emotion-focused, cognitive-behavioral, experiential, and narrative techniques into my counseling. I also find it beneficial to draw upon my background in human development and family systems. Most importantly, I strive to meet each client where they are in their individual journey.
My therapeutic style is strengths-based, client-centered, and collaborative. It is my belief that all of us possess skills that can be identified and adapted to serve us for the better. I incorporate emotion-focused, cognitive-behavioral, experiential, and narrative techniques into my counseling. I also find it beneficial to draw upon my background in human development and family systems. Most importantly, I strive to meet each client where they are in their individual journey.
(757) 844-6750 View (757) 844-6750
Photo of Noelle Ostroff, Psychologist in 23185, VA
Noelle Ostroff
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not Accepting New Clients Currently. In-person or telehealth. Evening appointments. We all experience life challenges at some point that require a level of support and guidance that our friends and family may not be equipped to provide. Maybe there are problems in your relationship with your partner, child, or parents and you feel confused, hurt, or angry. Maybe you’re experiencing anxiety or sadness that has begun to impact the quality of your daily life. Maybe you’re struggling with low self-esteem or constant self-doubt. Or maybe you feel stuck and unsure how to move forward in life.
Not Accepting New Clients Currently. In-person or telehealth. Evening appointments. We all experience life challenges at some point that require a level of support and guidance that our friends and family may not be equipped to provide. Maybe there are problems in your relationship with your partner, child, or parents and you feel confused, hurt, or angry. Maybe you’re experiencing anxiety or sadness that has begun to impact the quality of your daily life. Maybe you’re struggling with low self-esteem or constant self-doubt. Or maybe you feel stuck and unsure how to move forward in life.
(757) 720-2537 View (757) 720-2537
Photo of Carli C Papas-Pasco, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 23185, VA
Carli C Papas-Pasco
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
If you can't fly then run, if you can't run then walk, if you can't walk then crawl, but whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward and thrive. This quote by Martin Luther King is what I support my patients to achieve in life. Whatever mental health or situations that you are suffering with, you deserve the opportunity to thrive and find happiness, success, worth and meaning in your life. Let's connect and discuss how I could support what goals you are trying to achieve.
If you can't fly then run, if you can't run then walk, if you can't walk then crawl, but whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward and thrive. This quote by Martin Luther King is what I support my patients to achieve in life. Whatever mental health or situations that you are suffering with, you deserve the opportunity to thrive and find happiness, success, worth and meaning in your life. Let's connect and discuss how I could support what goals you are trying to achieve.
(757) 250-4657 View (757) 250-4657
Photo of Elsa Beck, Licensed Professional Counselor in 23185, VA
Elsa Beck
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC(S), RPT-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not accepting new clients
NOTE: I Am Not Taking New Clients. I am a bilingual (Spanish & English) Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) (Supervisor) and Registered Play Therapist-Supervisor (RPT-S). I use a variety of approaches in my clinical work with children and adults including Play Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Approaches are selected and adapted to fit the client's age, interests, and treatment needs. I work with individual children and families, individual adults and couples, and offer parenting consultation.
NOTE: I Am Not Taking New Clients. I am a bilingual (Spanish & English) Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) (Supervisor) and Registered Play Therapist-Supervisor (RPT-S). I use a variety of approaches in my clinical work with children and adults including Play Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Approaches are selected and adapted to fit the client's age, interests, and treatment needs. I work with individual children and families, individual adults and couples, and offer parenting consultation.
(757) 517-2892 View (757) 517-2892
Photo of Maryam Tehrani, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 23185, VA
Maryam Tehrani
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Welcome! It is my passion to help you live a happier, calmer, and more fulfilling life. Much of our inexplicable behavior and habits that hold us back is rooted in genetics, childhood, family dynamics, trauma, and circumstances. I can help you understand what holds you back and find healing. Working together, I can help you overcome difficult transitions, relationships and parenting challenges. You will improve your mood, change negative lifestyle habits, reduce stress, build confidence, uncover passions, and eventually become your true self. My specialties include high conflict relationships and emotional abuse.
Welcome! It is my passion to help you live a happier, calmer, and more fulfilling life. Much of our inexplicable behavior and habits that hold us back is rooted in genetics, childhood, family dynamics, trauma, and circumstances. I can help you understand what holds you back and find healing. Working together, I can help you overcome difficult transitions, relationships and parenting challenges. You will improve your mood, change negative lifestyle habits, reduce stress, build confidence, uncover passions, and eventually become your true self. My specialties include high conflict relationships and emotional abuse.
(757) 654-5803 x617 View (757) 654-5803 x617
Photo of Laura Caitlin Suders, Supervisee in Clinical Social Work in 23185, VA
Laura Caitlin Suders
Supervisee in Clinical Social Work, MSW, RYT-200
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Williamsburg, VA 23185
All who walk the journey of life come to hurdles, challenges, and moments of joy. It can become overwhelming when the hurdles and challenges appear to outweigh the moments of joy. Through working together, we can tackle the challenges of the past by allowing space to process what has occurred, learn from the past ,and move forward with increased awareness of the present moment.
All who walk the journey of life come to hurdles, challenges, and moments of joy. It can become overwhelming when the hurdles and challenges appear to outweigh the moments of joy. Through working together, we can tackle the challenges of the past by allowing space to process what has occurred, learn from the past ,and move forward with increased awareness of the present moment.
(757) 280-4966 View (757) 280-4966
Photo of Gabrielle Crowe, LPC Intern in 23185, VA
Gabrielle Crowe
LPC Intern
Verified Verified
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Not accepting new clients
I welcome you just as you are, wherever you find yourself in life's journey, and I am honored to stand beside you as we work together to navigate life’s challenges. I strive to cultivate a therapeutic environment grounded in safety, trust, and unconditional positive regard for clients of all identities. Here, your voice, your values, your joy, and your rest are important.
I welcome you just as you are, wherever you find yourself in life's journey, and I am honored to stand beside you as we work together to navigate life’s challenges. I strive to cultivate a therapeutic environment grounded in safety, trust, and unconditional positive regard for clients of all identities. Here, your voice, your values, your joy, and your rest are important.
(757) 720-7754 View (757) 720-7754

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 23185

100+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in 23185 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
84% Depression
76% Coping Skills
73% Self Esteem
70% Relationship Issues
65% Trauma and PTSD
65% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

72% Anthem | Elevance
69% BlueCross and BlueShield
68% Aetna

How Therapists in 23185 see their clients

73% In Person and Online
27% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
18% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 23185?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.