Photo of Michelle Burke, LPC, AASECT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Michelle Burke
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, AASECT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Powhatan, VA 23139
Desire discrepancy is the #1 sexual complaint from couples. Guidance and education from a certified sex therapist can help with connection and intimacy. I help individuals and couples achieve self growth, deepen connections, improve intimacy, develop effective communication, and reach your desired goals. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and AASECT Certified Sex Therapist. My passion is helping individuals lead more fulfilling lives and helping couples regain a happy, healthy relationship. "Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time." - Thomas A Edison.
Desire discrepancy is the #1 sexual complaint from couples. Guidance and education from a certified sex therapist can help with connection and intimacy. I help individuals and couples achieve self growth, deepen connections, improve intimacy, develop effective communication, and reach your desired goals. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and AASECT Certified Sex Therapist. My passion is helping individuals lead more fulfilling lives and helping couples regain a happy, healthy relationship. "Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time." - Thomas A Edison.
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Photo of Teresa Pope, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Teresa Pope
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139  (Online Only)
Hello there, I'm Terry. I know it can be really tough to reach out for help; - sometimes though, just making that first call for an appointment can provide some relief. I love helping folks on their journey to feeling better! I particularly enjoy working with couples experiencing communication problems as well as rebuilding trust after an affair. I also specialize in treating anxiety and depression, and trauma (PTSD). My job as your therapist is to assist you in setting achievable goals and creating a path to get there!
Hello there, I'm Terry. I know it can be really tough to reach out for help; - sometimes though, just making that first call for an appointment can provide some relief. I love helping folks on their journey to feeling better! I particularly enjoy working with couples experiencing communication problems as well as rebuilding trust after an affair. I also specialize in treating anxiety and depression, and trauma (PTSD). My job as your therapist is to assist you in setting achievable goals and creating a path to get there!
(804) 203-0569 View (804) 203-0569
Photo of Susan Adair Poore Cook, LPC, NCC, CIMHP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Susan Adair Poore Cook
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CIMHP
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Counseling & Wellness, LLC specializes in positive lifestyle changes. We offer personalized service to our clients to enhance their health and well-being. We assist individuals, children, and couples. We treat clients who have symptoms of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, as well as clients who are coping with stress, grief, or employment issues.
Counseling & Wellness, LLC specializes in positive lifestyle changes. We offer personalized service to our clients to enhance their health and well-being. We assist individuals, children, and couples. We treat clients who have symptoms of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, as well as clients who are coping with stress, grief, or employment issues.
(804) 403-8060 View (804) 403-8060
Photo of Hallie Gordon, MEd, Pre-Licensed Professional
Hallie Gordon
Pre-Licensed Professional, MEd
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Powhatan, VA 23139
Are you struggling in relationships? Constant arguing or one keeps shutting down and leaving? Do you get scared when things start to get serious? Is your role as a partner, parent, friend feeling overwhelming and hopeless? If you are ready to embark on a journey of emotional well-being to create thriving relationships, I'm here to help you every step of the way!
Are you struggling in relationships? Constant arguing or one keeps shutting down and leaving? Do you get scared when things start to get serious? Is your role as a partner, parent, friend feeling overwhelming and hopeless? If you are ready to embark on a journey of emotional well-being to create thriving relationships, I'm here to help you every step of the way!
(804) 808-1944 View (804) 808-1944
Photo of Linda Barker, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Linda Barker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Linda is a licensed clinical social worker who obtained her undergraduate degree in sociology from Oklahoma State University and her graduate degree in social work from Virginia Commonwealth University. She has worked in the field of mental health and in health care arenas for over 25 years. Linda is available to offer individual counseling sessions for adult clients aged 18 years and older. She also has experience in couples counseling and in the provision of group therapy. Linda understands that for most people the decision to enter into therapy is not taken lightly.
Linda is a licensed clinical social worker who obtained her undergraduate degree in sociology from Oklahoma State University and her graduate degree in social work from Virginia Commonwealth University. She has worked in the field of mental health and in health care arenas for over 25 years. Linda is available to offer individual counseling sessions for adult clients aged 18 years and older. She also has experience in couples counseling and in the provision of group therapy. Linda understands that for most people the decision to enter into therapy is not taken lightly.
(804) 369-8898 View (804) 369-8898
Photo of Sarah Glass, MA,  LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sarah Glass
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Sarah Glass is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia who has been practicing since 1996. She has an M.A. in Counseling Psychology from University of Notre Dame and a B.A. in Psychology from Kalamazoo College. Sarah uses a person-centered, strength-based approach that uses evidence-based techniques to support clients in developing effective coping strategies, improving relationships, and achieving their personal goals. She is committed to enhancing clients’ overall well-being and quality of life through collaborative and compassionate care.
Sarah Glass is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia who has been practicing since 1996. She has an M.A. in Counseling Psychology from University of Notre Dame and a B.A. in Psychology from Kalamazoo College. Sarah uses a person-centered, strength-based approach that uses evidence-based techniques to support clients in developing effective coping strategies, improving relationships, and achieving their personal goals. She is committed to enhancing clients’ overall well-being and quality of life through collaborative and compassionate care.
(804) 207-4076 View (804) 207-4076
Photo of Sarah Granato, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sarah Granato
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Sarah is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who works with children, adolescents, and adults. Sarah earned her master's degree in social work from Monmouth University School of Social Work. Sarah has more than six years of experience in community and school based settings where she provided group and individual therapy services to her clients. Sarah recognizes that everyone's needs are different and takes a person centered approach meeting the client where they are and focuses on their needs.
Sarah is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who works with children, adolescents, and adults. Sarah earned her master's degree in social work from Monmouth University School of Social Work. Sarah has more than six years of experience in community and school based settings where she provided group and individual therapy services to her clients. Sarah recognizes that everyone's needs are different and takes a person centered approach meeting the client where they are and focuses on their needs.
(804) 993-8144 View (804) 993-8144
Photo of Brandon Lowe, LPC-R
Brandon Lowe
Resident in Counseling, LPC-R
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Powhatan, VA 23139
Are you contemplating the end of your relationship, feeling like you've exhausted every effort? Despite your hope for change, you find yourselves trapped in repetitive cycles of conflict. It's a challenging situation—we love deeply, yearning for a connection that feels elusive. Discovering how to both love and allow ourselves to be loved becomes a complex puzzle. If you're navigating these struggles, let's embark on a journey together to rekindle the connection and find new paths for love to thrive.
Are you contemplating the end of your relationship, feeling like you've exhausted every effort? Despite your hope for change, you find yourselves trapped in repetitive cycles of conflict. It's a challenging situation—we love deeply, yearning for a connection that feels elusive. Discovering how to both love and allow ourselves to be loved becomes a complex puzzle. If you're navigating these struggles, let's embark on a journey together to rekindle the connection and find new paths for love to thrive.
(804) 294-4661 View (804) 294-4661
Photo of Kim Giancaspro, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kim Giancaspro
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
My clients are adults who are struggling with depression, anxiety, mood difficulties, and/or a history of trauma. Others are in the midst of a life transition of some sort and have chosen to engage in therapy as a tool to assist them in learning new coping strategies. Research has confirmed that talk therapy - sometimes referred to as psychotherapy - is often very helpful for folks who are dealing with mood and/or relationship difficulties. In some cases (but not always), people will benefit from medication as well.
My clients are adults who are struggling with depression, anxiety, mood difficulties, and/or a history of trauma. Others are in the midst of a life transition of some sort and have chosen to engage in therapy as a tool to assist them in learning new coping strategies. Research has confirmed that talk therapy - sometimes referred to as psychotherapy - is often very helpful for folks who are dealing with mood and/or relationship difficulties. In some cases (but not always), people will benefit from medication as well.
(804) 265-4262 View (804) 265-4262
Photo of Jane Kudlas, PhD, Psychologist
Jane Kudlas
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Jane Kudlas, Ph.D. is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist in the State of Virginia and a Member of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Kudlas has over 25 years of experience working as a mental health provider in inpatient, school-based, and outpatient settings. She completed her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University following a clinical internship at the Medical University of South Carolina.
Jane Kudlas, Ph.D. is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist in the State of Virginia and a Member of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Kudlas has over 25 years of experience working as a mental health provider in inpatient, school-based, and outpatient settings. She completed her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University following a clinical internship at the Medical University of South Carolina.
(804) 635-3189 View (804) 635-3189
Photo of Courtenay James Baber - Gray Horse Counseling , MS, LPC , Licensed Professional Counselor
Gray Horse Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Powhatan, VA 23139
Your friends tell you that you got it so together. And you do. You can go anywhere, carry on a conversation, smile, and appear to have a great time. But that's just it. It's just an appearance. There's nothing behind it. You're just going through the motions. You're working so hard to feel something to put on the front. You remember what it was like when you had to put on your happy face when you left the house because no one was allowed to know what was going on at home. You didn't think that would happen again when you left home and became an adult. But here you are doing the same thing again. Hoping for different results.
Your friends tell you that you got it so together. And you do. You can go anywhere, carry on a conversation, smile, and appear to have a great time. But that's just it. It's just an appearance. There's nothing behind it. You're just going through the motions. You're working so hard to feel something to put on the front. You remember what it was like when you had to put on your happy face when you left the house because no one was allowed to know what was going on at home. You didn't think that would happen again when you left home and became an adult. But here you are doing the same thing again. Hoping for different results.
(804) 375-5716 View (804) 375-5716
Photo of Kimberly Warner, LCSW, CSAC-S, ADHDCCP, EMDRIA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kimberly Warner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSAC-S, ADHDCCP, EMDRIA
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Kimberly Warner is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker-Supervisory and a Credentialed Substance Abuse Counselor (CSAC)-Supervisory, in the states: Virginia and New York. She has 13+ years of experience as a mental health, trauma, and chemical dependency therapist, and 6 years of Clinical Supervision & Director experience. Kim is credentialed in various evidence based therapeutic modules related to those dealing with trauma/adversities.
Kimberly Warner is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker-Supervisory and a Credentialed Substance Abuse Counselor (CSAC)-Supervisory, in the states: Virginia and New York. She has 13+ years of experience as a mental health, trauma, and chemical dependency therapist, and 6 years of Clinical Supervision & Director experience. Kim is credentialed in various evidence based therapeutic modules related to those dealing with trauma/adversities.
(804) 600-4671 View (804) 600-4671
Photo of Shelia Williams, MDiv,  LPC,  LSATP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Shelia Williams
Licensed Professional Counselor, MDiv, LPC, LSATP
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Shelia E. Williams is a Licensed Professional Counselor and Substance Abuse Professional, who has been practicing since 2005. She graduated from Liberty University with a Master of Arts degree in Professional Counseling. Shelia believes in an eclectic approach which meets a person where they are. In addition she believes in understanding each client as a unique person with their own particular problems and then selecting research-based techniques from across different types of therapy in order to help that client grow in a personally meaningful way.
Shelia E. Williams is a Licensed Professional Counselor and Substance Abuse Professional, who has been practicing since 2005. She graduated from Liberty University with a Master of Arts degree in Professional Counseling. Shelia believes in an eclectic approach which meets a person where they are. In addition she believes in understanding each client as a unique person with their own particular problems and then selecting research-based techniques from across different types of therapy in order to help that client grow in a personally meaningful way.
(804) 657-6188 View (804) 657-6188
Photo of Alyssa Shadbolt, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Alyssa Shadbolt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Alyssa Shadbolt is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia who has been practicing since 2018. She has a Masters in Clinical Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University. Alyssa provides strengths-based therapy based on positive psychology to assist clientele with identifying concerns and working as a team to find solutions. Alyssa's favorite thing is spending time with family (including pets), watching TV, doing arts and crafts, and relaxing.
Alyssa Shadbolt is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia who has been practicing since 2018. She has a Masters in Clinical Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University. Alyssa provides strengths-based therapy based on positive psychology to assist clientele with identifying concerns and working as a team to find solutions. Alyssa's favorite thing is spending time with family (including pets), watching TV, doing arts and crafts, and relaxing.
(804) 979-2889 View (804) 979-2889
Photo of Martin Pool, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Martin Pool
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139  (Online Only)
I have a 25yr career of working with families, children, and adults. I am interested in finding the connection between an individual's history and patterns from their history that continue to interfere with that person's current life. This is a process of co-exploration. Its aim is to make changes to those behaviors that are agreed to be the focus from the beginning of treatment. I draw on the most current thinking about the impact of developmental stress or developmental trauma to guide my practice with adults and especially with understanding the connection between children and their caretakers.
I have a 25yr career of working with families, children, and adults. I am interested in finding the connection between an individual's history and patterns from their history that continue to interfere with that person's current life. This is a process of co-exploration. Its aim is to make changes to those behaviors that are agreed to be the focus from the beginning of treatment. I draw on the most current thinking about the impact of developmental stress or developmental trauma to guide my practice with adults and especially with understanding the connection between children and their caretakers.
(804) 375-5545 View (804) 375-5545
Photo of Alyssa Maxie - Beyond The Image Christian Counseling., LRIC, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Alyssa Maxie - Beyond The Image Christian Counseling.
Pre-Licensed Professional, LRIC, MA
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139  (Online Only)
-Strength for Today- "This too shall pass". Our world is filled with people who fight silent battles every day, struggling to understand and cope with their mental health. I am here to tell them that they are not alone. I believe that in the midst of darkness, there is still hope and a light at the end of the tunnel. I believe strongly that everyone can benefit from attending therapy. My ultimate passion is to help others through their struggles in difficult times. I believe in an individualized, patient-centered approach because everyone’s needs are different and therapy is not "one-size-fits-all".
-Strength for Today- "This too shall pass". Our world is filled with people who fight silent battles every day, struggling to understand and cope with their mental health. I am here to tell them that they are not alone. I believe that in the midst of darkness, there is still hope and a light at the end of the tunnel. I believe strongly that everyone can benefit from attending therapy. My ultimate passion is to help others through their struggles in difficult times. I believe in an individualized, patient-centered approach because everyone’s needs are different and therapy is not "one-size-fits-all".
(804) 395-6861 View (804) 395-6861
Photo of Cari Cook, MA, LPC, CSOTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Cari Cook
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CSOTP
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Waitlist for new clients
Hello friends. My goal is to create a non-judgmental and calm environment so you or your family member can focus on the life issues that matter to you. I want to help you explore your strengths so that together we can work towards goals that, in turn, will help you to break down the barriers that are holding back change and fulfillment. I meet you where you are through humor, empathy, and curiosity. Come and kick off your shoes and get comfy (and a little uncomfortable at times), or maybe lace up your shoes and take a walk with me while we tackle the hard stuff together.
Hello friends. My goal is to create a non-judgmental and calm environment so you or your family member can focus on the life issues that matter to you. I want to help you explore your strengths so that together we can work towards goals that, in turn, will help you to break down the barriers that are holding back change and fulfillment. I meet you where you are through humor, empathy, and curiosity. Come and kick off your shoes and get comfy (and a little uncomfortable at times), or maybe lace up your shoes and take a walk with me while we tackle the hard stuff together.
(804) 589-4375 View (804) 589-4375
Photo of Nikole R Jiggetts - Replay Counseling & Consulting, LCSW-C, LCSW, RPT-S, CTP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Replay Counseling & Consulting
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LCSW, RPT-S, CTP
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139  (Online Only)
As an LCSW, Registered Play Therapist and Certified Trauma Practitioner, I enjoy helping individuals overcome their problems. I have been working with children, adolescents and their families for over 20 years and utilize expressive therapies, including art, play and yoga, to help them heal. Since the pandemic, I have shifted my focus towards working more with adults, parents and teens who experience anxiety, or are recovering from trauma or have symptoms of depression. Many of my clients desire guidance in life transitions and self love.
As an LCSW, Registered Play Therapist and Certified Trauma Practitioner, I enjoy helping individuals overcome their problems. I have been working with children, adolescents and their families for over 20 years and utilize expressive therapies, including art, play and yoga, to help them heal. Since the pandemic, I have shifted my focus towards working more with adults, parents and teens who experience anxiety, or are recovering from trauma or have symptoms of depression. Many of my clients desire guidance in life transitions and self love.
(804) 286-6105 View (804) 286-6105
Photo of Wendy Couch, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Wendy Couch
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
Wendy Couch is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) who has over 8 years of clinical experience. She works with young adults, adults, and geriatrics and has experience working in a variety of clinical settings including community mental health and the VA Department of Corrections. Wendy has worked with individuals who have depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety, substance, and alcohol use disorders. She also has experience working with individuals experiencing major life transitions including divorce, occupational changes, grief, and stress.
Wendy Couch is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) who has over 8 years of clinical experience. She works with young adults, adults, and geriatrics and has experience working in a variety of clinical settings including community mental health and the VA Department of Corrections. Wendy has worked with individuals who have depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety, substance, and alcohol use disorders. She also has experience working with individuals experiencing major life transitions including divorce, occupational changes, grief, and stress.
(804) 374-8907 View (804) 374-8907
Photo of Earl W Allen - Family and Children Counseling , MA, MDiv, Licensed Professional Counselor
Family and Children Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, MDiv
Verified Verified
Powhatan, VA 23139
You, your family, and your children matter to many people. Sometimes in our lives, it’s remarkable the happenings that we can't comprehend. This is why counseling can help anyone and everyone get a better understanding of their situation by receiving the correct type of treatment in order to move on with their lives. Mentalities do not have to hold us back for the rest of our lives. With the right tools and understanding of how to use them, and with God’s help, you can overcome all obstacles. My sole purpose is to help people get back into loving and caring relationships with one another and, with self-care, have fun and enjoy life!
You, your family, and your children matter to many people. Sometimes in our lives, it’s remarkable the happenings that we can't comprehend. This is why counseling can help anyone and everyone get a better understanding of their situation by receiving the correct type of treatment in order to move on with their lives. Mentalities do not have to hold us back for the rest of our lives. With the right tools and understanding of how to use them, and with God’s help, you can overcome all obstacles. My sole purpose is to help people get back into loving and caring relationships with one another and, with self-care, have fun and enjoy life!
(804) 352-6274 View (804) 352-6274

See more therapy options for 23139

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 23139

20+

Average cost per session

$145

Therapists in 23139 who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
91% Depression
82% Trauma and PTSD
55% Grief
55% Self Esteem
50% Relationship Issues
50% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% Anthem | Elevance
85% Aetna
85% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 23139 see their clients

82% In Person and Online
18% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 23139?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.