Therapists in 22032

Photo of Claire Bartick, Psychologist in 22032, VA
Claire Bartick
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
As a Clinical Psychologist, I specialize in psychotherapy for individuals, couples, and families. People often come to me because, despite their efforts to change, they end up in the same cycles...cycles of anxiety, depression, disordered eating, relationship struggles, isolation, procrastination, workaholism...the list goes on and on. People often wonder "why can't I just change?" These cycles of behavior are driven by our life experiences and sense of ourself and others. Together, we will explore these ideas so that you can begin to create newer positive cycles of peace, calm, joy, contentment, intimacy, health, and fulfillment.
As a Clinical Psychologist, I specialize in psychotherapy for individuals, couples, and families. People often come to me because, despite their efforts to change, they end up in the same cycles...cycles of anxiety, depression, disordered eating, relationship struggles, isolation, procrastination, workaholism...the list goes on and on. People often wonder "why can't I just change?" These cycles of behavior are driven by our life experiences and sense of ourself and others. Together, we will explore these ideas so that you can begin to create newer positive cycles of peace, calm, joy, contentment, intimacy, health, and fulfillment.
(571) 217-5726 View (571) 217-5726
Photo of Susan Klemmer, Resident in Counseling in 22032, VA
Susan Klemmer
Resident in Counseling, MEd
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
Each of us has the capacity to change and to become the best self we have to offer ourselves and the world. Whether you are facing depression, addiction, loneliness, social anxiety, grief or any other ongoing issue that prevents you from reaching authenticity in your life, I am here to listen and to help. We can work through your concerns and put you on a path to implement changes, giving you the ability to be the best version of yourself.
Each of us has the capacity to change and to become the best self we have to offer ourselves and the world. Whether you are facing depression, addiction, loneliness, social anxiety, grief or any other ongoing issue that prevents you from reaching authenticity in your life, I am here to listen and to help. We can work through your concerns and put you on a path to implement changes, giving you the ability to be the best version of yourself.
(703) 457-1520 View (703) 457-1520
Photo of Northern Virginia OAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22032, VA
Northern Virginia OAC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
OAC is a professional mental health care practice that strives to provide excellent and affordable counseling services to adults in our community. OAC is an affordable and accessible resource to individuals who are experiencing emotional pain, struggling with family conflict, family and relationship challenges, life transitions, physical disabilities, grief and loss, anxiety and depression. OAC's goal is to establish a strong therapeutic alliance with a relationship based on trust, commitment and support.
OAC is a professional mental health care practice that strives to provide excellent and affordable counseling services to adults in our community. OAC is an affordable and accessible resource to individuals who are experiencing emotional pain, struggling with family conflict, family and relationship challenges, life transitions, physical disabilities, grief and loss, anxiety and depression. OAC's goal is to establish a strong therapeutic alliance with a relationship based on trust, commitment and support.
(571) 556-9469 View (571) 556-9469
Al Friedman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who obtained my Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from University of Maryland and Master’s degree in Social Work from the University of Maryland at Baltimore. Since 1986, I have been working with children, teenagers, and adults who experience depression, anxiety, trauma, family and relationship challenges, and adults with a serious mental illness. I have worked in foster care, hospital, outpatient, and community-based settings. I strive to be warm, open, encouraging, and direct and combine experience, education, creativity, and sense of humor with a humane, down-to-earth approach.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who obtained my Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from University of Maryland and Master’s degree in Social Work from the University of Maryland at Baltimore. Since 1986, I have been working with children, teenagers, and adults who experience depression, anxiety, trauma, family and relationship challenges, and adults with a serious mental illness. I have worked in foster care, hospital, outpatient, and community-based settings. I strive to be warm, open, encouraging, and direct and combine experience, education, creativity, and sense of humor with a humane, down-to-earth approach.
(571) 556-4024 View (571) 556-4024
Photo of Julia Bettge Counseling, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Julia Bettge Counseling, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC, CATP
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Thank you for visiting my page! I specialize in working with teens (ages 14+), college students, and young adults struggling with anxiety, depression, life adjustment challenges, and traumatic experiences. Is your teen unusually down, withdrawn, or unmotivated? Are you concerned that your child is constantly worrying about what others think or has become highly self-critical? Perhaps your child needs guidance in recovering from a traumatic experience. I provide my clients with a safe space to open up, challenge limiting mindsets, and learn effective coping strategies that can benefit them throughout their lives.
Thank you for visiting my page! I specialize in working with teens (ages 14+), college students, and young adults struggling with anxiety, depression, life adjustment challenges, and traumatic experiences. Is your teen unusually down, withdrawn, or unmotivated? Are you concerned that your child is constantly worrying about what others think or has become highly self-critical? Perhaps your child needs guidance in recovering from a traumatic experience. I provide my clients with a safe space to open up, challenge limiting mindsets, and learn effective coping strategies that can benefit them throughout their lives.
(703) 337-3886 View (703) 337-3886
Photo of Tika Trotter-Mason, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Tika Trotter-Mason
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032  (Online Only)
No matter who you are or where you are in life, it has it's challenges! Don't go it alone! I'm passionate about creating the space for you to be your authentic self while helping you take steps to live your best life. I provide creative interventions for youth (8-18), especially those involved in court services, school disciplinary action, foster care, or have had traumatic experiences. I also work directly with families to help create the communication and atmosphere they desire. I help adults find purpose and direction, as well as strategies for managing depression, anxiety, life's stressors and transitions.
No matter who you are or where you are in life, it has it's challenges! Don't go it alone! I'm passionate about creating the space for you to be your authentic self while helping you take steps to live your best life. I provide creative interventions for youth (8-18), especially those involved in court services, school disciplinary action, foster care, or have had traumatic experiences. I also work directly with families to help create the communication and atmosphere they desire. I help adults find purpose and direction, as well as strategies for managing depression, anxiety, life's stressors and transitions.
(571) 946-5452 View (571) 946-5452
Photo of Michael Schaub, Ph.D., PLLC, Psychologist in 22032, VA
Michael Schaub, Ph.D., PLLC
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
Do you struggle with depression, anxiety, relationship conflicts, self-esteem, or career concerns? Do these issues keep you from reaching your full potential? Together, we will create a path to wellness so that you can focus on the aspects of your life that bring meaning and fulfillment. I am a licensed clinical psychologist who works with adults, adolescents, and couples to overcome life's challenges, improve mental health, develop strategies to manage careers, and have satisfying relationships. I am holistic in my work and I am able to integrate both mental health and career counseling if this approach fits your needs.
Do you struggle with depression, anxiety, relationship conflicts, self-esteem, or career concerns? Do these issues keep you from reaching your full potential? Together, we will create a path to wellness so that you can focus on the aspects of your life that bring meaning and fulfillment. I am a licensed clinical psychologist who works with adults, adolescents, and couples to overcome life's challenges, improve mental health, develop strategies to manage careers, and have satisfying relationships. I am holistic in my work and I am able to integrate both mental health and career counseling if this approach fits your needs.
(703) 828-4625 View (703) 828-4625
Photo of Ariana Mader, Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in 22032, VA
Ariana Mader
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MA, LCMHC, NCC
Verified
10 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032  (Online Only)
Sometimes we find ourselves in a place where we feel stuck or lost and have a sense of wanting to change the way things are. Therapy can help. My aim is to provide you a safe, compassionate, non-judgmental space where you can explore the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that are distressing or overwhelming. Therapy is a co-collaborative process in which you gain greater insight into yourself, a better understanding of your own strengths, and learn how to enact positive changes in your present life. I provide individual and couples therapy to adults of all backgrounds and experiences to clients based in NC or VA.
Sometimes we find ourselves in a place where we feel stuck or lost and have a sense of wanting to change the way things are. Therapy can help. My aim is to provide you a safe, compassionate, non-judgmental space where you can explore the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that are distressing or overwhelming. Therapy is a co-collaborative process in which you gain greater insight into yourself, a better understanding of your own strengths, and learn how to enact positive changes in your present life. I provide individual and couples therapy to adults of all backgrounds and experiences to clients based in NC or VA.
(703) 343-9019 View (703) 343-9019
Photo of Melissa Douglas, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Melissa Douglas
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
Everyone needs a place for space. A space to be heard. A space to share whatever you want. A space to process feelings, try out new perspectives, laugh, cry, grieve, be angry, talk about betrayal, to fight inner demons, to be brave, to be nervous, to simply BE whoever you are. I am a licensed professional counselor with over 20 years of experience providing space for people to process whatever they are dealing with. People come to me with a wide range of different issues. I am an eclectic therapist but tend to focus on using cognitive behavioral therapy. I love to meet new people, and I would love to work with you.
Everyone needs a place for space. A space to be heard. A space to share whatever you want. A space to process feelings, try out new perspectives, laugh, cry, grieve, be angry, talk about betrayal, to fight inner demons, to be brave, to be nervous, to simply BE whoever you are. I am a licensed professional counselor with over 20 years of experience providing space for people to process whatever they are dealing with. People come to me with a wide range of different issues. I am an eclectic therapist but tend to focus on using cognitive behavioral therapy. I love to meet new people, and I would love to work with you.
(571) 554-2394 View (571) 554-2394
Photo of Nicole Brzozowski, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Nicole Brzozowski
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032  (Online Only)
I support clients healing goals through self-compassion and mindfulness skills. Through compassionate reflection on relationships with self, family, friends, and society, I work with clients to identify and heal patterns of painful self-talk; patterns that can make us feel stuck and overwhelmed. I specialize in anxiety, depression, and trauma and have served diverse clients of all races, genders, and sexual orientations. As a mixed race Korean-American who has worked domestically and abroad, I also welcome the opportunity to work with clients facing challenges related to culture, identity, and intergenerational issues.
I support clients healing goals through self-compassion and mindfulness skills. Through compassionate reflection on relationships with self, family, friends, and society, I work with clients to identify and heal patterns of painful self-talk; patterns that can make us feel stuck and overwhelmed. I specialize in anxiety, depression, and trauma and have served diverse clients of all races, genders, and sexual orientations. As a mixed race Korean-American who has worked domestically and abroad, I also welcome the opportunity to work with clients facing challenges related to culture, identity, and intergenerational issues.
(844) 763-2011 View (844) 763-2011
Photo of Shaina Lester- Rivers Of Hope Counseling, LPC Intern in 22032, VA
Shaina Lester- Rivers Of Hope Counseling
LPC Intern, MEd
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032  (Online Only)
I am very passionate about assisting others on their healing journey. I use a non-judgmental and compassionate approach when working with clients. I have vast experience working with children, adolescents, adults, and families as a whole. I have experience working with individuals in the LGBTQIA+ community. I have worked with many diagnoses’ including ADHD, ODD, Depression, Anxiety, Autism, PTSD, Gender Dysphoria, grief-loss issues, and more. During treatment, I use a combination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Person-Centered Therapy, Family Systems, and more.
I am very passionate about assisting others on their healing journey. I use a non-judgmental and compassionate approach when working with clients. I have vast experience working with children, adolescents, adults, and families as a whole. I have experience working with individuals in the LGBTQIA+ community. I have worked with many diagnoses’ including ADHD, ODD, Depression, Anxiety, Autism, PTSD, Gender Dysphoria, grief-loss issues, and more. During treatment, I use a combination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Person-Centered Therapy, Family Systems, and more.
(855) 326-4673 View (855) 326-4673
Photo of Pamela Powers, Pre-Licensed Professional in 22032, VA
Pamela Powers
Pre-Licensed Professional, CCTP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032
I am a Certified Complex Trauma Professional Level I and EMDR trained. I have years of experience working with individuals with complex trauma, anxiety, depression, PTSD and chronic pain. I work with children and adults utilizing my professional and personal experience to create a collaborative and person-centered approach. I utilize cognitive behavior therapy and dialectical behavior therapy to assist others in getting to the root cause of what is creating discord in their life and work towards finding their personal empowerment. I have a diverse background and strive to create a welcoming space for all people.
I am a Certified Complex Trauma Professional Level I and EMDR trained. I have years of experience working with individuals with complex trauma, anxiety, depression, PTSD and chronic pain. I work with children and adults utilizing my professional and personal experience to create a collaborative and person-centered approach. I utilize cognitive behavior therapy and dialectical behavior therapy to assist others in getting to the root cause of what is creating discord in their life and work towards finding their personal empowerment. I have a diverse background and strive to create a welcoming space for all people.
(571) 200-7115 View (571) 200-7115
Photo of Dawn Weiss Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22032, VA
Dawn Weiss Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
You did it! One of the bravest launches you will ever make is the journey toward self-care, well-being, and healing. Well done. I’m so happy to see you. Here’s the deal…this isn’t easy and by now you have search fatigue and yet still aren’t sure. I’ll make this quick and simple. I will show up with you. I’m not only a trained professional but I’m a mother of four and a wife and a human…I get it. Sure, I’ve got experience, strategies and interventions, but mostly what I have is empathy, non-judgment and space to unpack, work through and feel supported and empowered. I got you; until you do.
You did it! One of the bravest launches you will ever make is the journey toward self-care, well-being, and healing. Well done. I’m so happy to see you. Here’s the deal…this isn’t easy and by now you have search fatigue and yet still aren’t sure. I’ll make this quick and simple. I will show up with you. I’m not only a trained professional but I’m a mother of four and a wife and a human…I get it. Sure, I’ve got experience, strategies and interventions, but mostly what I have is empathy, non-judgment and space to unpack, work through and feel supported and empowered. I got you; until you do.
(571) 458-1793 View (571) 458-1793
Leslie M Martin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSAC, MAC, CSOTP
Verified
4 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032
Are you interested in working with a creative therapist who motivates you to progress in therapy. I use active therapies as it is appropriate and requested. I want to see you reach your potential as quickly as possible to restore health and balance to your life.
Are you interested in working with a creative therapist who motivates you to progress in therapy. I use active therapies as it is appropriate and requested. I want to see you reach your potential as quickly as possible to restore health and balance to your life.
(703) 932-7107 View (703) 932-7107
Photo of Gil Institute for Trauma, Recovery and Education, Psychologist in 22032, VA
Gil Institute for Trauma, Recovery and Education
Psychologist, LCSW, LPC, PhD, RPT, RPT-S
Fairfax, VA 22032
Gil Institute is an evidence-based group private practice that provides trauma- and practice-informed mental health services to individuals, especially young children, who have endured traumatic experiences. Our specific goals are to empower clients to access reparative energy, to acknowledge and express their pain in a variety of verbal and nonverbal ways, and to reduce the power of a traumatic event or relationship, so that healthy choices become real options.
Gil Institute is an evidence-based group private practice that provides trauma- and practice-informed mental health services to individuals, especially young children, who have endured traumatic experiences. Our specific goals are to empower clients to access reparative energy, to acknowledge and express their pain in a variety of verbal and nonverbal ways, and to reduce the power of a traumatic event or relationship, so that healthy choices become real options.
(703) 592-6917 View (703) 592-6917
Photo of Peter Whang, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Peter Whang
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LCPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fairfax, VA 22032
In my private practice, I offer individual, couple, and group therapy.
In my private practice, I offer individual, couple, and group therapy.
(571) 620-6437 View (571) 620-6437
Photo of Myriam Goldin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22032, VA
Myriam Goldin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RPT-S
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
I am a founding partner of Gil Institute for Trauma Recovery and Education, LLC. Gil Institute is a private group practice committed to providing evidence- and practice-informed mental health services for traumatized children, youth, and adults. My clinical career has focused on facilitating emotional healing for at-risk children and adolescents exposed to multiple traumatic experiences. I have worked in various clinical and educational settings in the Northern Virginia area providing guidance and support to bilingual and bi-cultural children (and families) experiencing socio-emotional and educational challenges.
I am a founding partner of Gil Institute for Trauma Recovery and Education, LLC. Gil Institute is a private group practice committed to providing evidence- and practice-informed mental health services for traumatized children, youth, and adults. My clinical career has focused on facilitating emotional healing for at-risk children and adolescents exposed to multiple traumatic experiences. I have worked in various clinical and educational settings in the Northern Virginia area providing guidance and support to bilingual and bi-cultural children (and families) experiencing socio-emotional and educational challenges.
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Photo of Nancy Mercer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22032, VA
Nancy Mercer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
Supporting individuals and families who need help navigating complex community systems. The goal of the work is to help individuals and families create mutually rewarding relationships that value and leverage the talents and gifts each partner brings to the "equation"; and maximize the use of public and private resources to provide sustainable supportive services. Through a combination of goal identification; resource development; skill and confidence building; and creating mutually rewarding relationships, Inclusion Consultants helps individuals and families who are facing complex community challenges create opportunities for new ways of navigating and enjoying one's world--for a lifetime.
Supporting individuals and families who need help navigating complex community systems. The goal of the work is to help individuals and families create mutually rewarding relationships that value and leverage the talents and gifts each partner brings to the "equation"; and maximize the use of public and private resources to provide sustainable supportive services. Through a combination of goal identification; resource development; skill and confidence building; and creating mutually rewarding relationships, Inclusion Consultants helps individuals and families who are facing complex community challenges create opportunities for new ways of navigating and enjoying one's world--for a lifetime.
(703) 991-6062 View (703) 991-6062
Photo of Patricia Pearson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22032, VA
Patricia Pearson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MA, RPT,S
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
Initially, therapy can help us learn skills to cope with our anxious or painful feelings. It can help us manage stressful situations and feel more stable. Then therapy provides a safe place where together we can dig deeper to discover the causes of our feelings. Through the therapeutic relationship we become aware. The awareness glares so bright that change is inevitable.
Initially, therapy can help us learn skills to cope with our anxious or painful feelings. It can help us manage stressful situations and feel more stable. Then therapy provides a safe place where together we can dig deeper to discover the causes of our feelings. Through the therapeutic relationship we become aware. The awareness glares so bright that change is inevitable.
(703) 940-9052 View (703) 940-9052
Photo of Dr. Jon L. Thomas, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22032, VA
Dr. Jon L. Thomas
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC
Verified
Fairfax, VA 22032
I created and direct The ADHD College Success Guidance Program to help high school and college students succeed academically and grow successful careers. We offer college readiness/success training, individual, family, and group therapy, parent education/support, and academic coaching. These services are designed and integrated around a unique model developed during my 30+ years of clinical and research activities with people who have ADHD.
I created and direct The ADHD College Success Guidance Program to help high school and college students succeed academically and grow successful careers. We offer college readiness/success training, individual, family, and group therapy, parent education/support, and academic coaching. These services are designed and integrated around a unique model developed during my 30+ years of clinical and research activities with people who have ADHD.
(703) 935-5280 View (703) 935-5280

See more therapy options for 22032

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 22032

80+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in 22032 who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
86% Depression
83% Self Esteem
80% Relationship Issues
71% Grief
71% Coping Skills
64% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% BlueCross and BlueShield
79% Anthem | Elevance
71% CareFirst

How Therapists in 22032 see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
19% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 22032?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.