Photo of Beneath the Surface Therapy , Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in 20905, MD
Beneath the Surface Therapy
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LPC, LCPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Colesville, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Accepting clients for telehealth. Are you considered the one who has it all together making it difficult to get the support you need? Sometimes life's stressors overwhelm our ability to cope. However, I believe the greatest tools we have are within ourselves! We sometimes just don't know how to access them. My passion for therapy comes from empowering individuals to authentically lead the lives they choose to live, with consideration for cultural values and overall wellness.
Accepting clients for telehealth. Are you considered the one who has it all together making it difficult to get the support you need? Sometimes life's stressors overwhelm our ability to cope. However, I believe the greatest tools we have are within ourselves! We sometimes just don't know how to access them. My passion for therapy comes from empowering individuals to authentically lead the lives they choose to live, with consideration for cultural values and overall wellness.
(301) 450-8250 View (301) 450-8250
Photo of Stephanie Spicer Parkhurst, Psychologist in 20905, MD
Stephanie Spicer Parkhurst
Psychologist, PhD, LLC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Living with purpose, meaning and happiness calls for self-compassion as you work to heal and grow. I believe we each have the innate ability for personal development that is enhanced when we are in a safe and supportive relationship. It can be hard to ask for help so I work to establish a strong, trusting relationship where needs, experiences and goals can be explored and worked on without fear of being judged. I work with adults experiencing a broad range of concerns including anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, relationship issues, attention/concentration issues, and changing life circumstances.
Living with purpose, meaning and happiness calls for self-compassion as you work to heal and grow. I believe we each have the innate ability for personal development that is enhanced when we are in a safe and supportive relationship. It can be hard to ask for help so I work to establish a strong, trusting relationship where needs, experiences and goals can be explored and worked on without fear of being judged. I work with adults experiencing a broad range of concerns including anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, relationship issues, attention/concentration issues, and changing life circumstances.
(240) 801-6998 View (240) 801-6998
Photo of Holley and Associates, Inc., Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Holley and Associates, Inc.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW-C, LCSW VA, LCSW IL
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
"Let today be your best day ever” At Holley and Associates Inc., we provide mental health treatment for individuals and families. All treatment is done in the context of family...even a family of one. We will help you be the best YOU you can be. If you want to make a change, we want to help you. Call us"
"Let today be your best day ever” At Holley and Associates Inc., we provide mental health treatment for individuals and families. All treatment is done in the context of family...even a family of one. We will help you be the best YOU you can be. If you want to make a change, we want to help you. Call us"
(240) 392-1331 View (240) 392-1331
Photo of Chris Soves, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Chris Soves
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Looking for therapy can be difficult and overwhelming, but I am glad that you are here. You can expect a kind, compassionate, non-judgmental, and caring professional to help guide you through life’s troubles, stresses, and anxieties. My goal is not to change you, but to help you gain insight and perspective, walking with you as you navigate your journey.
Looking for therapy can be difficult and overwhelming, but I am glad that you are here. You can expect a kind, compassionate, non-judgmental, and caring professional to help guide you through life’s troubles, stresses, and anxieties. My goal is not to change you, but to help you gain insight and perspective, walking with you as you navigate your journey.
(443) 419-7619 View (443) 419-7619
Photo of Chris Haugen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Chris Haugen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, EdM
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905
It's hard to know how to choose a counselor. I'm happy to meet for an hour or two at no charge to make sure it is a good match. Be aware that I accept Maryland and Federal Workers' Compensation. It starts with feeling at ease with someone, and feeling understood. I'm willing to be helpful for people who struggle with addiction, but I may need people to see an additional counselor for more focused help on this. One's thinking and beliefs are important, and certainly there is an emotional component. I find that people feel a lot better when they feel their lives are moving forward.
It's hard to know how to choose a counselor. I'm happy to meet for an hour or two at no charge to make sure it is a good match. Be aware that I accept Maryland and Federal Workers' Compensation. It starts with feeling at ease with someone, and feeling understood. I'm willing to be helpful for people who struggle with addiction, but I may need people to see an additional counselor for more focused help on this. One's thinking and beliefs are important, and certainly there is an emotional component. I find that people feel a lot better when they feel their lives are moving forward.
(301) 591-6512 View (301) 591-6512
Photo of Kathy Wallens, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in 20905, MD
Kathy Wallens
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC, BC-DMT, NCC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Life is challenging no matter who we are. And there are times in our lives when we need extra support to get through the bumps and bruises life presents, whether suddenly or over a protracted period. I have been working with adults and seniors in the Washington DC area for over 40 years. I am experienced in working with individuals dealing with anxiety, depression, panic attacks and phobias, grief and loss, relationship issues and more. I also have extensive experience working with individuals with developmental delays.
Life is challenging no matter who we are. And there are times in our lives when we need extra support to get through the bumps and bruises life presents, whether suddenly or over a protracted period. I have been working with adults and seniors in the Washington DC area for over 40 years. I am experienced in working with individuals dealing with anxiety, depression, panic attacks and phobias, grief and loss, relationship issues and more. I also have extensive experience working with individuals with developmental delays.
(240) 696-4167 View (240) 696-4167
Photo of Ashley Henley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Ashley Henley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
I’m so happy you came across my profile and I am excited at the chance to walk in this journey to mental wellness with you! Whether you’ve been in therapy before and are looking for a fresh perspective, or are taking a leap and seeking support for the first time, we are going to do great work together! As a licensed therapist for more than 10 years, I have experience working with children, adolescents, adults, and couples in urban areas and with diverse cultural backgrounds.
I’m so happy you came across my profile and I am excited at the chance to walk in this journey to mental wellness with you! Whether you’ve been in therapy before and are looking for a fresh perspective, or are taking a leap and seeking support for the first time, we are going to do great work together! As a licensed therapist for more than 10 years, I have experience working with children, adolescents, adults, and couples in urban areas and with diverse cultural backgrounds.
(919) 849-3546 View (919) 849-3546
Photo of Evaluations by Dr. Shauna Moore Reynolds, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in 20905, MD
Evaluations by Dr. Shauna Moore Reynolds
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, EdD, LCPCs, LPC, NCC, ACS
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905
We specialize in mental health evaluations, doctor-approved bariatric surgery evaluations, psychological testing, domestic violence, and court-approved anger management evaluations and classes. We are a trusted provider offering a comprehensive range of mental health services. We provide virtual and in-person services with daytime, evening, and weekend hours. To get started, contact us at www.EvaluationsByDrShauna.com.
We specialize in mental health evaluations, doctor-approved bariatric surgery evaluations, psychological testing, domestic violence, and court-approved anger management evaluations and classes. We are a trusted provider offering a comprehensive range of mental health services. We provide virtual and in-person services with daytime, evening, and weekend hours. To get started, contact us at www.EvaluationsByDrShauna.com.
(301) 479-5848 View (301) 479-5848
Photo of Philip Gloninger, Psychologist in 20905, MD
Philip Gloninger
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905
In life, work, and relationships, do you ever find yourself feeling as if something is missing? Sitting with such a feeling is difficult, and, in our work together, I will use a blend of honesty and compassion to explore those feelings with you. My approach is warm, engaging, direct, and depth-oriented. As a therapist, I want to meet you where you are and to know you and how you think about yourself in the world. We will create a space to collaboratively discover how certain beliefs may be misperceptions or adding to the sense of limitation that you feel.
In life, work, and relationships, do you ever find yourself feeling as if something is missing? Sitting with such a feeling is difficult, and, in our work together, I will use a blend of honesty and compassion to explore those feelings with you. My approach is warm, engaging, direct, and depth-oriented. As a therapist, I want to meet you where you are and to know you and how you think about yourself in the world. We will create a space to collaboratively discover how certain beliefs may be misperceptions or adding to the sense of limitation that you feel.
(610) 756-8151 View (610) 756-8151
Photo of Jenny Childers, Counselor in 20905, MD
Jenny Childers
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Finding the right therapist can be exhausting and, at times, discouraging. You need someone you can connect with while also getting the support, encouragement, and clinical expertise you so desperately need to handle what you are walking through. My goal is to provide a safe and supportive atmosphere to help my clients work through the difficulties that life can bring.
Finding the right therapist can be exhausting and, at times, discouraging. You need someone you can connect with while also getting the support, encouragement, and clinical expertise you so desperately need to handle what you are walking through. My goal is to provide a safe and supportive atmosphere to help my clients work through the difficulties that life can bring.
(240) 716-6470 View (240) 716-6470
Photo of Vicktoria Molokin, Counselor in 20905, MD
Vicktoria Molokin
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
9 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Are you going through a life transition that has led you to feel lost, alone, hopeless, or fearful? Or are you are struggling with anger, sadness, anxiety, or concentration and don't know where to begin in order to feel better? I am a passionate therapist that is focused on building your self-esteem, confidence, and sense of empowerment in order to reduce symptoms of depression, trauma, and anxiety. I am committed to exploring different techniques to cater to your needs that work best for you to successfully manage life stressors.
Are you going through a life transition that has led you to feel lost, alone, hopeless, or fearful? Or are you are struggling with anger, sadness, anxiety, or concentration and don't know where to begin in order to feel better? I am a passionate therapist that is focused on building your self-esteem, confidence, and sense of empowerment in order to reduce symptoms of depression, trauma, and anxiety. I am committed to exploring different techniques to cater to your needs that work best for you to successfully manage life stressors.
(301) 605-9105 View (301) 605-9105
Photo of Janelle Weather, Counselor in 20905, MD
Janelle Weather
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905
As a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor I know the difficulties that some people face in their walk of life. I understand the meaning of “its a lot” and how we often bear the burdens of people and things around us. I would love to help you find growth and healing through the counseling process and lessen your everyday burdens. My therapeutic approach is eclectic which allows me to meet my clients where they are, and use appropriate techniques to assist them in meeting their personal goals.
As a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor I know the difficulties that some people face in their walk of life. I understand the meaning of “its a lot” and how we often bear the burdens of people and things around us. I would love to help you find growth and healing through the counseling process and lessen your everyday burdens. My therapeutic approach is eclectic which allows me to meet my clients where they are, and use appropriate techniques to assist them in meeting their personal goals.
(410) 807-3491 View (410) 807-3491
Photo of Sarah Schieffelin, Counselor in 20905, MD
Sarah Schieffelin
Counselor, MSEd, LGPC, CTP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Waitlist for new clients
From my point of view, therapy is the process of creating a life that feels meaningful to you while dealing with pain in authentic and useful ways. I’ll warmly support you throughout the journey. When you're ready, we’ll begin by developing a therapeutic relationship where every aspect of you feels welcomed, even the parts that feel overwhelming or embarrassing sometimes. I want you to know that you’re connecting with me, a real person, not a blank slate. This might look like shared laughter, ongoing discussions about what feels best for you, and finding small ways to alleviate societal pressures.
From my point of view, therapy is the process of creating a life that feels meaningful to you while dealing with pain in authentic and useful ways. I’ll warmly support you throughout the journey. When you're ready, we’ll begin by developing a therapeutic relationship where every aspect of you feels welcomed, even the parts that feel overwhelming or embarrassing sometimes. I want you to know that you’re connecting with me, a real person, not a blank slate. This might look like shared laughter, ongoing discussions about what feels best for you, and finding small ways to alleviate societal pressures.
(301) 830-4367 View (301) 830-4367
Photo of Hannah Schwartz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Hannah Schwartz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
I specialize working with children, adolescents, young adults and adults with concerns related to trauma, complex trauma and generational trauma, parent-child relational problems, family conflict, grief, ADHD, depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, parent coaching and self-esteem. I have experience working with clients from a diverse array of identities and backgrounds. My approach is nonjudgmental, fun, collaborative, empathetic, and honest. I view the therapeutic relationship as a central component, building a trusting and safe connection with my clients that is adaptable, flexible, and collaborative.
I specialize working with children, adolescents, young adults and adults with concerns related to trauma, complex trauma and generational trauma, parent-child relational problems, family conflict, grief, ADHD, depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, parent coaching and self-esteem. I have experience working with clients from a diverse array of identities and backgrounds. My approach is nonjudgmental, fun, collaborative, empathetic, and honest. I view the therapeutic relationship as a central component, building a trusting and safe connection with my clients that is adaptable, flexible, and collaborative.
(240) 690-6912 View (240) 690-6912
Photo of James Edwardaro Willey, Psychological Associate in 20905, MD
James Edwardaro Willey
Psychological Associate, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Understanding who you are or what you are feeling is difficult when you are not even sure what words to use to describe your experience or what questions to ask yourself. Naming that is a big step. You may put on a mask to navigate the world in order to reduce the pressures you feel from society. High expectations when you were younger may make mistakes seem unacceptable. The journey to explore who you are may seem lonely. You may notice similarities in the relationships you form now with the relationship you have with your family. The early traumas in your life may be triggering you now in ways that are frustrating and upsetting.
Understanding who you are or what you are feeling is difficult when you are not even sure what words to use to describe your experience or what questions to ask yourself. Naming that is a big step. You may put on a mask to navigate the world in order to reduce the pressures you feel from society. High expectations when you were younger may make mistakes seem unacceptable. The journey to explore who you are may seem lonely. You may notice similarities in the relationships you form now with the relationship you have with your family. The early traumas in your life may be triggering you now in ways that are frustrating and upsetting.
(877) 893-5480 View (877) 893-5480
Photo of Kevin Morton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Kevin Morton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Colesville, MD 20905
Kevin Morton's professional journey began with four years of dedicated service in the Marine Corps, starting in 1981. After his military service, he returned to the Washington DC area and pursued a Master's degree in social work, graduating in 1996. Since then, Kevin has accumulated a diverse range of experience working with various populations, including: Parents seeking support, Couples, Veterans and Active military reintegration and relationship. Kevin's passion for helping others and making a positive impact in his community has driven his career in the mental health field and as a psychotherapist.
Kevin Morton's professional journey began with four years of dedicated service in the Marine Corps, starting in 1981. After his military service, he returned to the Washington DC area and pursued a Master's degree in social work, graduating in 1996. Since then, Kevin has accumulated a diverse range of experience working with various populations, including: Parents seeking support, Couples, Veterans and Active military reintegration and relationship. Kevin's passion for helping others and making a positive impact in his community has driven his career in the mental health field and as a psychotherapist.
(240) 339-6772 View (240) 339-6772
Photo of Shelli Berman, Counselor in 20905, MD
Shelli Berman
Counselor
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Shelli Berman, received a Masters degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology in 2017. As a trauma-informed and certified dialectical behavioral therapist, I can provide skills to cope with a variety of challenges and symptoms. I encourage the balance of acceptance and change, while meeting the client where they are, as every individual is unique in their own background and learning history. Through providing a validating, genuinely authentic, safe space, clients will build a sense of trust, resilience, and grounding within themselves.
Shelli Berman, received a Masters degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology in 2017. As a trauma-informed and certified dialectical behavioral therapist, I can provide skills to cope with a variety of challenges and symptoms. I encourage the balance of acceptance and change, while meeting the client where they are, as every individual is unique in their own background and learning history. Through providing a validating, genuinely authentic, safe space, clients will build a sense of trust, resilience, and grounding within themselves.
(410) 847-2795 View (410) 847-2795
Photo of Najiya Shanaa, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Najiya Shanaa
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I have two decades of experience working with people affected by trauma and assault, childhood abuse, PTSD, loss and grief, LGBTQ+ issues, substance abuse, depression, anxiety and other mood disorders. I enjoy working with adults of all ages who are in life transitions or who may feel stuck as they try to move forward professionally or in their personal relationships. My clients are a rich mix of all races, cultures, ages, genders/sexual identities and religions. I am personally aware of the multicultural social and relational issues that many face. In the end, what we all want is to find happiness in our lives.
I have two decades of experience working with people affected by trauma and assault, childhood abuse, PTSD, loss and grief, LGBTQ+ issues, substance abuse, depression, anxiety and other mood disorders. I enjoy working with adults of all ages who are in life transitions or who may feel stuck as they try to move forward professionally or in their personal relationships. My clients are a rich mix of all races, cultures, ages, genders/sexual identities and religions. I am personally aware of the multicultural social and relational issues that many face. In the end, what we all want is to find happiness in our lives.
(202) 915-7827 View (202) 915-7827
Photo of Anne Kim, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 20905, MD
Anne Kim
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
I have experience working with clients ages from 5 to 105. I have worked at elementary school working with children, middle school & high school working with teens, university students working with young adults, community mental health centers working with adults, and a hospice setting working with mostly elders, providing individual, couples, family, group-therapy including bereavement counseling. I have enjoyed working with clients at every human development stages and learn to respect every one of my clients in the process of supporting them.
I have experience working with clients ages from 5 to 105. I have worked at elementary school working with children, middle school & high school working with teens, university students working with young adults, community mental health centers working with adults, and a hospice setting working with mostly elders, providing individual, couples, family, group-therapy including bereavement counseling. I have enjoyed working with clients at every human development stages and learn to respect every one of my clients in the process of supporting them.
(301) 284-3491 View (301) 284-3491
Photo of Breanna Coleman Desjardin, Counselor in 20905, MD
Breanna Coleman Desjardin
Counselor, LGPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20905  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
When your negative thoughts take over, what do you do? Do you find yourself anxious, depressed, and struggling with your self-esteem or confidence? Or maybe the negative thoughts about your worth, appearance and mistakes consume you until it feels like it's hard to function? Navigating negative thought patterns that cause pain can seem overwhelming, and it may feel like nobody around you understands.
When your negative thoughts take over, what do you do? Do you find yourself anxious, depressed, and struggling with your self-esteem or confidence? Or maybe the negative thoughts about your worth, appearance and mistakes consume you until it feels like it's hard to function? Navigating negative thought patterns that cause pain can seem overwhelming, and it may feel like nobody around you understands.
(410) 881-8309 View (410) 881-8309

See more therapy options for 20905

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 20905

20+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in 20905 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
85% Relationship Issues
85% Self Esteem
73% Depression
73% Life Transitions
69% Trauma and PTSD
69% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

16 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% BlueCross and BlueShield
89% CareFirst
68% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 20905 see their clients

50% In Person and Online
50% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
18% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 20905?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.