Photo of Kat Rowan, Pre-Licensed Professional in 19373, PA
Kat Rowan
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Thornton, PA 19373  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes, it’s about where to start. How will you talk to this stranger – or why would you? My goal is to provide a safe place to talk and to not be a stranger. I often do 15-minute phone chats so you can “pre-meet” me and get that initial edge out of the way. I want to help you to (re)discover your own voice, to understand your reactions, to recover a more daring, loving self – someone who is more and not less. I won’t be a stranger for long because I’ve journeyed on similar paths.
Sometimes, it’s about where to start. How will you talk to this stranger – or why would you? My goal is to provide a safe place to talk and to not be a stranger. I often do 15-minute phone chats so you can “pre-meet” me and get that initial edge out of the way. I want to help you to (re)discover your own voice, to understand your reactions, to recover a more daring, loving self – someone who is more and not less. I won’t be a stranger for long because I’ve journeyed on similar paths.
(484) 989-9002 View (484) 989-9002
Photo of Margaret Albright, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Margaret Albright
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Margaret Albright, MS, LPC Margaret Mary Albright received a Master of Science degree in Pastoral Counseling at Neumann College in 2001. She is a national Board Certified Counselor, Licensed Professional Counselor. Ms. Albright's has 30 years experience and her treatment focus is with young children, parents, and couples.
Margaret Albright, MS, LPC Margaret Mary Albright received a Master of Science degree in Pastoral Counseling at Neumann College in 2001. She is a national Board Certified Counselor, Licensed Professional Counselor. Ms. Albright's has 30 years experience and her treatment focus is with young children, parents, and couples.
(484) 613-3335 View (484) 613-3335
Photo of Robert L. Hawkins, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Robert L. Hawkins
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Robert L. Hawkins is a psychotherapist who has been practicing since 2019. He has an undergraduate degree in Neuroscience and an M.S. in Clinical Mental Health Therapy. Robert offers a holistic approach that places emphasis on the human brain as the primary element to effective care. Robert utilizes Existential and Gestalt approaches for internal and introspective work in addition to quality-of-life improvements. Outside of work, Robert enjoys fencing, archery, abstract theoretical physics, video games, creative fiction writing, and photography.
Robert L. Hawkins is a psychotherapist who has been practicing since 2019. He has an undergraduate degree in Neuroscience and an M.S. in Clinical Mental Health Therapy. Robert offers a holistic approach that places emphasis on the human brain as the primary element to effective care. Robert utilizes Existential and Gestalt approaches for internal and introspective work in addition to quality-of-life improvements. Outside of work, Robert enjoys fencing, archery, abstract theoretical physics, video games, creative fiction writing, and photography.
(484) 900-9052 View (484) 900-9052
Photo of Maryn Penning, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Maryn Penning
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Hello! My name is Maryn Penning and I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Certified School Counselor in Pennsylvania. I am also a National Certified Counselor (NCC). I have certificates in Sports Counseling and Student Athlete Mental Wellness as well as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). In addition, I am a trained Ally. I work with clients ages 2 and up with a special interest in working with children, adolescents and athletes. I consider myself an eclectic counselor, but tend to use a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach if the situation would benefit from that method.
Hello! My name is Maryn Penning and I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Certified School Counselor in Pennsylvania. I am also a National Certified Counselor (NCC). I have certificates in Sports Counseling and Student Athlete Mental Wellness as well as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). In addition, I am a trained Ally. I work with clients ages 2 and up with a special interest in working with children, adolescents and athletes. I consider myself an eclectic counselor, but tend to use a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach if the situation would benefit from that method.
(484) 897-6721 View (484) 897-6721
Photo of Marla Mcculloch, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Marla Mcculloch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Hi. I’m Marla McCulloch. I’m a licensed clinical social worker. More specifically, I am someone who helps people create change in their lives and relationships. As an LCSW, I believe in the dignity and worth of all people. That means I approach each session with the goal of communicating acceptance and respect. Being able to give words to our challenges in a non-judgmental, supportive space can be healing. I work with adults and adolescents (generally ages 12+) in many areas of concern.
Hi. I’m Marla McCulloch. I’m a licensed clinical social worker. More specifically, I am someone who helps people create change in their lives and relationships. As an LCSW, I believe in the dignity and worth of all people. That means I approach each session with the goal of communicating acceptance and respect. Being able to give words to our challenges in a non-judgmental, supportive space can be healing. I work with adults and adolescents (generally ages 12+) in many areas of concern.
(484) 559-8049 View (484) 559-8049
Photo of Julie A Guido, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Julie A Guido
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Julie A. Guido is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 1992. She has an M.S.W. from the University of Maryland, a B.S. from Ohio University, and an A. A. S. from Ohio University. Julie is an experienced therapist with a variety of tools to help people realize their full potential. Julie offers Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Structural Family Therapy, and Gottman Couples Therapy, among others.
Julie A. Guido is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 1992. She has an M.S.W. from the University of Maryland, a B.S. from Ohio University, and an A. A. S. from Ohio University. Julie is an experienced therapist with a variety of tools to help people realize their full potential. Julie offers Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Structural Family Therapy, and Gottman Couples Therapy, among others.
(484) 507-1031 View (484) 507-1031
Photo of Janet Roenne, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Janet Roenne
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Janet Roenne is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in the state of Pennsylvania and a National Certified Counselor. She received a Master's Degree at West Chester University in Elementary Education and a Master's Degree from Eastern University in Clinical and Community Counseling. Janet Roenne believes in the importance of empathy, respect, and honesty in the clinical setting. She is committed to meeting the needs of her clients in a safe therapeutic environment. She partners with her clients to identify, plan, and execute solutions that can help them to effectively manage and resolve their mental health symptoms.
Janet Roenne is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in the state of Pennsylvania and a National Certified Counselor. She received a Master's Degree at West Chester University in Elementary Education and a Master's Degree from Eastern University in Clinical and Community Counseling. Janet Roenne believes in the importance of empathy, respect, and honesty in the clinical setting. She is committed to meeting the needs of her clients in a safe therapeutic environment. She partners with her clients to identify, plan, and execute solutions that can help them to effectively manage and resolve their mental health symptoms.
(484) 591-4726 View (484) 591-4726
Photo of Kathleen Shannon, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Kathleen Shannon
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Kathie Shannon is a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats adults with a variety of life challenges including depression, anxiety, grief and chronic health issues. Her approach focuses on the whole person to identify and achieve their personal goals.
Kathie Shannon is a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats adults with a variety of life challenges including depression, anxiety, grief and chronic health issues. Her approach focuses on the whole person to identify and achieve their personal goals.
(484) 946-8979 View (484) 946-8979
Photo of Kaitlyn Barnett, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Kaitlyn Barnett
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Kaitlyn Barnett is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2021. She earned her Bachelors in Psychology from Bloomsburg University and her Master's degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Immaculata University. Kaitlyn works with individuals to empower them to take control of challenging and difficult areas in their lives through the use of skill-based, present-focused, and goal-oriented treatments. She has experience working with individuals, families, and children in community-based, school-based, and private practice settings.
Kaitlyn Barnett is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2021. She earned her Bachelors in Psychology from Bloomsburg University and her Master's degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Immaculata University. Kaitlyn works with individuals to empower them to take control of challenging and difficult areas in their lives through the use of skill-based, present-focused, and goal-oriented treatments. She has experience working with individuals, families, and children in community-based, school-based, and private practice settings.
(484) 341-7182 View (484) 341-7182
Photo of Allison Basso, Marriage & Family Therapist in 19373, PA
Allison Basso
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Allison received her Masters degree in Clinical-Counseling Psychology from LaSalle University in 2004 and is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. Her practice reflects a systemic, collaborative, strengths-based approach to help people discover and access their own resiliency, and empower them to lead more fulfilling lives. Allison offers a supportive, warm, empathic environment to help people feel safe exploring issues related to relationship difficulties, anxiety, depression, trauma, parenting challenges and family conflict.
Allison received her Masters degree in Clinical-Counseling Psychology from LaSalle University in 2004 and is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. Her practice reflects a systemic, collaborative, strengths-based approach to help people discover and access their own resiliency, and empower them to lead more fulfilling lives. Allison offers a supportive, warm, empathic environment to help people feel safe exploring issues related to relationship difficulties, anxiety, depression, trauma, parenting challenges and family conflict.
(484) 897-6748 View (484) 897-6748
Photo of Stacey Rettew, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Stacey Rettew
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Stacey Rettew is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2020. She has a Master's of Science from Thomas Jefferson University in Community and Trauma Counseling. Stacey believes that the foundation to a successful therapy experience lies in the power of the therapeutic relationship. While her goal is to create an affirming and compassionate space, Stacey equally values collaboration and structure to encourage growth and resiliency. Together, you can strive to create a space that provides opportunity for care and healing.
Stacey Rettew is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2020. She has a Master's of Science from Thomas Jefferson University in Community and Trauma Counseling. Stacey believes that the foundation to a successful therapy experience lies in the power of the therapeutic relationship. While her goal is to create an affirming and compassionate space, Stacey equally values collaboration and structure to encourage growth and resiliency. Together, you can strive to create a space that provides opportunity for care and healing.
(484) 255-4746 View (484) 255-4746
Photo of Karen Shamus, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Karen Shamus
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Karen Shamus is a compassionate and empathetic counselor devoted to providing quality care to help her clients achieve personal growth. She has experience treating a wide variety of conditions including anxiety, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, life stressors, trauma, and substance use. She understands the importance of being authentic and creating a safe space without judgement. Karen uses an eclectic approach to better suit the needs of each individual client. Karen's therapeutic approaches can include person-centered, CBT, strengths-based, mindfulness, and motivational interviewing.
Karen Shamus is a compassionate and empathetic counselor devoted to providing quality care to help her clients achieve personal growth. She has experience treating a wide variety of conditions including anxiety, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, life stressors, trauma, and substance use. She understands the importance of being authentic and creating a safe space without judgement. Karen uses an eclectic approach to better suit the needs of each individual client. Karen's therapeutic approaches can include person-centered, CBT, strengths-based, mindfulness, and motivational interviewing.
(484) 265-9882 View (484) 265-9882
Photo of Barbara Haines, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Barbara Haines
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Barbara Haines is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2005. She has a BA in Literature from Brown University, a Masters in Social Work from Roberts Wesleyan University, and Registered Play Therapist training from Family & Play Therapy Center. Barbara's practice style focuses on supporting clients of all ages in developing and using their own agency to meet their challenges. Barbara has clinical experience in Child Welfare and Early Intervention.
Barbara Haines is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who has been practicing since 2005. She has a BA in Literature from Brown University, a Masters in Social Work from Roberts Wesleyan University, and Registered Play Therapist training from Family & Play Therapy Center. Barbara's practice style focuses on supporting clients of all ages in developing and using their own agency to meet their challenges. Barbara has clinical experience in Child Welfare and Early Intervention.
(484) 469-6790 View (484) 469-6790
Photo of Daniel Brown, Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Daniel Brown
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373  (Online Only)
I have been helping others as a psychotherapist for 15 years and have worked in a variety of settings (outpatient, community clinics, halfway houses, group homes, day treatment programs). My approach is a wholistic one, with the belief that every person is looking for greater body, mind and soul connectedness and balance. My educational background is in behavioral neuroscience, health psychology, and counseling. I have helped people overcome issues with, but not limited to, relationship conflict, anxiety, compulsive and addictive behaviors (sex, drug & alcohol, food, gambling), spiritual issues, and adjustment disorders.
I have been helping others as a psychotherapist for 15 years and have worked in a variety of settings (outpatient, community clinics, halfway houses, group homes, day treatment programs). My approach is a wholistic one, with the belief that every person is looking for greater body, mind and soul connectedness and balance. My educational background is in behavioral neuroscience, health psychology, and counseling. I have helped people overcome issues with, but not limited to, relationship conflict, anxiety, compulsive and addictive behaviors (sex, drug & alcohol, food, gambling), spiritual issues, and adjustment disorders.
(484) 559-6496 View (484) 559-6496
Photo of Michelle Schweitzer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Michelle Schweitzer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Michelle Schweitzer is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who received her Master's degree in Social Work from Adelphi University in 2009. She has more than 13 years of experience working with children, adolescents, families, and adults dealing with depression and anxiety, trauma, adjustment problems, relational difficulties, including parent-child conflict, and chronic health conditions. Michelle takes a trauma-informed, strengths-based approach and believes that real change occurs within the context of a safe and collaborative relationship.
Michelle Schweitzer is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Pennsylvania who received her Master's degree in Social Work from Adelphi University in 2009. She has more than 13 years of experience working with children, adolescents, families, and adults dealing with depression and anxiety, trauma, adjustment problems, relational difficulties, including parent-child conflict, and chronic health conditions. Michelle takes a trauma-informed, strengths-based approach and believes that real change occurs within the context of a safe and collaborative relationship.
(484) 878-5090 View (484) 878-5090
Photo of Edward Golden, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Edward Golden
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Edward (Ned) Golden, LCSW is a licensed clinical social worker who earned his Master of Social Work degree in 2013 from Millersville University. Ned has experience working with a variety of clientele ranging from children and adolescents to adults with various diagnoses and in multiple settings. Ned has much experience working with clients dealing with anxiety and depression, clients with ADHD, and children and adolescents who have needed emotional and behavioral support.
Edward (Ned) Golden, LCSW is a licensed clinical social worker who earned his Master of Social Work degree in 2013 from Millersville University. Ned has experience working with a variety of clientele ranging from children and adolescents to adults with various diagnoses and in multiple settings. Ned has much experience working with clients dealing with anxiety and depression, clients with ADHD, and children and adolescents who have needed emotional and behavioral support.
(484) 314-3957 View (484) 314-3957
Photo of Paree Stoulis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Paree Stoulis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
Paree Stoulis is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who received her Master's Degree in Social Work from Rutgers University. She has been working in the mental health field for 40 years. She sees adults (over 21) who experience anxiety and depression using a Cognitive Behavioral Approach. She has worked with Delaware County Professional Services/LifeStance Health for 27 years.
Paree Stoulis is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who received her Master's Degree in Social Work from Rutgers University. She has been working in the mental health field for 40 years. She sees adults (over 21) who experience anxiety and depression using a Cognitive Behavioral Approach. She has worked with Delaware County Professional Services/LifeStance Health for 27 years.
(484) 564-5424 View (484) 564-5424
Photo of Child & Adolescent Counseling Services , Licensed Professional Counselor in 19373, PA
Child & Adolescent Counseling Services
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Thornton, PA 19373
I believe that in this hectic world our children benefit from additional sources of support. I offer this support to children and their families. I utilize a cognitive behavioral approach, and recognize the parent as being "the expert" on their child. I provide individual and group counseling services as well as psychological evaluations.
I believe that in this hectic world our children benefit from additional sources of support. I offer this support to children and their families. I utilize a cognitive behavioral approach, and recognize the parent as being "the expert" on their child. I provide individual and group counseling services as well as psychological evaluations.
(610) 915-8634 View (610) 915-8634
Photo of Ally Rose, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 19373, PA
Ally Rose
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW, RTTP, CHyp
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Thornton, PA 19373  (Online Only)
Feeling stuck in endless loops of the same thoughts, feelings and problems? If you're running in circles, talking endlessly about your struggles without finding a resolution, it might be time to try something different. I'm a dedicated hypnotherapist focused on more than just talking about issues at the surface level. Together we will actively rewire your subconscious to overcome them. Hypnotherapy isn't about endlessly digging into your past; it’s about forging a new path for your future. Access deeper layers of your mind for profound changes beyond what standard talk therapy can achieve. Ready to break the cycle?
Feeling stuck in endless loops of the same thoughts, feelings and problems? If you're running in circles, talking endlessly about your struggles without finding a resolution, it might be time to try something different. I'm a dedicated hypnotherapist focused on more than just talking about issues at the surface level. Together we will actively rewire your subconscious to overcome them. Hypnotherapy isn't about endlessly digging into your past; it’s about forging a new path for your future. Access deeper layers of your mind for profound changes beyond what standard talk therapy can achieve. Ready to break the cycle?
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Photo of Caitlin Cassidy, Psychologist in 19373, PA
Caitlin Cassidy
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Thornton, PA 19373
My clients come to me with a wide variety of concerns related to anxiety, depression, confusion, low self-esteem, life transitions and adjustments, impulsive behaviors (e.g., substance use, binge eating, self-harm), etc. There is no problem too big or too small, and you are brave for considering therapy. No matter what you are searching for, I believe change is possible and therapy can help.
My clients come to me with a wide variety of concerns related to anxiety, depression, confusion, low self-esteem, life transitions and adjustments, impulsive behaviors (e.g., substance use, binge eating, self-harm), etc. There is no problem too big or too small, and you are brave for considering therapy. No matter what you are searching for, I believe change is possible and therapy can help.
(484) 878-3147 View (484) 878-3147

See more therapy options for 19373

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 19373

20+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 19373 who prioritize treating:

95% Depression
95% Anxiety
80% Grief
70% Trauma and PTSD
55% Life Transitions
50% Relationship Issues
45% Bipolar Disorder

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
94% MultiPlan
94% Other

How Therapists in 19373 see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 19373?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.