Photo of Laurie Cargulia, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Laurie Cargulia
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Samuel Smiles once said "Hope is like the sun, which, as we journey toward it, casts the shadow of our burden behind us". There are times in our lives when we struggle and feel emotionally powerless. We try to do the best we can but sometimes we need help in appreciating and rediscovering our strengths and developing strategies to help ourselves move forward. I can help you appreciate the strengths you possess and increase your confidence to assist you in all aspects of your life. Life is full of challenges and together we can work toward enhancing your core sense of self.
Samuel Smiles once said "Hope is like the sun, which, as we journey toward it, casts the shadow of our burden behind us". There are times in our lives when we struggle and feel emotionally powerless. We try to do the best we can but sometimes we need help in appreciating and rediscovering our strengths and developing strategies to help ourselves move forward. I can help you appreciate the strengths you possess and increase your confidence to assist you in all aspects of your life. Life is full of challenges and together we can work toward enhancing your core sense of self.
(845) 266-6830 View (845) 266-6830
Photo of David Shipper, LMHC, CCTP, MBA, Counselor
David Shipper
Counselor, LMHC, CCTP, MBA
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
My primary focus of treatment is trauma recovery, depression, and anxiety. Many people have chronic low self-esteem stemming from early childhood messages received from adults and others in their lives. The coping skills used at that time may have been adaptive, but in the present, they are no longer helpful. If you are depressed, anxious, and feel alone, don't know what to do, or if you suffer from a difficult past, I can help. You're not alone. I engage in strengths-based, solution-focused person-centered work and use a variety of traditional mental health modalities.
My primary focus of treatment is trauma recovery, depression, and anxiety. Many people have chronic low self-esteem stemming from early childhood messages received from adults and others in their lives. The coping skills used at that time may have been adaptive, but in the present, they are no longer helpful. If you are depressed, anxious, and feel alone, don't know what to do, or if you suffer from a difficult past, I can help. You're not alone. I engage in strengths-based, solution-focused person-centered work and use a variety of traditional mental health modalities.
(914) 313-3510 View (914) 313-3510
Photo of Bill DeSiena, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Bill DeSiena
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
Stress, anxiety and depression can surface as reactive anger, sadness, as isolating from others, and just feel exhausting. I work with adults (many men) to remove obstacles, find emotional clarity and meaning, and open the door to lasting change. I believe therapy to be a partnership where we build trust, become curious and collaborate on how best to remove blocks and old patterns, and acquire tools along the way toward a more fulfilled life. I seek to empower adults who struggle with trauma/PTSD, grief, at-risk behaviors, self-esteem, relationship and attachment difficulties, the codependency-narcissism bond, and life transitions.
Stress, anxiety and depression can surface as reactive anger, sadness, as isolating from others, and just feel exhausting. I work with adults (many men) to remove obstacles, find emotional clarity and meaning, and open the door to lasting change. I believe therapy to be a partnership where we build trust, become curious and collaborate on how best to remove blocks and old patterns, and acquire tools along the way toward a more fulfilled life. I seek to empower adults who struggle with trauma/PTSD, grief, at-risk behaviors, self-esteem, relationship and attachment difficulties, the codependency-narcissism bond, and life transitions.
(845) 671-5029 View (845) 671-5029
Photo of Donald William Albright Jr, LMHC
Donald William Albright Jr
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994  (Online Only)
I primarily work with adults either individally or as couples who have anxiety, self esteem, anger managment and communication issues. They often want to feel better about themselves, feel less stress and want to communicate their needs to their partners effectively. My clients are searching for happiness and fulfillment in their daily lives and want to develop the tools needed to be able to accomplish this.
I primarily work with adults either individally or as couples who have anxiety, self esteem, anger managment and communication issues. They often want to feel better about themselves, feel less stress and want to communicate their needs to their partners effectively. My clients are searching for happiness and fulfillment in their daily lives and want to develop the tools needed to be able to accomplish this.
(845) 379-3293 View (845) 379-3293
Photo of Lukas Westbrook, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lukas Westbrook
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Whether you are experiencing interpersonal relationship struggles, a life transition, emotional instability, or coping with a painful past, I will welcome you into a collaborative therapeutic relationship in order to gain insight into what makes you, you. We will work together to establish a trusting relationship that will allow you to develop self-awareness; from there, you can unpack and understand your pain, fears, hopes, memories, and experiences in order to tackle your current hardships and create positive change in your life.
Whether you are experiencing interpersonal relationship struggles, a life transition, emotional instability, or coping with a painful past, I will welcome you into a collaborative therapeutic relationship in order to gain insight into what makes you, you. We will work together to establish a trusting relationship that will allow you to develop self-awareness; from there, you can unpack and understand your pain, fears, hopes, memories, and experiences in order to tackle your current hardships and create positive change in your life.
(845) 253-5958 View (845) 253-5958
Photo of Agnes Gambale, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Agnes Gambale
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Agnes M. Gambale, LCSW Agnes M. Gambale is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in New York who has been practicing since 1991. Agnes has worked in both the inpatient and outpatient setting over the course of her career both as a clinician and an Administrator. She helps individuals restore their vitality and resume a life of meaning and purpose. Depression, anxiety, trauma, hyperactivity, and stress are just some of the many issues that are part of one's complicated life that can lead to dysfunction and suffering.
Agnes M. Gambale, LCSW Agnes M. Gambale is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in New York who has been practicing since 1991. Agnes has worked in both the inpatient and outpatient setting over the course of her career both as a clinician and an Administrator. She helps individuals restore their vitality and resume a life of meaning and purpose. Depression, anxiety, trauma, hyperactivity, and stress are just some of the many issues that are part of one's complicated life that can lead to dysfunction and suffering.
(914) 491-6399 View (914) 491-6399
Photo of Hunter Harrow, MSW, LMSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hunter Harrow
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
As individuals, we encounter various challenges in our life where we find ourselves needing help or support, to pick up the pieces. Sometimes life feels unbearable and we feel stuck, not sure where to venture to next. Many times, all we need is someone to create a non biased environment and hold space for any and all thoughts. At times like these, we want to find someone who feels comfortable and compatible to listen to insecurities, stories and fears, while feeling safe enough to navigate these tough, ambiguous times. We are all unique, and yearn to feel heard and validated during trying situations, and finding your voice helps.
As individuals, we encounter various challenges in our life where we find ourselves needing help or support, to pick up the pieces. Sometimes life feels unbearable and we feel stuck, not sure where to venture to next. Many times, all we need is someone to create a non biased environment and hold space for any and all thoughts. At times like these, we want to find someone who feels comfortable and compatible to listen to insecurities, stories and fears, while feeling safe enough to navigate these tough, ambiguous times. We are all unique, and yearn to feel heard and validated during trying situations, and finding your voice helps.
(845) 280-6210 View (845) 280-6210
Photo of Starlee N Qualter, LCSW, CEAP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Starlee N Qualter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CEAP
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
I am a therapist with over 25 years of clinical experience. My approach is collaborative as therapy is a unique relationship. We begin with identifying where you are now while focusing on where you want to be. I use many different techniques in discovering the most effective path for you. For example, cognitive-behavioral therapy is very effective with issues such as anxiety and depression, while using an attachment-based lens can improve low self-esteem and relationship issues. If you are looking for an interactive therapist and are ready and willing to do the work, I will help you along your journey!
I am a therapist with over 25 years of clinical experience. My approach is collaborative as therapy is a unique relationship. We begin with identifying where you are now while focusing on where you want to be. I use many different techniques in discovering the most effective path for you. For example, cognitive-behavioral therapy is very effective with issues such as anxiety and depression, while using an attachment-based lens can improve low self-esteem and relationship issues. If you are looking for an interactive therapist and are ready and willing to do the work, I will help you along your journey!
(845) 684-4291 View (845) 684-4291
Photo of Brianna Morrell, MA, LMSW, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Brianna Morrell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LMSW, LSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
Each of us exists in the world with a complexity and story exclusively our own. Through an eclectic, client-centered approach to therapy, I offer you the opportunity to explore the parts of your story unique to your identity, develop and nurture self-compassion, and integrate those parts into the fullness of your human experience. At the heart of my work, I strive to create an empathic and safe environment that fully allows you to show up with vulnerability and honesty as your authentic self.
Each of us exists in the world with a complexity and story exclusively our own. Through an eclectic, client-centered approach to therapy, I offer you the opportunity to explore the parts of your story unique to your identity, develop and nurture self-compassion, and integrate those parts into the fullness of your human experience. At the heart of my work, I strive to create an empathic and safe environment that fully allows you to show up with vulnerability and honesty as your authentic self.
(845) 640-5255 View (845) 640-5255
Photo of Jill Torrente, MSW, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jill Torrente
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994  (Online Only)
Sometimes life can feel overwhelming and you need help to gain perspective. We often find ways to manage daily worries but there can be times when we need a little help. It is very normal not to want to confide in friends and family but it is isolating to keep it all inside. Whether or not you have trusted support or can identify the source of your distress, the process of therapy can help you learn about what you are feeling, why you might be feeling it, and develop skills to help you cope. Together, we can work to help you trust and understand yourself and ultimately remove the obstacles standing in the way of your inner peace.
Sometimes life can feel overwhelming and you need help to gain perspective. We often find ways to manage daily worries but there can be times when we need a little help. It is very normal not to want to confide in friends and family but it is isolating to keep it all inside. Whether or not you have trusted support or can identify the source of your distress, the process of therapy can help you learn about what you are feeling, why you might be feeling it, and develop skills to help you cope. Together, we can work to help you trust and understand yourself and ultimately remove the obstacles standing in the way of your inner peace.
(845) 209-2419 View (845) 209-2419
Photo of Sevan Kaprielian, LMHC
Sevan Kaprielian
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Sevan Kaprielian is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in New York who has been practicing since 2021. She received her training at the State University of New York at Albany. Sevan is experienced in providing therapeutic services to children, adolescents, and adults in individual, family, and group modalities. She has provided services to clients with anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and a variety of behavioral issues. She typically utilizes cognitive behavioral (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) techniques but will also adaptively tailor her approach to meet each client's needs.
Sevan Kaprielian is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in New York who has been practicing since 2021. She received her training at the State University of New York at Albany. Sevan is experienced in providing therapeutic services to children, adolescents, and adults in individual, family, and group modalities. She has provided services to clients with anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and a variety of behavioral issues. She typically utilizes cognitive behavioral (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) techniques but will also adaptively tailor her approach to meet each client's needs.
(914) 814-6290 View (914) 814-6290
Photo of Jason Dana, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jason Dana
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Wherever you find yourself—clear on what you want to work on, confused and unsure where to begin—I'm happy to support you in your journey. If you're looking for a supportive relationship in which to explore healing depression and anxiety, challenges with self-esteem, grief and loss, traumatic life events, difficulty in intimate relationships, understanding yourself more deeply, or living a more meaningful and integrated life, that is what I offer.
Wherever you find yourself—clear on what you want to work on, confused and unsure where to begin—I'm happy to support you in your journey. If you're looking for a supportive relationship in which to explore healing depression and anxiety, challenges with self-esteem, grief and loss, traumatic life events, difficulty in intimate relationships, understanding yourself more deeply, or living a more meaningful and integrated life, that is what I offer.
(845) 237-0156 View (845) 237-0156
Photo of Patrice Carrieri, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Patrice Carrieri
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Life is a journey, it may be a cliché, but it's a statement of truth. Now imagine traveling that journey in a car. Sometimes the road is smooth, and other times, we hit a bump or two and keep on going. Maybe a pothole slows you down, so you pull over because you can't move any longer. You're stuck and can't figure out how to get moving again. You realize you need someone to help you get back on the road.
Life is a journey, it may be a cliché, but it's a statement of truth. Now imagine traveling that journey in a car. Sometimes the road is smooth, and other times, we hit a bump or two and keep on going. Maybe a pothole slows you down, so you pull over because you can't move any longer. You're stuck and can't figure out how to get moving again. You realize you need someone to help you get back on the road.
(845) 883-2281 View (845) 883-2281
Photo of Ian Laidlaw, LCSW-R, MA, BSc, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ian Laidlaw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R, MA, BSc
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
If you grew up in a household with abusive, narcissistic, codependent, addicted, or otherwise struggling parents, and now experience distress with feeling good-enough, finding fulfilling connections with other people, depression and anxiety, setting boundaries, and making sense of your reactions to various situations, then I can help. Also, if you are just having trouble with relationships - perhaps it's hard to make good connections with other people, or you are feeling isolated and are confused about how that has come about, then I can help you with figuring that out and developing the kinds of relationships you ultimately want.
If you grew up in a household with abusive, narcissistic, codependent, addicted, or otherwise struggling parents, and now experience distress with feeling good-enough, finding fulfilling connections with other people, depression and anxiety, setting boundaries, and making sense of your reactions to various situations, then I can help. Also, if you are just having trouble with relationships - perhaps it's hard to make good connections with other people, or you are feeling isolated and are confused about how that has come about, then I can help you with figuring that out and developing the kinds of relationships you ultimately want.
(845) 262-4407 View (845) 262-4407
Photo of Samantha Marks, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Samantha Marks
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
West Nyack, NY 10994
Has traditional therapy not worked for you? While sitting in an office might work for some people, it's not for everyone. My sessions all take place walking in a scenic location rather than sitting in a therapy office. This is a mindfulness-based therapy that can make it easier for clients to relax, release physical tension, and connect the mind and body towards reaching their individual goals, all while enjoying the beauty of nature.
Has traditional therapy not worked for you? While sitting in an office might work for some people, it's not for everyone. My sessions all take place walking in a scenic location rather than sitting in a therapy office. This is a mindfulness-based therapy that can make it easier for clients to relax, release physical tension, and connect the mind and body towards reaching their individual goals, all while enjoying the beauty of nature.
(845) 498-0337 View (845) 498-0337
Photo of Luisa Spadafino, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Luisa Spadafino
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Luisa Spadafino has been a practicing Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist since 2016. She received two Masters Degrees from Rutgers University and Mercy College, and has a particular focus of addressing various forms of trauma. This includes domestic violence, sexual assault/childhood sexual abuse, human trafficking, hate crimes, and other forms of trauma. Luisa is a systemic therapist with training in EMDR to address symptomology as well as DBT and CBT interventions.
Luisa Spadafino has been a practicing Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist since 2016. She received two Masters Degrees from Rutgers University and Mercy College, and has a particular focus of addressing various forms of trauma. This includes domestic violence, sexual assault/childhood sexual abuse, human trafficking, hate crimes, and other forms of trauma. Luisa is a systemic therapist with training in EMDR to address symptomology as well as DBT and CBT interventions.
(914) 612-5848 View (914) 612-5848
Photo of undefined - Engage Psychotherapy LCSW, PLLC, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Engage Psychotherapy LCSW, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Our team of clinicians has been hand-picked for their expertise and diverse areas of experience. Children or adults, individuals or couples, LGBTQ+, English or Spanish (or Japanese or Hungarian!), EMDR or psychodynamic, CBT or body-centered work. ​Whatever you are looking for, we have someone who can help.
Our team of clinicians has been hand-picked for their expertise and diverse areas of experience. Children or adults, individuals or couples, LGBTQ+, English or Spanish (or Japanese or Hungarian!), EMDR or psychodynamic, CBT or body-centered work. ​Whatever you are looking for, we have someone who can help.
(845) 498-1723 View (845) 498-1723
Photo of Bonnie T LaBar, LMHC
Bonnie T LaBar
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Bonnie LaBar is a Licensed Mental Health Nurse Practitioner in New York who has been practicing since 2016. She earned her Master's of Science Degree in Mental Health Counseling at Long Island University, Hudson, and her Bachelor's of Social Work at Ramapo College, in New Jersey. Bonnie can assist a client with her clinical skills, her empathic, person-centered approach, meeting each unique individual need, as well as meeting individuals where they are at on their journey, to accomplish their goals. She is comfortable working with any age group on their journey. Bonnie will support you through this process of change and growth.
Bonnie LaBar is a Licensed Mental Health Nurse Practitioner in New York who has been practicing since 2016. She earned her Master's of Science Degree in Mental Health Counseling at Long Island University, Hudson, and her Bachelor's of Social Work at Ramapo College, in New Jersey. Bonnie can assist a client with her clinical skills, her empathic, person-centered approach, meeting each unique individual need, as well as meeting individuals where they are at on their journey, to accomplish their goals. She is comfortable working with any age group on their journey. Bonnie will support you through this process of change and growth.
(914) 335-3515 View (914) 335-3515
Photo of Stella A. Farrell, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Stella A. Farrell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
When feeling overwhelmed by life events or difficult relationships, guided exploration with a trusted therapist can help us through challenging times. Allow me to support you as you face these obstacles and work toward fulfillment and acceptance.
When feeling overwhelmed by life events or difficult relationships, guided exploration with a trusted therapist can help us through challenging times. Allow me to support you as you face these obstacles and work toward fulfillment and acceptance.
(845) 671-3320 View (845) 671-3320
Photo of Lisa Soicher, LMHC
Lisa Soicher
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
West Nyack, NY 10994
Lisa Soicher is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor who understands that the process of finding the right therapist can be daunting. Lisa creates a warm, open and non-judgmental environment for all of her clients to feel heard and validated during the process of discovering their authentic selves. In a world that is constantly moving and distracted, Lisa provides a calming space where her clients receive the direct care and attention they deserve to help reach their goals. Lisa treats clients between the ages of 18-60, specializing in the treatment of anxiety, depression, PTSD, ADHD, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Women's Issues.
Lisa Soicher is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor who understands that the process of finding the right therapist can be daunting. Lisa creates a warm, open and non-judgmental environment for all of her clients to feel heard and validated during the process of discovering their authentic selves. In a world that is constantly moving and distracted, Lisa provides a calming space where her clients receive the direct care and attention they deserve to help reach their goals. Lisa treats clients between the ages of 18-60, specializing in the treatment of anxiety, depression, PTSD, ADHD, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Women's Issues.
(914) 350-6804 View (914) 350-6804

See more therapy options for 10994

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 10994

70+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in 10994 who prioritize treating:

99% Anxiety
96% Depression
86% Trauma and PTSD
75% Relationship Issues
71% Grief
66% Self Esteem
55% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aetna
67% Cigna and Evernorth
63% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 10994 see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 10994?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.