Therapists in 06118

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Photo of Aiseosa Coker, Professional Counselor Associate in 06118, CT
Aiseosa Coker
Professional Counselor Associate, APC, LPCA
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
A joyful heart brightens one's face, but a troubled heart breaks the spirit. I'm working in mental health to help my patients live a fulfilling life filled with joy and peace. I want you to always know that you matter.
A joyful heart brightens one's face, but a troubled heart breaks the spirit. I'm working in mental health to help my patients live a fulfilling life filled with joy and peace. I want you to always know that you matter.
(860) 407-5831 View (860) 407-5831
Photo of Penny Field, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06118, CT
Penny Field
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
One of the few constants in life is change. If you are in a period of transition you may be feeling confused, anxious, or depressed, and alone with your struggles. Times of transition may include: Divorce, educational or career changes, changing stages in our children's or parent's lives, tackling addictions, issues of grief and/or loss. Transitions, while challenging and often stressful, with good professional support can be opportunities for true personal growth and transformation. I offer a compassionate, non-judgmental and confidential place for us to explore together how best to help you to feeling better.
One of the few constants in life is change. If you are in a period of transition you may be feeling confused, anxious, or depressed, and alone with your struggles. Times of transition may include: Divorce, educational or career changes, changing stages in our children's or parent's lives, tackling addictions, issues of grief and/or loss. Transitions, while challenging and often stressful, with good professional support can be opportunities for true personal growth and transformation. I offer a compassionate, non-judgmental and confidential place for us to explore together how best to help you to feeling better.
(860) 880-1959 View (860) 880-1959
Photo of Courage To Heal Therapy Services LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Courage To Heal Therapy Services LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118
Now accepting Medicaid clients! It takes courage to recognize that you may need support. My name is Sylvia, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker here to serve clients throughout their healing journey. If you are struggling with any of the mental health issues below, feel free to reach out to schedule an appointment. I understand that people are unique and their treatment should be person centered and tailored to meet their current needs. I aim to create a safe place for clients to reflect and work on making changes to improve their everyday experience. I use strength based approach along with DBT, CBT, and narrative therapy.
Now accepting Medicaid clients! It takes courage to recognize that you may need support. My name is Sylvia, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker here to serve clients throughout their healing journey. If you are struggling with any of the mental health issues below, feel free to reach out to schedule an appointment. I understand that people are unique and their treatment should be person centered and tailored to meet their current needs. I aim to create a safe place for clients to reflect and work on making changes to improve their everyday experience. I use strength based approach along with DBT, CBT, and narrative therapy.
(860) 530-2949 View (860) 530-2949
Photo of Relationship Consultants in 06118, CT
Relationship Consultants
MA
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
As an agency we have been supporting people via online sessions, with everything that falls “outside the box”. If you are encountering relationship problems, you may have found that it is easier to procrastinate rather than to seek the relationship advice and tools that you need. You may have even been waiting to seek consulting or coaching services for years. Meanwhile your relationship difficulties have only been getting worse. Our consulting services are designed to help you communicate better and make sustainable changes that will benefit you and your family throughout your lives to come back to loving one another.
As an agency we have been supporting people via online sessions, with everything that falls “outside the box”. If you are encountering relationship problems, you may have found that it is easier to procrastinate rather than to seek the relationship advice and tools that you need. You may have even been waiting to seek consulting or coaching services for years. Meanwhile your relationship difficulties have only been getting worse. Our consulting services are designed to help you communicate better and make sustainable changes that will benefit you and your family throughout your lives to come back to loving one another.
(475) 255-3027 View (475) 255-3027
Photo of Cultivating Wellness, LLC- Dr. Jessica Feliciano, Psychologist in 06118, CT
Cultivating Wellness, LLC- Dr. Jessica Feliciano
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
Acknowledging the need for support and seeking help is a brave and often scary thing to do. Congratulations on taking these first steps towards healing and growth. Whether you are looking for help to navigate big life changes, recover from traumatic events, build insight into existing cycles, or address unhelpful behavior and thought patterns, I hope to be a source of support for you in achieving your goals. I am a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in working with children, adolescents, and college-age young adults.
Acknowledging the need for support and seeking help is a brave and often scary thing to do. Congratulations on taking these first steps towards healing and growth. Whether you are looking for help to navigate big life changes, recover from traumatic events, build insight into existing cycles, or address unhelpful behavior and thought patterns, I hope to be a source of support for you in achieving your goals. I am a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in working with children, adolescents, and college-age young adults.
(860) 499-3417 View (860) 499-3417
Photo of Mary Stacie, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06118, CT
Mary Stacie
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
Are you anxious? Feeling "blue" or depressed? Have you suffered abuse or trauma in your life? Are you having trouble staying sober? Are you grieving for a loved one? Since you are on this website, you are looking for a therapist to work with on some personal issue. I have had considerable clinical experience in helping people, and I am informed, as well, by life experience. Let me tell you about my approach to therapy.
Are you anxious? Feeling "blue" or depressed? Have you suffered abuse or trauma in your life? Are you having trouble staying sober? Are you grieving for a loved one? Since you are on this website, you are looking for a therapist to work with on some personal issue. I have had considerable clinical experience in helping people, and I am informed, as well, by life experience. Let me tell you about my approach to therapy.
(860) 331-8653 View (860) 331-8653
Photo of Sarah Saunders, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Sarah Saunders
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LMSW
Verified
6 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
The past few years have been a time of growth, change, and unpredictability for many people. Perhaps now you are looking for a space to connect with yourself - to delve into both practical concerns and inner work. As an LGBTQ+ therapist with a commitment to antiracism, I am dedicated to creating a shared space that fosters courage, healing, and authenticity. Building trust in ourselves and others is at the heart of this work. With 15+ years of experience, I am prepared to work together to co-create a plan toward achieving your goals. There is no perfect time to begin, and I welcome you to come as you are, when you are ready.
The past few years have been a time of growth, change, and unpredictability for many people. Perhaps now you are looking for a space to connect with yourself - to delve into both practical concerns and inner work. As an LGBTQ+ therapist with a commitment to antiracism, I am dedicated to creating a shared space that fosters courage, healing, and authenticity. Building trust in ourselves and others is at the heart of this work. With 15+ years of experience, I am prepared to work together to co-create a plan toward achieving your goals. There is no perfect time to begin, and I welcome you to come as you are, when you are ready.
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Photo of Shirley Staltaro, Psychologist in 06118, CT
Shirley Staltaro
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
You may realize that you need additional help to get through personal, relational, and/or work challenges, but are not sure which direction to take. With a compassionate and objective stance, I can help you navigate through the struggle to get you back on track. Whether it is to help you learn new coping skills, or to help you develop healthier ways of thinking, reacting, and behaving, I provide a confidential, therapeutic space that may help you arrive at a place of clarity and confidence to move forward.
You may realize that you need additional help to get through personal, relational, and/or work challenges, but are not sure which direction to take. With a compassionate and objective stance, I can help you navigate through the struggle to get you back on track. Whether it is to help you learn new coping skills, or to help you develop healthier ways of thinking, reacting, and behaving, I provide a confidential, therapeutic space that may help you arrive at a place of clarity and confidence to move forward.
(860) 502-4908 View (860) 502-4908
Photo of Shanda N Comeaux, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Shanda N Comeaux
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
Looking for hopeful conversations? Hi- My name is Shanda Comeaux, LCSW. I am a licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 15 years of experience. I have previously worked at CCMC Emergency Psychiatric Medicine team, local school districts, Juvenile Court Support Services Division, child welfare and school based health clinics. I currently provide in-home and outpatient counseling services in private practice. I am also certified by International Association of Trauma Professionals to provide trauma treatment. All "Restoration begins within!" I would love to help you start that journey at Catherine's Heart Counseling Services.
Looking for hopeful conversations? Hi- My name is Shanda Comeaux, LCSW. I am a licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 15 years of experience. I have previously worked at CCMC Emergency Psychiatric Medicine team, local school districts, Juvenile Court Support Services Division, child welfare and school based health clinics. I currently provide in-home and outpatient counseling services in private practice. I am also certified by International Association of Trauma Professionals to provide trauma treatment. All "Restoration begins within!" I would love to help you start that journey at Catherine's Heart Counseling Services.
(860) 200-3989 View (860) 200-3989
Photo of Martha Adams, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06118, CT
Martha Adams
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118
Not accepting new clients
***I am currently full and not taking new clients. I will update here when that changes.*** With the right guidance, therapy can be a powerful, motivating, and healing catalyst in a person's life. Finding the right therapist for you is essential. As a Licensed Professional Counselor I am here to help you work through whatever may have motivated you to reach out for therapy. I work with adolescents, adults, families and couples, addressing all sorts of issues/situations including anxiety, depression, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, self-esteem, relationships, and parenting concerns.
***I am currently full and not taking new clients. I will update here when that changes.*** With the right guidance, therapy can be a powerful, motivating, and healing catalyst in a person's life. Finding the right therapist for you is essential. As a Licensed Professional Counselor I am here to help you work through whatever may have motivated you to reach out for therapy. I work with adolescents, adults, families and couples, addressing all sorts of issues/situations including anxiety, depression, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, self-esteem, relationships, and parenting concerns.
(860) 288-5308 View (860) 288-5308
Photo of Graciela Quinones-Rodriguez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Graciela Quinones-Rodriguez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Small private practice, brief therapy approach, focusing on counseling and mental health services to older adolescents, adults and/or couples. My approach is strengths-based, solution oriented with a strong focus on personal/interpersonal skills and mindfulness.
Small private practice, brief therapy approach, focusing on counseling and mental health services to older adolescents, adults and/or couples. My approach is strengths-based, solution oriented with a strong focus on personal/interpersonal skills and mindfulness.
(860) 431-3057 View (860) 431-3057
Photo of Elite Counseling and Intervention , Licensed Professional Counselor in 06118, CT
Elite Counseling and Intervention
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
We all experience difficulties in life that challenge us, and perhaps even throw us off on our journey. Perhaps we feel stagnant with where we are in life right now. Whether you are struggling with anxiety, depression, low self esteem, relationship issues, life changes, or women's issues, you don't need to struggle alone. My goal as a therapist is to collaborate with you to bring awareness to your inner strengths to better navigate through this phase of your life.
We all experience difficulties in life that challenge us, and perhaps even throw us off on our journey. Perhaps we feel stagnant with where we are in life right now. Whether you are struggling with anxiety, depression, low self esteem, relationship issues, life changes, or women's issues, you don't need to struggle alone. My goal as a therapist is to collaborate with you to bring awareness to your inner strengths to better navigate through this phase of your life.
(860) 579-6294 View (860) 579-6294
Photo of Carmen I Santos, Psychologist in 06118, CT
Carmen I Santos
Psychologist, MA, PsyD
Verified
Hartford, CT 06118
About Dr. Santos: I have been in practice in Connecticut for over 30 years. I have worked in out-patient and in-patient settings, a college counseling center and with a number of employee assistance programs. I have a breath of knowledge that is quite diverse, covering the full spectrum of mental health issues. My commitment is to provide a highly professional, confidential service in an environment that is safe and promotes personal growth and healing for any number of emotional and other mental health difficulties. I am bilingual-bicultural in Spanish and English. I see individuals, couples and families.
About Dr. Santos: I have been in practice in Connecticut for over 30 years. I have worked in out-patient and in-patient settings, a college counseling center and with a number of employee assistance programs. I have a breath of knowledge that is quite diverse, covering the full spectrum of mental health issues. My commitment is to provide a highly professional, confidential service in an environment that is safe and promotes personal growth and healing for any number of emotional and other mental health difficulties. I am bilingual-bicultural in Spanish and English. I see individuals, couples and families.
(860) 265-4734 View (860) 265-4734
Photo of Family Transitions Psychotherapy LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06118, CT
Family Transitions Psychotherapy LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118  (Online Only)
Bilingual psychotherapist Spanish speaking. Over 15 years experience working with bariatric weight loss, trauma, sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, grief, and much more. Individual therapy with focus on women’s issues. Hola hablamos su idioma por favor comunicarse con nosotros al número indicado para sus necesidades psicólogicas gracias.
Bilingual psychotherapist Spanish speaking. Over 15 years experience working with bariatric weight loss, trauma, sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, grief, and much more. Individual therapy with focus on women’s issues. Hola hablamos su idioma por favor comunicarse con nosotros al número indicado para sus necesidades psicólogicas gracias.
(860) 481-6905 View (860) 481-6905
Photo of Kristen Diekmann, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06118, CT
Kristen Diekmann
Marriage & Family Therapist, MEd, LMFT
Verified
7 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118
Not accepting new clients
*I am currently full and unable to accept new clients*. Therapy can help to decrease stress or anxiety, improve communication in relationships and make a positive shift in your overall well-being. If you are considering seeing a therapist, it can be difficult to know how to choose one. It makes a big difference to find someone that you feel comfortable talking to and feel that you can trust. I believe that therapy is most effective when it is a collaborative effort. I strive to build on the strengths of my clients and help them to develop plans to achieve their goals.
*I am currently full and unable to accept new clients*. Therapy can help to decrease stress or anxiety, improve communication in relationships and make a positive shift in your overall well-being. If you are considering seeing a therapist, it can be difficult to know how to choose one. It makes a big difference to find someone that you feel comfortable talking to and feel that you can trust. I believe that therapy is most effective when it is a collaborative effort. I strive to build on the strengths of my clients and help them to develop plans to achieve their goals.
(860) 967-3124 View (860) 967-3124
Photo of Anna Hartney, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06118, CT
Anna Hartney
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
2 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118
Not accepting new clients
I enjoy working with all people to help find what works best for you personally. I have a very down to earth approach and I'm all about identifying and using your own strengths to solve issues; fostering and building empowerment; and moving past shame and self criticism. Therapy is different for each person depending on your needs, preferences, and goals. And for each person the experience should be judgement free, safe, and understanding. I place the utmost importance on all of these things. I have been practicing through the lens of constant anti racism training which I also place the utmost importance on.
I enjoy working with all people to help find what works best for you personally. I have a very down to earth approach and I'm all about identifying and using your own strengths to solve issues; fostering and building empowerment; and moving past shame and self criticism. Therapy is different for each person depending on your needs, preferences, and goals. And for each person the experience should be judgement free, safe, and understanding. I place the utmost importance on all of these things. I have been practicing through the lens of constant anti racism training which I also place the utmost importance on.
(860) 736-3360 View (860) 736-3360
Photo of Ivette Betancourt, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06118, CT
Ivette Betancourt
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
Hi, I am Ivette Betancourt, Hablo, Español, I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over thirty years of experience in therapy and Social work in the Hartford area. I work with couples, individuals, families and children. The last 10 years I have been a dedicated clinician/ and supervisor. I am bilingual in both Spanish and English, bicultural, and able to work with a number of different cultures and beliefs. If you are looking for a patient, empathetic, non-judgmental clinician with a great sense of humor, you have found her. I would love to learn your story. Call me 860-881-9856.
Hi, I am Ivette Betancourt, Hablo, Español, I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over thirty years of experience in therapy and Social work in the Hartford area. I work with couples, individuals, families and children. The last 10 years I have been a dedicated clinician/ and supervisor. I am bilingual in both Spanish and English, bicultural, and able to work with a number of different cultures and beliefs. If you are looking for a patient, empathetic, non-judgmental clinician with a great sense of humor, you have found her. I would love to learn your story. Call me 860-881-9856.
(860) 631-5104 View (860) 631-5104
Photo of Katie McLarney, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Katie McLarney
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
East Hartford, CT 06118
Not accepting new clients
My ideal client is someone who is ready to work on themselves. Maybe the changes haven't started yet but you have the desire to make it happen. I've worked with such a wide range of people but the sessions I look forward to the most are those when people dig for their motivation to change and improve their lives for the better (however that is defined by YOU). I can help guide and explore change but the real work happens between our sessions. I have an open mind and can work well with many different people. I look forward to learning more about you!
My ideal client is someone who is ready to work on themselves. Maybe the changes haven't started yet but you have the desire to make it happen. I've worked with such a wide range of people but the sessions I look forward to the most are those when people dig for their motivation to change and improve their lives for the better (however that is defined by YOU). I can help guide and explore change but the real work happens between our sessions. I have an open mind and can work well with many different people. I look forward to learning more about you!
(860) 530-5425 View (860) 530-5425
Photo of SMPsychotherapy & Counseling Services, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 06118, CT
SMPsychotherapy & Counseling Services
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LMFT-A
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
Now accepting new clients! Have you tried therapy more than once without success? Do you feel your mental health provider lacks empathy, and you feel emotionally disconnected from them? You are seeking empowerment from a compassionate therapist, where your experiences and concerns are heard. What if you found a way to manage your mental health with guidance from someone committed to understanding you? Let SMPsychotherapy and Counseling Services help you connect with the right person to achieve mental wellness and build the life you desire.
Now accepting new clients! Have you tried therapy more than once without success? Do you feel your mental health provider lacks empathy, and you feel emotionally disconnected from them? You are seeking empowerment from a compassionate therapist, where your experiences and concerns are heard. What if you found a way to manage your mental health with guidance from someone committed to understanding you? Let SMPsychotherapy and Counseling Services help you connect with the right person to achieve mental wellness and build the life you desire.
(860) 362-2403 View (860) 362-2403
Photo of Crystalynn De La Cruz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06118, CT
Crystalynn De La Cruz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
East Hartford, CT 06118
Not accepting new clients
Do you find yourself stuck or overwhelmed by what life has thrown at you? Are you emotionally drained, mentally exhausted, and finding yourself in survival mode? Maybe you are a parent who is trying to balance all life’s demands or a college student working through life’s transitions. Whoever you are and no matter the circumstance, I want you to know there is hope and possibility for you to experience freedom, purpose, and joy. I look forward to working alongside you to help you realize how amazingly resilient you are.
Do you find yourself stuck or overwhelmed by what life has thrown at you? Are you emotionally drained, mentally exhausted, and finding yourself in survival mode? Maybe you are a parent who is trying to balance all life’s demands or a college student working through life’s transitions. Whoever you are and no matter the circumstance, I want you to know there is hope and possibility for you to experience freedom, purpose, and joy. I look forward to working alongside you to help you realize how amazingly resilient you are.
(860) 362-3210 View (860) 362-3210

See more therapy options for 06118

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 06118

20+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 06118 who prioritize treating:

92% Depression
83% Anxiety
83% Self Esteem
75% Relationship Issues
75% Coping Skills
71% Stress
67% Women's Issues

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

79% Husky | CT BHP
68% BlueCross and BlueShield
63% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 06118 see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

100% Female

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 06118?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.