Photo of Judy Kulakofsky, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06111, CT
Judy Kulakofsky
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
If daily life often just feels overwhelming, let's talk. My office is a safe and comfortable place where I can help you develop a real understanding of what holds you back. If you feel like you need to strengthen your connection to yourself and others, I can help. Do you and your partner run into the same communication barriers over and over leaving you feeling hopeless? I utilize a method called Internal Family Systems to help you identify parts of you that may be getting in the way. By getting to know those parts of you, we can start you moving forward with confidence again.
If daily life often just feels overwhelming, let's talk. My office is a safe and comfortable place where I can help you develop a real understanding of what holds you back. If you feel like you need to strengthen your connection to yourself and others, I can help. Do you and your partner run into the same communication barriers over and over leaving you feeling hopeless? I utilize a method called Internal Family Systems to help you identify parts of you that may be getting in the way. By getting to know those parts of you, we can start you moving forward with confidence again.
(860) 532-1760 View (860) 532-1760
Photo of New Wave Counseling & Consulting, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
New Wave Counseling & Consulting, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
Over 20 years of clinical experience working with adolescents, teenagers, and young adults struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, life transitions, and addiction in various treatment settings. Diversity and multicultural issues are embedded in everything we do and contribute to presenting problems. I am conscious of varying decision-making preferences, the role of family dynamics, stages of life, socioeconomic status, and issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity. As well as the stigma associated with seeking mental health services.
Over 20 years of clinical experience working with adolescents, teenagers, and young adults struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, life transitions, and addiction in various treatment settings. Diversity and multicultural issues are embedded in everything we do and contribute to presenting problems. I am conscious of varying decision-making preferences, the role of family dynamics, stages of life, socioeconomic status, and issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity. As well as the stigma associated with seeking mental health services.
(860) 530-2988 View (860) 530-2988
Photo of Jennifer Dugre, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Jennifer Dugre
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
Waitlist for new clients
Life can be messy! I would like to help you feel more grounded and supported to navigate the challenges. My interests include working with young adults—maybe you are struggling to adjust to college, working, “adulting,” or having relationship issues. I am also passionate about working with women on maternal wellness and motherhood struggles. I have completed specialized perinatal training through PSI and offer video sessions, which many of my mothers find convenient when juggling family and/or work. Please know that you are not alone. Therapy can help to release that “heaviness” you are carrying around.
Life can be messy! I would like to help you feel more grounded and supported to navigate the challenges. My interests include working with young adults—maybe you are struggling to adjust to college, working, “adulting,” or having relationship issues. I am also passionate about working with women on maternal wellness and motherhood struggles. I have completed specialized perinatal training through PSI and offer video sessions, which many of my mothers find convenient when juggling family and/or work. Please know that you are not alone. Therapy can help to release that “heaviness” you are carrying around.
(860) 266-4562 View (860) 266-4562
Photo of Chemical Addictions Treatment Services (CATS), Drug & Alcohol Counselor in 06111, CT
Chemical Addictions Treatment Services (CATS)
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, MEd, LADC
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
Had enough? Are you tired of the conflicts, the personal, financial, and relationship problems that result from substance use and abuse in your life? There is a new opportunity for help at Chemical Addictions Treatment Services. Recovery works if you want it. You can learn about recovery strategies while discovering your strengths and building new ones. You are invited to complete Chemical Addictions Treatments Services Workbook that you can keep for future use and reference. Picture yourself putting energy into healing your addiction by understanding the medical and psychological effects of alcohol and drug addiction or addictive behaviors.
Had enough? Are you tired of the conflicts, the personal, financial, and relationship problems that result from substance use and abuse in your life? There is a new opportunity for help at Chemical Addictions Treatment Services. Recovery works if you want it. You can learn about recovery strategies while discovering your strengths and building new ones. You are invited to complete Chemical Addictions Treatments Services Workbook that you can keep for future use and reference. Picture yourself putting energy into healing your addiction by understanding the medical and psychological effects of alcohol and drug addiction or addictive behaviors.
(860) 786-4512 View (860) 786-4512
Photo of Shioban N Gordon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Shioban N Gordon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
One can have the desire to change, but it’s the Courage to take the first step that produces change. You are making a Courageous decision today and I applaud you for that! Therapy is a collaborative effort where we continually take steps to identify and create the change one seeks. My goal as a clinical social worker is three-fold: 1. To help you attain clarity in the matters that negatively impact your life, and 2. To support you as we identify options for dealing with those matters and create the change.
One can have the desire to change, but it’s the Courage to take the first step that produces change. You are making a Courageous decision today and I applaud you for that! Therapy is a collaborative effort where we continually take steps to identify and create the change one seeks. My goal as a clinical social worker is three-fold: 1. To help you attain clarity in the matters that negatively impact your life, and 2. To support you as we identify options for dealing with those matters and create the change.
(860) 926-2617 View (860) 926-2617
Photo of Joanne Leon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Joanne Leon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
I believe we all have the potential to live our best life, however, sometimes we feel stuck and overwhelmed. I can support you to move forward. I am an experienced (20+ years) bilingual /bicultural therapist providing mental health to children, adolescents, college students and adults in a nurturing, safe environment. My goal is to support clients in deepening their understanding of themselves. My work is anchored in psychodynamic perspective, CBT, relational and with current neurobiological understanding of healing such as EMDR. I believe each individual is unique and therapy should be tailored to their needs and strengths.
I believe we all have the potential to live our best life, however, sometimes we feel stuck and overwhelmed. I can support you to move forward. I am an experienced (20+ years) bilingual /bicultural therapist providing mental health to children, adolescents, college students and adults in a nurturing, safe environment. My goal is to support clients in deepening their understanding of themselves. My work is anchored in psychodynamic perspective, CBT, relational and with current neurobiological understanding of healing such as EMDR. I believe each individual is unique and therapy should be tailored to their needs and strengths.
(959) 265-0986 View (959) 265-0986
Photo of Kerry Rossi, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06111, CT
Kerry Rossi
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who works with individuals and couples. Life can be challenging at times and we can all experience stressors. We can feel stuck in unhealthy patterns, thoughts, behaviors and/or relationships. Therapy can be a beneficial way to explore these patterns and make healthy changes.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who works with individuals and couples. Life can be challenging at times and we can all experience stressors. We can feel stuck in unhealthy patterns, thoughts, behaviors and/or relationships. Therapy can be a beneficial way to explore these patterns and make healthy changes.
(959) 207-1939 View (959) 207-1939
Photo of My Story Counseling, LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06111, CT
My Story Counseling, LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
Practice currently has new providers and is now accepting new clients. My goal as a therapist is to provide a, welcoming and non-judgmental space for us to join together to effectively address and resolve your specific concerns. In order to help you reach your true potential we must consider the whole person; mind, body, and spirit. I specialize in working with the adolescent population and adults with anxiety, depression, addiction, PTSD, family therapy and couples counseling. I utilize various models such as CBT, DBT, Solution focused therapy and narrative therapy.
Practice currently has new providers and is now accepting new clients. My goal as a therapist is to provide a, welcoming and non-judgmental space for us to join together to effectively address and resolve your specific concerns. In order to help you reach your true potential we must consider the whole person; mind, body, and spirit. I specialize in working with the adolescent population and adults with anxiety, depression, addiction, PTSD, family therapy and couples counseling. I utilize various models such as CBT, DBT, Solution focused therapy and narrative therapy.
(860) 631-5039 View (860) 631-5039
Photo of Jenny Correa, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 06111, CT
Jenny Correa
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
TAKING new CLIENTS! Don’t count the days, make the days count. I reflect on this quote as a reminder that in life, we have the opportunity to put forth our best efforts and question any beliefs that may no longer serve us. I offer therapy for individuals ranging in age from children to adults, and couples. I have experience with helping people cope through anger, anxiety, self-defeating thoughts, grief, depression, infidelity and more. I believe that the combination of my therapeutic skills and your drive to alleviate your problems, is a recipe for great outcomes.
TAKING new CLIENTS! Don’t count the days, make the days count. I reflect on this quote as a reminder that in life, we have the opportunity to put forth our best efforts and question any beliefs that may no longer serve us. I offer therapy for individuals ranging in age from children to adults, and couples. I have experience with helping people cope through anger, anxiety, self-defeating thoughts, grief, depression, infidelity and more. I believe that the combination of my therapeutic skills and your drive to alleviate your problems, is a recipe for great outcomes.
(860) 864-4039 x102 View (860) 864-4039 x102
Photo of Ebonie Goulbourne, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Ebonie Goulbourne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111  (Online Only)
Do you stuff your feelings down and know now is the time to get support for your journey? Have you used self-help but found it doesn’t go as deep as you need? Do you measure your worth by how useful or accomplished you are? My name is Ebonie Goulbourne and I am a Licensed Master Social Worker passionate about helping people heal and thrive. I am a Black, Queer, First Generation Jamaican-American, and I firmly believe therapy is a key to developing authenticity, joy and self compassion. I provide 100% virtual individual and group sessions. My goal is for you to develop your own healthy formula for how you repair, thrive and grow.
Do you stuff your feelings down and know now is the time to get support for your journey? Have you used self-help but found it doesn’t go as deep as you need? Do you measure your worth by how useful or accomplished you are? My name is Ebonie Goulbourne and I am a Licensed Master Social Worker passionate about helping people heal and thrive. I am a Black, Queer, First Generation Jamaican-American, and I firmly believe therapy is a key to developing authenticity, joy and self compassion. I provide 100% virtual individual and group sessions. My goal is for you to develop your own healthy formula for how you repair, thrive and grow.
Photo of Gloshyla Cromartie, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Gloshyla Cromartie
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111  (Online Only)
Whether you are dealing with depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, stress, or conflicts in your relationships, I can help you identify the root causes, and develop a treatment plan that will facilitate positive change in your life. I create a safe space for you to embark on your journey of personal growth, healing and wellness.
Whether you are dealing with depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, stress, or conflicts in your relationships, I can help you identify the root causes, and develop a treatment plan that will facilitate positive change in your life. I create a safe space for you to embark on your journey of personal growth, healing and wellness.
(860) 854-7141 View (860) 854-7141
Photo of Chanel Cranford, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Chanel Cranford
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
I am a therapist committed to assisting children, adolescents, adults, and families to confront and address trauma, repair and strengthen families, and provide pathways to mental health services.
I am a therapist committed to assisting children, adolescents, adults, and families to confront and address trauma, repair and strengthen families, and provide pathways to mental health services.
(860) 831-4868 View (860) 831-4868
Photo of Megan Kiely, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06111, CT
Megan Kiely
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
We all need someone in our corner to lift us up, encourage us, support us, and help us through the darkness of the world. I would like to be that person for you! You deserve to feel happy, at peace, and strong; and sometimes that requires some additional help. I like to connect with my clients to provide comfort, honesty, safety, and support as we work together to help you get to a happier place in life.
We all need someone in our corner to lift us up, encourage us, support us, and help us through the darkness of the world. I would like to be that person for you! You deserve to feel happy, at peace, and strong; and sometimes that requires some additional help. I like to connect with my clients to provide comfort, honesty, safety, and support as we work together to help you get to a happier place in life.
(860) 845-6949 View (860) 845-6949
Photo of Alexis Wright, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Alexis Wright
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
Life can be hard. I would be honored to collaborate with you to make life better for you. I earned my Bachelor’s degree, followed by a Master's degree in Social Work from the University of St. Joseph. My experience starts as a therapeutic mentor then progressing to impactful social work roles at various agencies and schools. I have worked with teens, families and adults navigate through various barriers and challenges life presents. My journey reflects a commitment to diverse populations and a broad range of mental health challenges.
Life can be hard. I would be honored to collaborate with you to make life better for you. I earned my Bachelor’s degree, followed by a Master's degree in Social Work from the University of St. Joseph. My experience starts as a therapeutic mentor then progressing to impactful social work roles at various agencies and schools. I have worked with teens, families and adults navigate through various barriers and challenges life presents. My journey reflects a commitment to diverse populations and a broad range of mental health challenges.
(860) 962-4759 View (860) 962-4759
Photo of Lindsey Jason, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Lindsey Jason
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Newington, CT 06111
Are you feeling lost, down or anxious? Do you feel stuck or that you aren't living the life you were meant to lead? Maybe you're struggling with a major life transition such as graduating college, marriage, pregnancy, infertility, or life as a new mom. Throughout life we are faced with many changes and new situations that can be difficult to tackle on our own. Sometimes we need the support and guidance of an unbiased person. Asking for help can be a scary and overwhelming task. As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to meet you where you are at on this journey and help you uncover your true potential.
Are you feeling lost, down or anxious? Do you feel stuck or that you aren't living the life you were meant to lead? Maybe you're struggling with a major life transition such as graduating college, marriage, pregnancy, infertility, or life as a new mom. Throughout life we are faced with many changes and new situations that can be difficult to tackle on our own. Sometimes we need the support and guidance of an unbiased person. Asking for help can be a scary and overwhelming task. As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to meet you where you are at on this journey and help you uncover your true potential.
(860) 362-1108 View (860) 362-1108
Photo of Mariah Samuels @ New Provenance Counseling Center, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 06111, CT
Mariah Samuels @ New Provenance Counseling Center
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
I want you to know you are not alone, and celebrate you seeking services. It may give you an uneasy and scary feeling to be embarking on this journey, but I am here to be a support to you. I am passionate about helping people foster healthy relationships with themselves and others. As well as being a better version of yourself the way you want it to be for YOU.
I want you to know you are not alone, and celebrate you seeking services. It may give you an uneasy and scary feeling to be embarking on this journey, but I am here to be a support to you. I am passionate about helping people foster healthy relationships with themselves and others. As well as being a better version of yourself the way you want it to be for YOU.
(860) 926-5102 View (860) 926-5102
Photo of Amaris A Ayon, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06111, CT
Amaris A Ayon
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Masters in License Mental Health Counseling from Springfield College. I have experience working with children, youth, and adults in various capacity since 2007. I am bilingual and provides services in English and in Spanish. I have experience in various settings, including residential, intensive outpatient, schools, in-home care, extended day program, and outpatient services. I have also worked with the legal population (probation, special parole, and CSSD). Amaris believes in educating, advocating, and treating the whole person on reaching their goals.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Masters in License Mental Health Counseling from Springfield College. I have experience working with children, youth, and adults in various capacity since 2007. I am bilingual and provides services in English and in Spanish. I have experience in various settings, including residential, intensive outpatient, schools, in-home care, extended day program, and outpatient services. I have also worked with the legal population (probation, special parole, and CSSD). Amaris believes in educating, advocating, and treating the whole person on reaching their goals.
(860) 968-2880 View (860) 968-2880
Photo of Elaina Nicole layden, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06111, CT
Elaina Nicole layden
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111  (Online Only)
My journey in the mental health field started 10 years ago. As a therapist specializing in trauma, I can help you in exploring your needs and feelings that have negatively impacted your lives. I have worked with children, adults, and adolescents in the community I bring extensive experience in helping clients explore negative thoughts, triggers to their anxiety and depression, and helping them to understand the impact trauma has had on their lives. I can help you to identify the barriers to achieving the goals you would like to accomplish.
My journey in the mental health field started 10 years ago. As a therapist specializing in trauma, I can help you in exploring your needs and feelings that have negatively impacted your lives. I have worked with children, adults, and adolescents in the community I bring extensive experience in helping clients explore negative thoughts, triggers to their anxiety and depression, and helping them to understand the impact trauma has had on their lives. I can help you to identify the barriers to achieving the goals you would like to accomplish.
(475) 231-4353 View (475) 231-4353
Photo of Ada G Rodriguez, Licensed Professional Counselor in 06111, CT
Ada G Rodriguez
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111
I am a bilingual/bicultural licensed professional counselor with twenty-plus years of experience including working at a non-profit mental health clinic, a managed care company, and a public elementary school. I was born and raised in San Salvador, El Salvador, and moved to CT to pursue my master's degree in psychology. I have struggled with acculturation, parenting, and multiple losses in my life which have built my resiliency and increased my desire to help/guide others with life difficulties. Working in such diverse settings has strengthened my clinical expertise.
I am a bilingual/bicultural licensed professional counselor with twenty-plus years of experience including working at a non-profit mental health clinic, a managed care company, and a public elementary school. I was born and raised in San Salvador, El Salvador, and moved to CT to pursue my master's degree in psychology. I have struggled with acculturation, parenting, and multiple losses in my life which have built my resiliency and increased my desire to help/guide others with life difficulties. Working in such diverse settings has strengthened my clinical expertise.
(860) 300-3649 View (860) 300-3649
Photo of Maria Pia Munoz, Marriage & Family Therapist in 06111, CT
Maria Pia Munoz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Newington, CT 06111  (Online Only)
Bilingual Therapist. Welcome! Let's begin the journey to a more fulfilling and exciting life. You already faced the hard part, now let's start the healing. At True Alignment Counseling, we use compassion, kindness and wisdom to help our clients change old narratives and achieve the most desired version of themselves. Through the use of Solution Focused Therapy (SFT) and attachment based approach, we will collaboratively work towards challenging unhelpful patterns of thoughts and behaviors, learn new coping and life skills and develop meaningful insights and realistic solutions that will bring you closer to your desired self.
Bilingual Therapist. Welcome! Let's begin the journey to a more fulfilling and exciting life. You already faced the hard part, now let's start the healing. At True Alignment Counseling, we use compassion, kindness and wisdom to help our clients change old narratives and achieve the most desired version of themselves. Through the use of Solution Focused Therapy (SFT) and attachment based approach, we will collaboratively work towards challenging unhelpful patterns of thoughts and behaviors, learn new coping and life skills and develop meaningful insights and realistic solutions that will bring you closer to your desired self.
(860) 485-7654 View (860) 485-7654

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 06111

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 06111 who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
79% Self Esteem
76% Coping Skills
69% Relationship Issues
67% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
78% Husky | CT BHP
73% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 06111 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

91% Female
9% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 06111?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.