Photo of Joanne Sullivan, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Joanne Sullivan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Life can be challenging. Perhaps you're experiencing anxiety or depression, are struggling with substance abuse disorder, or are feeling down and can't quite put your finger on why. As a therapist, my goal is to help you identify why you are seeking therapy, and to do that in a safe, empathic, and non-judgmental space.
Life can be challenging. Perhaps you're experiencing anxiety or depression, are struggling with substance abuse disorder, or are feeling down and can't quite put your finger on why. As a therapist, my goal is to help you identify why you are seeking therapy, and to do that in a safe, empathic, and non-judgmental space.
(978) 510-6202 View (978) 510-6202
Photo of Michelle A Frederick-Newton, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Michelle A Frederick-Newton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
**Private Pay and Virtual Only. Will Respond Via Email.** At one point or another you need someone to talk to. We all struggle at times, but we don't have to go through it alone. Sometimes, we lose focus on our journey and need assistance to refocus and get back on track. As a clinician, I value looking at a client as a whole person. I value utilizing your strengths, balancing different systems to discover the pathway to successful treatment. I am committed to dismantling the negative stigma of receiving therapeutic services in the Black and Brown communities.
**Private Pay and Virtual Only. Will Respond Via Email.** At one point or another you need someone to talk to. We all struggle at times, but we don't have to go through it alone. Sometimes, we lose focus on our journey and need assistance to refocus and get back on track. As a clinician, I value looking at a client as a whole person. I value utilizing your strengths, balancing different systems to discover the pathway to successful treatment. I am committed to dismantling the negative stigma of receiving therapeutic services in the Black and Brown communities.
(857) 837-3574 View (857) 837-3574
Photo of Elizabeth Tener, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Elizabeth Tener
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Life has its ups and downs, but do you seem to have more downs these days? Are you fearful or sad, losing sleep, worrying about partner or your child? Are you angry and irritable, then ashamed? Insecure and unhappy on your job? You don’t need to stay in this lonely, confusing place. Therapy is a wonderful opportunity to pause, breathe deeply, and take time to find your voice. As a therapist, I can be there with a listening ear, a calm presence. More than that, I provide a mix of insight, practical advice, candid feedback, warmth, and a sense of humor. Therapy is an inner journey, and I’ll be by your side.
Life has its ups and downs, but do you seem to have more downs these days? Are you fearful or sad, losing sleep, worrying about partner or your child? Are you angry and irritable, then ashamed? Insecure and unhappy on your job? You don’t need to stay in this lonely, confusing place. Therapy is a wonderful opportunity to pause, breathe deeply, and take time to find your voice. As a therapist, I can be there with a listening ear, a calm presence. More than that, I provide a mix of insight, practical advice, candid feedback, warmth, and a sense of humor. Therapy is an inner journey, and I’ll be by your side.
(978) 699-9710 View (978) 699-9710
Photo of Patrick M. Szafran, PsyD, Psychologist
Patrick M. Szafran
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970
Everyone deserves to experience joy & fulfillment in life & relationships, including you! At the foundation of my approach is a strong connection between two people that is based on mutual safety, trust, & genuine care. Within this relationship, I am my authentic self by bringing my warmth, dedication, & quirky personality that often puts folks at ease & enables them to more compassionately understand their true selves, strengths & imperfections in all. Through this process of self-exploration, people I work with learn to more honestly attend to & express their emotions, which leads to greater self-acceptance & consequently freedom from self-doubt & low self-esteem.
Everyone deserves to experience joy & fulfillment in life & relationships, including you! At the foundation of my approach is a strong connection between two people that is based on mutual safety, trust, & genuine care. Within this relationship, I am my authentic self by bringing my warmth, dedication, & quirky personality that often puts folks at ease & enables them to more compassionately understand their true selves, strengths & imperfections in all. Through this process of self-exploration, people I work with learn to more honestly attend to & express their emotions, which leads to greater self-acceptance & consequently freedom from self-doubt & low self-esteem.
(339) 210-1041 View (339) 210-1041
Photo of Susan Gordon-Schiowitz, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Susan Gordon-Schiowitz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970
Welcome, and thank you for taking the time to consider entering therapy. In my 20 years of experience, clients whom I have met have impressed me with their ability to establish achievable goals as they work toward improving their overall happiness and well being. Whether you are struggling with issues such as anxiety or depression, looking to improve relationships or consider major changes, coping with chronic medical conditions, feeling "stuck" at times, or caring for others who have multiple needs, I am here to help you navigate through these chapters in your life and establish a balance.
Welcome, and thank you for taking the time to consider entering therapy. In my 20 years of experience, clients whom I have met have impressed me with their ability to establish achievable goals as they work toward improving their overall happiness and well being. Whether you are struggling with issues such as anxiety or depression, looking to improve relationships or consider major changes, coping with chronic medical conditions, feeling "stuck" at times, or caring for others who have multiple needs, I am here to help you navigate through these chapters in your life and establish a balance.
(978) 248-0183 View (978) 248-0183
Photo of Sara Frawley, LMHC, Counselor
Sara Frawley
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970
Not accepting new clients
Please note: I am not currently accepting new clients. I provide a supportive, non-judgmental environment to help you develop goals and take the next steps. My approach to therapy is interactive. Our work together will be based your wants and needs. I will work closely with you to identify causes of your concerns, learn tools to make change, and help you build understanding about yourself and your world.
Please note: I am not currently accepting new clients. I provide a supportive, non-judgmental environment to help you develop goals and take the next steps. My approach to therapy is interactive. Our work together will be based your wants and needs. I will work closely with you to identify causes of your concerns, learn tools to make change, and help you build understanding about yourself and your world.
(978) 241-7198 View (978) 241-7198
Photo of David Selden, ACSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David Selden
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, ACSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970
*** I am offering tele-therapy through video or phone- NOW ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS*** I have over 35 years of training and experience in the field of behavioral health. I draw on this and my experiences as an amateur athlete and youth sport coach to engage and work with my clients. My specialty is working with teens, adults and their families who are experiencing difficulties from substance use and related mood disorders. I provide a non-judgmental, non-critical opportunity to discuss and work through life challenges. The result is a collaborative process based on a plan of your choosing.
*** I am offering tele-therapy through video or phone- NOW ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS*** I have over 35 years of training and experience in the field of behavioral health. I draw on this and my experiences as an amateur athlete and youth sport coach to engage and work with my clients. My specialty is working with teens, adults and their families who are experiencing difficulties from substance use and related mood disorders. I provide a non-judgmental, non-critical opportunity to discuss and work through life challenges. The result is a collaborative process based on a plan of your choosing.
(617) 500-6183 View (617) 500-6183
Photo of Kate Roberts, PhD, Psychologist
Kate Roberts
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970
Most people are struggling with something in their lives today. Asking for help is not a sign of weakness. I offer Telehealth and in person counseling. I've been a practicing child, family and adult psychologist for more than 30 years. I combine supportive counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy strategies, in a non-judgmental environment to help you manage your challenges and improve your life. At this time I am accepting insurance. I would love to hear from you and work with you. Please contact me at katemoraroberts at gmail.com.
Most people are struggling with something in their lives today. Asking for help is not a sign of weakness. I offer Telehealth and in person counseling. I've been a practicing child, family and adult psychologist for more than 30 years. I combine supportive counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy strategies, in a non-judgmental environment to help you manage your challenges and improve your life. At this time I am accepting insurance. I would love to hear from you and work with you. Please contact me at katemoraroberts at gmail.com.
(978) 801-0964 View (978) 801-0964
Photo of Maddie Lesiczka, LMHC, Counselor
Maddie Lesiczka
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
The past few years have been challenging in many ways, adding new stressors to our already complex lives. It is easy to feel alone and overwhelmed. As your therapist I welcome the opportunity to offer you support and skills to assist you during these trying times. My approach includes meeting clients where they're at. This means that I empower clients to choose topics and set the pace of sessions without coming in with my own agenda. Working collaboratively, we will identify treatment goals and I will utilize interventions that are supported by research and tailored to your unique needs, neurotype and circumstances.
The past few years have been challenging in many ways, adding new stressors to our already complex lives. It is easy to feel alone and overwhelmed. As your therapist I welcome the opportunity to offer you support and skills to assist you during these trying times. My approach includes meeting clients where they're at. This means that I empower clients to choose topics and set the pace of sessions without coming in with my own agenda. Working collaboratively, we will identify treatment goals and I will utilize interventions that are supported by research and tailored to your unique needs, neurotype and circumstances.
(978) 391-2792 View (978) 391-2792
Photo of Emily Koen, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Emily Koen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Tue Daytime Telehealth Only: Some part of you is suffering, but is willing to put in the work to end that internal war. In both my life and my work, authenticity is paramount to me. This means I won't hesitate from challenging you, but I'll also be right there beside you, sharing a laugh in solidarity. In a world that often feels too heavy, finding humor and lightness in that chaos can truly allow us to break free of the chains that have been holding us back. I'm not afraid to share my own struggles. It's a reminder that we're all imperfect, stumbling through life's unpredictable challenges - finding strength in our shared humanity.
Tue Daytime Telehealth Only: Some part of you is suffering, but is willing to put in the work to end that internal war. In both my life and my work, authenticity is paramount to me. This means I won't hesitate from challenging you, but I'll also be right there beside you, sharing a laugh in solidarity. In a world that often feels too heavy, finding humor and lightness in that chaos can truly allow us to break free of the chains that have been holding us back. I'm not afraid to share my own struggles. It's a reminder that we're all imperfect, stumbling through life's unpredictable challenges - finding strength in our shared humanity.
(508) 625-9718 View (508) 625-9718
Photo of Rachel Gedansky, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rachel Gedansky
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970
I believe one of the bravest things you can do is to understand your own story. In therapy with me I prioritize our therapeutic alliance, while we work on your goals, as I understand how vulnerable and unique the therapy relationship is. I do this by using a warm and empathetic approach and honoring that trust gets built slowly over time. I also try to bring in humor when appropriate and further allow my clients to feel like an equal partner in their treatment. I know there is no one size fits all to therapy and I want to make sure you and your unique needs are at the forefront of our work together.
I believe one of the bravest things you can do is to understand your own story. In therapy with me I prioritize our therapeutic alliance, while we work on your goals, as I understand how vulnerable and unique the therapy relationship is. I do this by using a warm and empathetic approach and honoring that trust gets built slowly over time. I also try to bring in humor when appropriate and further allow my clients to feel like an equal partner in their treatment. I know there is no one size fits all to therapy and I want to make sure you and your unique needs are at the forefront of our work together.
(781) 720-4975 View (781) 720-4975
Photo of Dave Dorvilier, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dave Dorvilier
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970
I believe therapy is based off a cooperative relationship between the therapist and client working together towards what you find important. Many events throughout the course of our lives shape and mold us; These life experiences and lessons can have a huge impact on our relationships with others and ourselves that leaves us feeling stuck or dissatisfied. I have over 8 years of experience working in clinics and community based service settings; I currently work primarily with adults with significant experience in relationship issues, career, self-esteem, trauma and abuse, stress, anxiety and depression.
I believe therapy is based off a cooperative relationship between the therapist and client working together towards what you find important. Many events throughout the course of our lives shape and mold us; These life experiences and lessons can have a huge impact on our relationships with others and ourselves that leaves us feeling stuck or dissatisfied. I have over 8 years of experience working in clinics and community based service settings; I currently work primarily with adults with significant experience in relationship issues, career, self-esteem, trauma and abuse, stress, anxiety and depression.
(857) 763-2737 View (857) 763-2737
Photo of Heidi Vega Cavanaugh, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Heidi Vega Cavanaugh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Note: Email is the best way to reach me for faster reply. I am a therapist who is passionate about helping my clients regain (or maybe gain for the first time) a true sense of self. Addiction, old behavior patterns, unhealthy coping mechanisms... they can all derail us from discovering our authenticity and our purpose in life. I have experience in helping clients of all backgrounds move into recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders, behavioral addictions, anxiety disorders, and depression.
Note: Email is the best way to reach me for faster reply. I am a therapist who is passionate about helping my clients regain (or maybe gain for the first time) a true sense of self. Addiction, old behavior patterns, unhealthy coping mechanisms... they can all derail us from discovering our authenticity and our purpose in life. I have experience in helping clients of all backgrounds move into recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders, behavioral addictions, anxiety disorders, and depression.
(857) 424-0779 View (857) 424-0779
Photo of Jacklyn Powers, LMHC, Counselor
Jacklyn Powers
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
My goal is to assist clients in feeling empowered to take charge of their life and feel confident working toward their goals. I believe every step toward your goals is an accomplishment, regardless of what life throws at you along the way. I believe all people are different, therefore we need to understand the individual to treat the diagnosis. I believe each individual has the capacity for personal growth and/or change.
My goal is to assist clients in feeling empowered to take charge of their life and feel confident working toward their goals. I believe every step toward your goals is an accomplishment, regardless of what life throws at you along the way. I believe all people are different, therefore we need to understand the individual to treat the diagnosis. I believe each individual has the capacity for personal growth and/or change.
(978) 205-1604 View (978) 205-1604
Photo of Haidee Cano, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Haidee Cano
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Life isn't something you should be expected to take on alone. I would be proud to be part of your community and walk alongside you in this journey. I am here to support you in the good moments and the tough ones, too. My passion is caring for BIPOC individuals’ mental health as they experience an array of life's transitions—school/higher ed, struggling with trauma, early adulthood, early career & helping professionals, postpartum, parenthood, LGBTQ+ identity, children of immigrants, self-esteem & anything that may be feeling too heavy to carry on your own. I am EMDR trained and offer this to my adult clients.
Life isn't something you should be expected to take on alone. I would be proud to be part of your community and walk alongside you in this journey. I am here to support you in the good moments and the tough ones, too. My passion is caring for BIPOC individuals’ mental health as they experience an array of life's transitions—school/higher ed, struggling with trauma, early adulthood, early career & helping professionals, postpartum, parenthood, LGBTQ+ identity, children of immigrants, self-esteem & anything that may be feeling too heavy to carry on your own. I am EMDR trained and offer this to my adult clients.
(978) 647-3018 View (978) 647-3018
Photo of Hanna Polyak, MSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Hanna Polyak
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Are you feeling overwhelmed by the weight of depression, anxiety, burnout, or struggling with low self-esteem? You're not alone. With a deep commitment to your growth and healing, I provide a supportive environment where you can explore your challenges and reclaim control over your life. My approach is rooted in empathy, compassion, and active listening. I understand that every individual's journey is unique, and I tailor my therapeutic methods to meet your specific needs.
Are you feeling overwhelmed by the weight of depression, anxiety, burnout, or struggling with low self-esteem? You're not alone. With a deep commitment to your growth and healing, I provide a supportive environment where you can explore your challenges and reclaim control over your life. My approach is rooted in empathy, compassion, and active listening. I understand that every individual's journey is unique, and I tailor my therapeutic methods to meet your specific needs.
(978) 643-0729 View (978) 643-0729
Photo of Katherine Russell, PsyD, Psychologist
Katherine Russell
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Dr. Russell is currently accepting new clients for online sessions. She works with adults, providing treatment that respects mind, body, and spirit. Her areas of interest include: anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, health and wellness, and the spiritual/existential. Dr. Russell takes an integrative approach to psychotherapy and incorporates a variety of orientations including relational, existential, trauma-informed, cognitive behavioral, dialectical behavioral, and psychodynamic. She also has training in mindfulness and EMDR.
Dr. Russell is currently accepting new clients for online sessions. She works with adults, providing treatment that respects mind, body, and spirit. Her areas of interest include: anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, health and wellness, and the spiritual/existential. Dr. Russell takes an integrative approach to psychotherapy and incorporates a variety of orientations including relational, existential, trauma-informed, cognitive behavioral, dialectical behavioral, and psychodynamic. She also has training in mindfulness and EMDR.
(978) 306-4450 View (978) 306-4450
Photo of Jane B Ross, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jane B Ross
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970
Tri-Well Health is a therapeutic and consultative psychotherapy practice for girls, adolescent girls, young women, women who are seeking an integrative approach to health, wellness and healing. It is my privilege to assist and witness deep healing with each person. Through enhanced connection, I work collaboratively in a warm, respectful space. Issues we may address include depression, anxiety, family and peer relationships, struggles with school, stress, low self-esteem and addictions. Working together, we will identify and build upon your strengths so that you can attain improved emotional health and well-being.
Tri-Well Health is a therapeutic and consultative psychotherapy practice for girls, adolescent girls, young women, women who are seeking an integrative approach to health, wellness and healing. It is my privilege to assist and witness deep healing with each person. Through enhanced connection, I work collaboratively in a warm, respectful space. Issues we may address include depression, anxiety, family and peer relationships, struggles with school, stress, low self-esteem and addictions. Working together, we will identify and build upon your strengths so that you can attain improved emotional health and well-being.
(978) 631-1624 View (978) 631-1624
Photo of Cassie McCarthy, LICSW, MBA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Cassie McCarthy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, MBA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Salem, MA 01970  (Online Only)
Memories from the past flash across your mind – bits and pieces of the worst thing that ever happened to you. You find yourself thinking about all the things you wish you could have done differently and playing out all of the "coulda, shoulda, wouldas". You're feeling constantly on edge, people tell you you're a control freak, and you just can't seem to ever let your guard down. It's exhausting and you're fed up with feeling this way. You're willing to put in the work to feel better - if you only just knew where to start or how to make yourself feel better. You need help, but just don't know how to start.
Memories from the past flash across your mind – bits and pieces of the worst thing that ever happened to you. You find yourself thinking about all the things you wish you could have done differently and playing out all of the "coulda, shoulda, wouldas". You're feeling constantly on edge, people tell you you're a control freak, and you just can't seem to ever let your guard down. It's exhausting and you're fed up with feeling this way. You're willing to put in the work to feel better - if you only just knew where to start or how to make yourself feel better. You need help, but just don't know how to start.
(351) 200-3649 View (351) 200-3649
Photo of Talissa Casal, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Talissa Casal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Salem, MA 01970
I believe that any person can make improvements in their life with nonjudgemental acceptance and guidance to increase coping skills, self-worth and a better understanding of themselves and what they are capable of.
I believe that any person can make improvements in their life with nonjudgemental acceptance and guidance to increase coping skills, self-worth and a better understanding of themselves and what they are capable of.
(978) 306-2088 View (978) 306-2088

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 01970

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 01970 who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
85% Relationship Issues
74% Trauma and PTSD
74% Self Esteem
72% Coping Skills
65% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% BlueCross and BlueShield
61% Optum
56% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 01970 see their clients

59% In Person and Online
41% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
16% Male
3% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 01970?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.