Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10011
"I am committed to working collaboratively with my patients to address emotional distress and difficulties in daily living. This could manifest as depression, anxiety, problems with intimacy or self-esteem, trouble staying focused or feeling connected, feeling excessively angry or guilty, or trouble finding meaning in life, to name only a few. I listen deeply, to understand not only who my patients are right now and what has brought them in, but also what has happened to them in the past and how that has affected the present."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(917) 794-3574
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10011
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I am committed to working collaboratively with my patients to address emotional distress and difficulties in daily living. This could manifest as depression, anxiety, problems with intimacy or self-esteem, trouble staying focused or feeling connected, feeling excessively angry or guilty, or trouble finding meaning in life, to name only a few. I listen deeply, to understand not only who my patients are right now and what has brought them in, but also what has happened to them in the past and how that has affected the present."
Erica Saccente, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, NPP
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I view psychotherapeutic work not only as a means to symptom reduction, but as an evolving process to help people live more personally meaningful lives. I work with adults dealing with a wide range of difficulties, and I have experience working with people that have co-occurring medical issues including chronic pain and HIV/AIDS. I offer an integrative approach based on your needs and interests, which may include talk therapy, medication management, Yoga breathing techniques, meditation, attention to the physical body, spiritual principles, and insights from neuroscience."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(347) 229-9542
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I view psychotherapeutic work not only as a means to symptom reduction, but as an evolving process to help people live more personally meaningful lives. I work with adults dealing with a wide range of difficulties, and I have experience working with people that have co-occurring medical issues including chronic pain and HIV/AIDS. I offer an integrative approach based on your needs and interests, which may include talk therapy, medication management, Yoga breathing techniques, meditation, attention to the physical body, spiritual principles, and insights from neuroscience."
Dana Wang, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Dr. Dana Wang believes in a holistic approach to emotional wellness: listening to each patient and creating a partnership to maintain and improve lifelong health. In addition to psychotherapy and medication, Dr. Wang also incorporates biofeedback, mindfulness, and meditation into her practice. She has expertise in treating anxiety, mood disorder, ADHD, anger management, couple's therapy and she also specializes in helping professionals function at peak performance. For most up to date availability, please book directly at: https://riviamedical.com/appointment"
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(646) 663-4391
Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"Dr. Dana Wang believes in a holistic approach to emotional wellness: listening to each patient and creating a partnership to maintain and improve lifelong health. In addition to psychotherapy and medication, Dr. Wang also incorporates biofeedback, mindfulness, and meditation into her practice. She has expertise in treating anxiety, mood disorder, ADHD, anger management, couple's therapy and she also specializes in helping professionals function at peak performance. For most up to date availability, please book directly at: https://riviamedical.com/appointment"
Richa Maheshwari, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD, MPH
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
"I am a board-certified child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist. I enjoy working with people at every life stage, and I believe psychotherapy is an effective tool to help us lead more meaningful and productive lives. As a physician I also prescribe medications when appropriate."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(202) 791-4879
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I am a board-certified child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist. I enjoy working with people at every life stage, and I believe psychotherapy is an effective tool to help us lead more meaningful and productive lives. As a physician I also prescribe medications when appropriate."
David Abramson, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I mainly do medication management, though some mindfullness-based psychotherapy as well. There's no shortage of approved treatments in psychiatry, though only certain ones work best to serve each person's unique needs. I'll try and find that 'right' treatment for you. If I have a 'strength' in this field, I'd say it's this flexibility of approach. I also support the use of therapeutic practices such as acupuncture, yoga or zen. I treat patients with mental health issues including ADHD, Anxiety, Bipolar Disorder and Depression. Let's work together to find the best option for you."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(646) 798-5296
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I mainly do medication management, though some mindfullness-based psychotherapy as well. There's no shortage of approved treatments in psychiatry, though only certain ones work best to serve each person's unique needs. I'll try and find that 'right' treatment for you. If I have a 'strength' in this field, I'd say it's this flexibility of approach. I also support the use of therapeutic practices such as acupuncture, yoga or zen. I treat patients with mental health issues including ADHD, Anxiety, Bipolar Disorder and Depression. Let's work together to find the best option for you."
Michael A Ketteringham, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD, MPH
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Mental health and its treatment are stigmatized, rendering the initiation of treatment intimidating for many. That is why I provide a professional and empathetic space for consultation and treatment; everyone should be comfortable seeking the care they feel they need. I also utilize telepsychiatry when appropriate to increase access to care. I am dual board certified in adult general psychiatry and addiction. I have also specialized in clinical training in sex therapy and I am affiliated with NYU's Program in Human Sexuality. I offer both treatment for patients and supervision for other mental health professionals."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(917) 267-0681
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"Mental health and its treatment are stigmatized, rendering the initiation of treatment intimidating for many. That is why I provide a professional and empathetic space for consultation and treatment; everyone should be comfortable seeking the care they feel they need. I also utilize telepsychiatry when appropriate to increase access to care. I am dual board certified in adult general psychiatry and addiction. I have also specialized in clinical training in sex therapy and I am affiliated with NYU's Program in Human Sexuality. I offer both treatment for patients and supervision for other mental health professionals."
Veronica Rojas, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"It is a privilege to do what I do on a daily basis; working with the "body/mind connection". I love working with people and going through their life stages together; adolescents, college students, young adults and then adults. I believe that the modality of treatment should be suited to the patient's needs. I have trained through different schools and continue to do so. Once we work together on identifying their issues, we work on them with a "tailored treatment", that said; individual psychotherapy, mindfulness meditation, complementary treatment with vitamins, exercises and if needed medication."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(917) 746-1415
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"It is a privilege to do what I do on a daily basis; working with the "body/mind connection". I love working with people and going through their life stages together; adolescents, college students, young adults and then adults. I believe that the modality of treatment should be suited to the patient's needs. I have trained through different schools and continue to do so. Once we work together on identifying their issues, we work on them with a "tailored treatment", that said; individual psychotherapy, mindfulness meditation, complementary treatment with vitamins, exercises and if needed medication."
Dr. Vijal Parikh, D.O., Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, D.O.
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
"As a licensed medical doctor and practicing psychiatrist, I specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of mental conditions. As an osteopathic, physician, my philosophy incorporates a complete integration of the mind and the body. My training, both in psychopharmacology (medication) and psychotherapy (talk therapy), helps me incorporate both treatment modalities in my practice. This approach also relates to work I do in public mental health where I work part time providing mental health care to the homeless, severely mentally ill and LGBT at risk youth."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(646) 681-6152
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"As a licensed medical doctor and practicing psychiatrist, I specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of mental conditions. As an osteopathic, physician, my philosophy incorporates a complete integration of the mind and the body. My training, both in psychopharmacology (medication) and psychotherapy (talk therapy), helps me incorporate both treatment modalities in my practice. This approach also relates to work I do in public mental health where I work part time providing mental health care to the homeless, severely mentally ill and LGBT at risk youth."
Frances W. Lee, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am a Harvard and NYU-trained psychiatrist practicing in New York City who treats adults, adolescents, and couples. I have special interests in mood and anxiety disorders, OCD, ADHD, weight and body image issues, relationship issues, and sleep disorders. I also have expertise in providing perinatal mental health and sexual dysfunction therapy. In my practice I see patients for both psychopharmacology and/or psychotherapy with emphasis on supportive, dynamic, interpersonal, cognitive behavioral, and sex therapy modalities."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(917) 791-2245
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I am a Harvard and NYU-trained psychiatrist practicing in New York City who treats adults, adolescents, and couples. I have special interests in mood and anxiety disorders, OCD, ADHD, weight and body image issues, relationship issues, and sleep disorders. I also have expertise in providing perinatal mental health and sexual dysfunction therapy. In my practice I see patients for both psychopharmacology and/or psychotherapy with emphasis on supportive, dynamic, interpersonal, cognitive behavioral, and sex therapy modalities."
Goksin Ozkarahan, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am a Board-Certified Psychiatrist and NASM-Certified Personal Trainer who treats young adults (20s-40s) struggling with depression, anxiety, ADHD, relationships, body image/ eating issues, life adjustments, loss, insomnia, panic, and OCD. With a warm and practical approach to psychotherapy, I prescribe medications only when necessary. My 4 certifications by the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) enable me offer comprehensive lifestyle-oriented psychiatric treatment incorporating coaching on physical exercise, nutrition, yoga, meditation, sleep optimization, and motivational support. Please visit my website for details."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(212) 213-4129
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I am a Board-Certified Psychiatrist and NASM-Certified Personal Trainer who treats young adults (20s-40s) struggling with depression, anxiety, ADHD, relationships, body image/ eating issues, life adjustments, loss, insomnia, panic, and OCD. With a warm and practical approach to psychotherapy, I prescribe medications only when necessary. My 4 certifications by the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) enable me offer comprehensive lifestyle-oriented psychiatric treatment incorporating coaching on physical exercise, nutrition, yoga, meditation, sleep optimization, and motivational support. Please visit my website for details."
Tiziano Colibazzi, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Columbia University and a board-certified psychiatrist committed to offering comprehensive care for individuals, couples and families. I practice and value psychotherapy because it can be an enormously powerful tool to enhance personal growth, learning and self-discovery. Being a physician enables me to offer the option of medication when needed. This has the advantage of integrating both types of treatments with one provider only. If you are already in psychotherapy, I will work in coordination with your therapist to achieve the best result."
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
(212) 561-8911
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
"I am Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Columbia University and a board-certified psychiatrist committed to offering comprehensive care for individuals, couples and families. I practice and value psychotherapy because it can be an enormously powerful tool to enhance personal growth, learning and self-discovery. Being a physician enables me to offer the option of medication when needed. This has the advantage of integrating both types of treatments with one provider only. If you are already in psychotherapy, I will work in coordination with your therapist to achieve the best result."
No more Mindfulness-Based (MBCT) Psychiatrists in Gramercy Park, New York - Try other Psychiatrists below
Steven Jay Wruble, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Here at the Venn Center, we offer patients a unique therapeutic experience. I conduct psychiatric evaluations and assessments, as well as provide both individual and group psychotherapy to clients of all ages. I also offer pharmacotherapy and medication management when appropriate. That being said, 25% of my patients are not on any medication since I employ non-medicinal interventions that help remediate psychiatric symptoms whenever possible. Offering these complementary services allows the clients I work with to feel empowered in their desire for change toward a healthier way of being."
(201) 870-0910
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"Here at the Venn Center, we offer patients a unique therapeutic experience. I conduct psychiatric evaluations and assessments, as well as provide both individual and group psychotherapy to clients of all ages. I also offer pharmacotherapy and medication management when appropriate. That being said, 25% of my patients are not on any medication since I employ non-medicinal interventions that help remediate psychiatric symptoms whenever possible. Offering these complementary services allows the clients I work with to feel empowered in their desire for change toward a healthier way of being."
Madeleine M Castellanos, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
"I have 2 different, but overlapping, focuses in my practice. I am a holistic/nutritional psychiatrist, using a functional medicine approach to health and wellness, thereby trying to reduce or eliminate the need for medications. I also have a 15yr+ specialty in sex therapy with couples/individuals treating all sexual dysfunctions in all areas of desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, or sexual issues that interfere with a couple's happiness. I give couples & individuals a holistic understanding of their sexual difficulties - incorporating physical, psychological, emotional, and relational - to enhance sexual pleasure while maintaining balance in one's physical and emotional health."
(917) 740-4996
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
View
"I have 2 different, but overlapping, focuses in my practice. I am a holistic/nutritional psychiatrist, using a functional medicine approach to health and wellness, thereby trying to reduce or eliminate the need for medications. I also have a 15yr+ specialty in sex therapy with couples/individuals treating all sexual dysfunctions in all areas of desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, or sexual issues that interfere with a couple's happiness. I give couples & individuals a holistic understanding of their sexual difficulties - incorporating physical, psychological, emotional, and relational - to enhance sexual pleasure while maintaining balance in one's physical and emotional health."
Robert Joseph Abel, Psychiatric Nurse
Psychiatric Nurse, DNP, PMHNP
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am a Nurse Practitioner in Psychiatry who specializes in adolescent, young persons, adults and older adult medication management for anxiety, depression , ADHD and cyclic mood disorders (bipolar disorders) . I have been a nurse for over 40 years and a psychiatric NP for over 10 years. I believe medication is only helpful when prescribed in small amounts and when the patient is full informed about what the medicine is expected to do to improve symptoms. Nurse Practitioners are "holistic" which means we are less interested in labeling you with a diagnosis and more interested in treating your distressing symptoms."
(917) 746-8724
Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"I am a Nurse Practitioner in Psychiatry who specializes in adolescent, young persons, adults and older adult medication management for anxiety, depression , ADHD and cyclic mood disorders (bipolar disorders) . I have been a nurse for over 40 years and a psychiatric NP for over 10 years. I believe medication is only helpful when prescribed in small amounts and when the patient is full informed about what the medicine is expected to do to improve symptoms. Nurse Practitioners are "holistic" which means we are less interested in labeling you with a diagnosis and more interested in treating your distressing symptoms."
Flavio Casoy, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD, FAPA
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Welcome!! My practice is geared towards individuals who find themselves stuck in patterns that make them feel inauthentic or unfulfilled. These include problems in finding romantic partners; getting ahead at work or school; dealing with difficult relationships with significant others and other loved ones; dealing with substance abuse and other addictions; chronic feelings of emptiness, sadness, anger, or anxiety; low self-esteem; general lack of emotion; emotions that are overly powerful and uncontrollable, and other "ruts" where we can unexpectedly find ourselves. I accept patients who are looking for psychotherapy and/or medication treatment."
(646) 490-9989
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"Welcome!! My practice is geared towards individuals who find themselves stuck in patterns that make them feel inauthentic or unfulfilled. These include problems in finding romantic partners; getting ahead at work or school; dealing with difficult relationships with significant others and other loved ones; dealing with substance abuse and other addictions; chronic feelings of emptiness, sadness, anger, or anxiety; low self-esteem; general lack of emotion; emotions that are overly powerful and uncontrollable, and other "ruts" where we can unexpectedly find ourselves. I accept patients who are looking for psychotherapy and/or medication treatment."
Andrei Moroz, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I'm a board-certified psychiatrist whose specialty is psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. I treat people suffering with depression, anxiety, obsessive thoughts, inattention, low self-esteem, gender/sexuality issues, trauma, grief, and relationship or work difficulties. While my focus is therapy, I use medication when necessary."
(914) 233-3064
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"I'm a board-certified psychiatrist whose specialty is psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. I treat people suffering with depression, anxiety, obsessive thoughts, inattention, low self-esteem, gender/sexuality issues, trauma, grief, and relationship or work difficulties. While my focus is therapy, I use medication when necessary."
Benjamin R Bryan, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Worried that your partying has gotten out of hand? Worried you are drinking or drugging too much? Not sure what to do about it? I can help. I am a great psychiatrist for people questioning if their substance use is a problem or what they might do about it, people with mental illness and substance use problems, people in recovery, people not sure they are ready to commit to abstaining altogether from drugs or alcohol, or people experiencing depression, anxiety, or other general psychiatric issues."
(646) 374-4648
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"Worried that your partying has gotten out of hand? Worried you are drinking or drugging too much? Not sure what to do about it? I can help. I am a great psychiatrist for people questioning if their substance use is a problem or what they might do about it, people with mental illness and substance use problems, people in recovery, people not sure they are ready to commit to abstaining altogether from drugs or alcohol, or people experiencing depression, anxiety, or other general psychiatric issues."
Elhav Weinstein, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
"Dr. Elhav Weinstein completed his undergraduate work with honors at Johns Hopkins University and received his medical degree from Columbia University. He completed his internship at University of California, San Francisco and the remainder of his psychiatry training at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine. Dr. Weinstein remained at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital where he worked as an attending psychiatrist in the outpatient department, caring for adults of all ages and with a wide range of psychiatric and psychological concerns."
(347) 460-0341
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10003
View
"Dr. Elhav Weinstein completed his undergraduate work with honors at Johns Hopkins University and received his medical degree from Columbia University. He completed his internship at University of California, San Francisco and the remainder of his psychiatry training at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine. Dr. Weinstein remained at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital where he worked as an attending psychiatrist in the outpatient department, caring for adults of all ages and with a wide range of psychiatric and psychological concerns."
Dr. Amanda Lefkowitz, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, DNP, MA, PMHNP
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am a Board Certified Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner and I’d like to welcome you to my practice.  I am experienced in diagnosing, assessing, and providing inpatient and outpatient psychiatric care.  I prescribe medications within the context of a holistic and culturally sensitive approach.   From genetic testing to bio-psycho-social assessment of your situation, I am dedicated to making thoughtful and informed treatment plans tailored to your specific needs. I recognize the value of healing within the context of a positive, supportive and safe relationship. "
(516) 226-7902
Verified
Office is near:
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"I am a Board Certified Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner and I’d like to welcome you to my practice.  I am experienced in diagnosing, assessing, and providing inpatient and outpatient psychiatric care.  I prescribe medications within the context of a holistic and culturally sensitive approach.   From genetic testing to bio-psycho-social assessment of your situation, I am dedicated to making thoughtful and informed treatment plans tailored to your specific needs. I recognize the value of healing within the context of a positive, supportive and safe relationship. "
Manhattan Psychiatrist, Psychiatrist
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified by Psychology Today Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
"I am a thorough and insightful psychiatrist, specializing in the care of adults in NYC and the surrounding communities. I am Board Certified in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurology and I am a member of the American Psychiatric Association. I have extensive experience in the ADD / ADHD treatment. "
(917) 809-5355
Verified
Gramercy Park
New York, New York 10010
View
"I am a thorough and insightful psychiatrist, specializing in the care of adults in NYC and the surrounding communities. I am Board Certified in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurology and I am a member of the American Psychiatric Association. I have extensive experience in the ADD / ADHD treatment. "

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Mindfulness-Based (MBCT) Psychiatrists
For clients in Gramercy Park, New York with chronic pain, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, and other health issues such as anxiety and depression, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or MBCT, is a two-part therapy that aims to reduce stress, manage pain, and embrace the freedom to respond to situations by choice. MCBT blends two disciplines--cognitive therapy and mindfulness. Mindfulness helps by reflecting on moments and thoughts without passing judgment. MBCT clients pay close attention to their feelings to reach an objective mindset, thus viewing and combating life's unpleasant occurrences.

Mindfulness Based psychiatrists in Gramercy Park, New York can help with issues like anxiety and depression in their role as Gramercy Park, New York MBCT psychiatrists.

About Psychiatrists, meds and Psychiatric Nurses.

A Psychiatrist in Gramercy Park, New York is a qualified medical doctor who specializes in treating mental health issues and diagnosable disorders.

Gramercy Park, New York Psychiatrists differ from other mental health professionals in that they may prescribe medication as well as practice psychotherapy in treatment. Sometimes, Psychiatrists form part of a clinical team in which they will diagnose and prescribe, while psychologists or therapists provide the client's psychotherapy.

As part of a clinical assessment, Psychiatrists may conduct physical examinations, take blood tests, and order and interpret lab tests and brain image scans, such as CT scans, CAT Scans and MRIs.

The field of psychiatry in Gramercy Park, New York has many sub specialties including pediatric psychiatry (so check for Gramercy Park, New York child psychiatrists or adolescent psychiatrists in Gramercy Park, New York). Those who work with the elderly are called geriatric psychiatrists.

Other related sub specialties include cognition psychiatry, addiction psychiatry, psychosomatic, forensic, reproductive medicine specialties, psychopharmacology (certain states license Psychopharmacologists), psychiatric genetics, neuroimaging, and clinical neurophysiology.

Psychiatric nurse practitioners in Gramercy Park, New York, or mental health nurse practitioners, generally have a MS degree in nursing (MSN) and a few years training to become certified. Psychiatric nurse practitioners are able to assess and diagnose some mental health conditions and prescribe medication. Gramercy Park, New York Psychiatric nurse practitioners also have some basic training that enables them to include psychotherapy with treatment.