Psychiatrists in Massachusetts

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Photo of Frontline Psychiatric Services , Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Frontline Psychiatric Services
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, MSN, APRN-BC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Melrose, MA 02176
Managing and maintaining daily life activities can sometimes be very challenging, stressful and a daunting task for some people, especially since and during the pandemic. If you have not been feeling yourself lately, you are not alone. Maybe, you feel stuck or confused in your current situation at work, school, family, career, financial or relationship. Do you feel marginalized, afraid or alienated because of your race, gender, sex orientation and culture? Perhaps you have been experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety that won't go away. Here, your story matters! This is a safe place for you to vent and to find relief.
Managing and maintaining daily life activities can sometimes be very challenging, stressful and a daunting task for some people, especially since and during the pandemic. If you have not been feeling yourself lately, you are not alone. Maybe, you feel stuck or confused in your current situation at work, school, family, career, financial or relationship. Do you feel marginalized, afraid or alienated because of your race, gender, sex orientation and culture? Perhaps you have been experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety that won't go away. Here, your story matters! This is a safe place for you to vent and to find relief.
(781) 905-8543 View (781) 905-8543
Photo of Nicole Diamond, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Nicole Diamond
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, PMHNP-B
Verified
Milford, MA 01757
Nicole Diamond is a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts who has been practicing since 2023. She has a Bachelor of Science in Athletic Training/Exercise Science from Endicott College, a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Northeastern University, and a Master of Science in Nursing, Psychiatry from Regis College. Nicole has been in the nursing field for 7 years within the Emergency Department, witnessing the gap between medical and psychiatric care and have caught sight of the importance behind mental health and the mind/body connection.
Nicole Diamond is a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts who has been practicing since 2023. She has a Bachelor of Science in Athletic Training/Exercise Science from Endicott College, a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Northeastern University, and a Master of Science in Nursing, Psychiatry from Regis College. Nicole has been in the nursing field for 7 years within the Emergency Department, witnessing the gap between medical and psychiatric care and have caught sight of the importance behind mental health and the mind/body connection.
(508) 501-7033 View (508) 501-7033
Photo of Neuro Behavioral Center, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Neuro Behavioral Center
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified
Walpole, MA 02081  (Online Only)
Neuro Behavioral Center is a premier outpatient center focused on providing you with the highest quality of mental health services. Our highly qualified team of compassionate and caring professionals are dedicated to providing the most advanced and comprehensive treatment and adult psychiatric and psychology services. Utilizing advanced technology and evidenced-based treatment, we maintain a private and secure communication channel with our patients, while collaborating with other care providers to ensure the success of our therapies.
Neuro Behavioral Center is a premier outpatient center focused on providing you with the highest quality of mental health services. Our highly qualified team of compassionate and caring professionals are dedicated to providing the most advanced and comprehensive treatment and adult psychiatric and psychology services. Utilizing advanced technology and evidenced-based treatment, we maintain a private and secure communication channel with our patients, while collaborating with other care providers to ensure the success of our therapies.
(774) 332-5573 View (774) 332-5573
Photo of Steven Benyas, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Steven Benyas
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified
Westborough, MA 01581
I provide evaluations, medication management, psychotherapy, and consultations for children (age 5 and up), adolescents, and adults. Weighing the potential risks and benefits of taking a medication is a personal decision. My task is to provide the information and recommendations to help you make a decision with which you are comfortable. I believe medications need to be used thoughtfully, minimally, and as one part of a whole plan that often involves non-pharmacological interventions, such as therapy, mindfulness training, lifestyle changes, and the like. Those interventions are important if one wants to achieve lasting changes, especially if one decides to eventually stop taking a medication.
I provide evaluations, medication management, psychotherapy, and consultations for children (age 5 and up), adolescents, and adults. Weighing the potential risks and benefits of taking a medication is a personal decision. My task is to provide the information and recommendations to help you make a decision with which you are comfortable. I believe medications need to be used thoughtfully, minimally, and as one part of a whole plan that often involves non-pharmacological interventions, such as therapy, mindfulness training, lifestyle changes, and the like. Those interventions are important if one wants to achieve lasting changes, especially if one decides to eventually stop taking a medication.
(617) 648-5976 View (617) 648-5976
Photo of Kristen Briody, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Kristen Briody
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, CNP
Verified
Amherst, MA 01002  (Online Only)
I am a psychiatric nurse practitioner who helps people across the life span manage their diagnoses and medications. I have worked with people who struggle with various symptoms including but not limited to anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and attentional issues.
I am a psychiatric nurse practitioner who helps people across the life span manage their diagnoses and medications. I have worked with people who struggle with various symptoms including but not limited to anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and attentional issues.
(413) 414-5535 View (413) 414-5535
Photo of Dr. Andrea Papa-Molter, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Dr. Andrea Papa-Molter
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified
Cambridge, MA 02141
I am double board-certified in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine. I believe in using both medication when indicated as well as therapy. I was trained in CBT and was given the Excellence in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy during my residency program. I use supportive therapy with each client I see. During my residency I served as Chief Resident and was awarded the Overall Excellence in Psychiatry Award as well as the Clinical Excellence Award.
I am double board-certified in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine. I believe in using both medication when indicated as well as therapy. I was trained in CBT and was given the Excellence in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy during my residency program. I use supportive therapy with each client I see. During my residency I served as Chief Resident and was awarded the Overall Excellence in Psychiatry Award as well as the Clinical Excellence Award.
(857) 578-0503 View (857) 578-0503
Photo of Shannon Bucciarelli, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Shannon Bucciarelli
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, MSN, PMHNP, B-C
Verified
Cambridge, MA 02141
My ideal client would understand that the journey to wellness and recovery requires time, effort, and patience. They would be receptive to treatment suggestions which may include psychotherapy, behavioral interventions, and medication options. My patients would take an active role in their care and engage in open and honest communication with their provider.
My ideal client would understand that the journey to wellness and recovery requires time, effort, and patience. They would be receptive to treatment suggestions which may include psychotherapy, behavioral interventions, and medication options. My patients would take an active role in their care and engage in open and honest communication with their provider.
(857) 382-3124 View (857) 382-3124
Photo of Rae Abarbanel, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Rae Abarbanel
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, PMHNP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Brookline, MA 02446
Many people find themselves feeling distressed and misunderstood when they struggle with their mental health. I understand that this can cause issues in relationships, work, school, and/or just getting through your day.
Many people find themselves feeling distressed and misunderstood when they struggle with their mental health. I understand that this can cause issues in relationships, work, school, and/or just getting through your day.
(617) 383-7839 View (617) 383-7839
Photo of Malak Rafla, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Malak Rafla
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Cambridge, MA 02139
Waitlist for new clients
Leading a fulfilling and happy life can be challenging and may even seem impossible at times. I believe that communicating and connecting via talk therapy is one path towards a happier and more meaningful life. My view is that therapy provides an opportunity to gain insight into one's relationships with one's self, others and society. I use a variety of approaches in my therapeutic work according to what works for each individual person. Together we'll focus on trying to understand the root causes of various problems and repetitive patterns of behavior that are difficult to change.
Leading a fulfilling and happy life can be challenging and may even seem impossible at times. I believe that communicating and connecting via talk therapy is one path towards a happier and more meaningful life. My view is that therapy provides an opportunity to gain insight into one's relationships with one's self, others and society. I use a variety of approaches in my therapeutic work according to what works for each individual person. Together we'll focus on trying to understand the root causes of various problems and repetitive patterns of behavior that are difficult to change.
(857) 259-5821 View (857) 259-5821
Photo of Joleen T Connolly, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Joleen T Connolly
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, MSN, PMHNP, BC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buzzards Bay, MA 02532
I am a Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, offering in person and telehealth medication management for various diagnoses including anxiety, depression, insomnia, mood disorders, ADHD, PTSD and more. I work with people all ages and walks of life. I use a strength based, holistic approach to treatment. Complementary and alternative approaches are offered in conjunction with psychopharmacology management. Together we will develop a therapeutic and supportive relationship that allows you live your best life :)
I am a Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, offering in person and telehealth medication management for various diagnoses including anxiety, depression, insomnia, mood disorders, ADHD, PTSD and more. I work with people all ages and walks of life. I use a strength based, holistic approach to treatment. Complementary and alternative approaches are offered in conjunction with psychopharmacology management. Together we will develop a therapeutic and supportive relationship that allows you live your best life :)
(508) 501-8320 View (508) 501-8320
Photo of Susan Rako MD, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Susan Rako MD
Psychiatrist, MD
Verified
Newton, MA 02460
If you need help to gain or regain a good enough balance and a way to find happiness in your life, I have decades of valuable experience. I am known as a "psychiatrist's psychiatrist," a true healer, and one who is gifted at working with "challenging" situations" -- both individual and couples. Therapy is my specialty, and I evaluate and prescribe medication only for patients I treat in therapy when it is truly indicated. I particularly enjoy working with individuals who are more interested in developing their own capacities than in complaining about the inadequacy of what they find outside themselves in the world and in other people. I do not provide "medication management" if that is a primary reason for consultation. Author of : "That's How the Light Gets In: Memoir of a Psychiatrist" (published by Random House) and "Semrad: The Heart of a Therapist" (see www.susanrako.com) My blog, "More Light" can also be found on my website.
If you need help to gain or regain a good enough balance and a way to find happiness in your life, I have decades of valuable experience. I am known as a "psychiatrist's psychiatrist," a true healer, and one who is gifted at working with "challenging" situations" -- both individual and couples. Therapy is my specialty, and I evaluate and prescribe medication only for patients I treat in therapy when it is truly indicated. I particularly enjoy working with individuals who are more interested in developing their own capacities than in complaining about the inadequacy of what they find outside themselves in the world and in other people. I do not provide "medication management" if that is a primary reason for consultation. Author of : "That's How the Light Gets In: Memoir of a Psychiatrist" (published by Random House) and "Semrad: The Heart of a Therapist" (see www.susanrako.com) My blog, "More Light" can also be found on my website.
(617) 964-4241 View (617) 964-4241
Photo of Joseph Allaire, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Joseph Allaire
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, PMHNP, B-C
Verified
Boston, MA 02114
I am a board-certified Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP-BC) with multiple years of experience working in Psychiatric and Critical Care Nursing. I have experience treating various Psychiatric disorders and enjoy working with people in all life stages.
I am a board-certified Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP-BC) with multiple years of experience working in Psychiatric and Critical Care Nursing. I have experience treating various Psychiatric disorders and enjoy working with people in all life stages.
(617) 712-0166 View (617) 712-0166
Photo of Wendy Reiser, Psychiatrist in Massachusetts
Wendy Reiser
Psychiatrist, DO
Verified
Cambridge, MA 02139  (Online Only)
Dr. Reiser (she/her) is a Staff Psychiatrist at Kendall Psychological Associates, where she works with adults of all ages and backgrounds. Her areas of interest include: Depression, anxiety, trauma, ADHD, college mental health, and those facing challenges with acculturation. Dr. Reiser incorporates a combination of therapeutic modalities when providing psychopharmacological treatment including acceptance, mindfulness and psychodynamic psychotherapy.
Dr. Reiser (she/her) is a Staff Psychiatrist at Kendall Psychological Associates, where she works with adults of all ages and backgrounds. Her areas of interest include: Depression, anxiety, trauma, ADHD, college mental health, and those facing challenges with acculturation. Dr. Reiser incorporates a combination of therapeutic modalities when providing psychopharmacological treatment including acceptance, mindfulness and psychodynamic psychotherapy.
(617) 915-3367 View (617) 915-3367
Photo of Jessica Murphy, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Jessica Murphy
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, RN, MSN, PMHNP
Verified
Carver, MA 02330
Guiding Light Psychiatry- I treat patients in person as well as electronically via telehealth, which is a safe, secure, and convenient telecommunication platform. I offer evidence-based therapy choices to help people maintain, enhance, and regain their mental health.
Guiding Light Psychiatry- I treat patients in person as well as electronically via telehealth, which is a safe, secure, and convenient telecommunication platform. I offer evidence-based therapy choices to help people maintain, enhance, and regain their mental health.
(508) 684-5310 View (508) 684-5310
Photo of Brain Dynamic Psychiatry , Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Brain Dynamic Psychiatry
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, CNP, APRN
Verified
Weymouth, MA 02188  (Online Only)
I am a board-certified Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, as humans, we all have our innate given potentials. My core believe is to help individuals live and attain their maximum potentials irrespective of mental health challenges. My treatment modality is based on collaborative approach that is centered on careful Psychopharmacological management that incorporates Psychotherapy for upmost outcome. My goal is to provide holistic care that is based on evidence-based research. Understanding human brain as a complex structure with an intricate network of neuro-chemical activity is a key to understanding the imbalance in brain activity.
I am a board-certified Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, as humans, we all have our innate given potentials. My core believe is to help individuals live and attain their maximum potentials irrespective of mental health challenges. My treatment modality is based on collaborative approach that is centered on careful Psychopharmacological management that incorporates Psychotherapy for upmost outcome. My goal is to provide holistic care that is based on evidence-based research. Understanding human brain as a complex structure with an intricate network of neuro-chemical activity is a key to understanding the imbalance in brain activity.
(339) 218-4027 View (339) 218-4027
Photo of Jain Lattes, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Jain Lattes
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, PMHNP, CNM
Verified
Northampton, MA 01062  (Online Only)
My solo practice is primarily focused on reproductive mental health and wellbeing and providing psychiatric treatment to individuals during preconception planning, pregnancy and postpartum periods. I also work with adolescents and other adults who are dealing with mental health issues like premenstrual dysphoric disorder, anxiety disorders, depression and bipolar mood disorders.
My solo practice is primarily focused on reproductive mental health and wellbeing and providing psychiatric treatment to individuals during preconception planning, pregnancy and postpartum periods. I also work with adolescents and other adults who are dealing with mental health issues like premenstrual dysphoric disorder, anxiety disorders, depression and bipolar mood disorders.
(413) 287-6590 View (413) 287-6590
Photo of Claire DiIlio, Psychiatric Nurse in Massachusetts
Claire DiIlio
Psychiatric Nurse, RN, PMHNP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Brockton, MA 02301  (Online Only)
As a board-certified Psychiatric Mental-Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP-BC), I provide psychiatric evaluations and medication management to individuals across the lifespan. I graduated from the MGH Institute of Health Professions with a BS in Nursing and, after gaining experience as a registered nurse, attained a master's from Northeastern University. As an RN, I worked at Massachusetts General Hospital on the Inpatient Psychiatric Service. Through this experience, I became familiar with the holistic, interdisciplinary approach to the management of mental illness with a patient-centered focus.
As a board-certified Psychiatric Mental-Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP-BC), I provide psychiatric evaluations and medication management to individuals across the lifespan. I graduated from the MGH Institute of Health Professions with a BS in Nursing and, after gaining experience as a registered nurse, attained a master's from Northeastern University. As an RN, I worked at Massachusetts General Hospital on the Inpatient Psychiatric Service. Through this experience, I became familiar with the holistic, interdisciplinary approach to the management of mental illness with a patient-centered focus.
(508) 286-6770 View (508) 286-6770
Photo of C & C Psychiatry, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
C & C Psychiatry
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, MS, APRN-, CNS
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fall River, MA 02724
I am a board certified Clinical Nurse Specialist, licensed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, who received my training at Boston College in both Nursing and Developmental/Educational Psychology. I am currently accepting most major commercial Health Insurances, Medicare and Wellsense. My clinical expertise has been developed over 20 years of working in community mental health , private practice, and residential treatment programs for adolescents.
I am a board certified Clinical Nurse Specialist, licensed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, who received my training at Boston College in both Nursing and Developmental/Educational Psychology. I am currently accepting most major commercial Health Insurances, Medicare and Wellsense. My clinical expertise has been developed over 20 years of working in community mental health , private practice, and residential treatment programs for adolescents.
(774) 292-4914 View (774) 292-4914
Collegial Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, INC
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, DNP, PMHNP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Worcester, MA 01606
Are you looking for a qualified, experienced, psychiatric nurse practitioner with a patient-centered, nonjudgmental approach? A provider with clinical skills, who is approachable, empathetic, and goal-oriented? If so, Collegial Psychiatric & Behavioral Medicine (CPBM) is the place for you. At CPBM, we collaborate with clients to build a trust based professional relationship, that allows clients to be active participants in their healing journey. Our major goal is to provide holistic care to a distinct populace, preparing clients towards self-actualization and optimum functioning.
Are you looking for a qualified, experienced, psychiatric nurse practitioner with a patient-centered, nonjudgmental approach? A provider with clinical skills, who is approachable, empathetic, and goal-oriented? If so, Collegial Psychiatric & Behavioral Medicine (CPBM) is the place for you. At CPBM, we collaborate with clients to build a trust based professional relationship, that allows clients to be active participants in their healing journey. Our major goal is to provide holistic care to a distinct populace, preparing clients towards self-actualization and optimum functioning.
(508) 506-8842 View (508) 506-8842
Photo of Perry Psychiatry, LLC, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Massachusetts
Perry Psychiatry, LLC
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, MSN, RN, PMHNP
Verified
Holden, MA 01520  (Online Only)
Now Accepting New Patients! Perry Psychiatry, LLC provides psychiatric medication management for adolescents and adults via telehealth with a wide variety of mental health challenges and diagnoses. Visit our website for more information: perrypsychiatry.com.
Now Accepting New Patients! Perry Psychiatry, LLC provides psychiatric medication management for adolescents and adults via telehealth with a wide variety of mental health challenges and diagnoses. Visit our website for more information: perrypsychiatry.com.
(978) 549-9006 View (978) 549-9006

See more therapy options for Massachusetts

How does your Psychiatrist compare?

Average cost per session

$250

Psychiatrists in Massachusetts who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
91% Depression
72% Bipolar Disorder
72% Medication Management
69% ADHD
69% Trauma and PTSD
66% Obsessive-Compulsive (OCD)

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

91% BlueCross and BlueShield
78% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
76% Optum

How Psychiatrists in Massachusetts see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
28% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Nurses

How can I find a psychiatrist in Massachusetts?

The Psychology Today Directory enables you to search specifically for psychiatrists, using the drop down provider menu in the navigation bar, by city or zip code, or by the name of the psychiatrist. Search results provide detailed profiles of professionals, including their treatment approach and areas of expertise. In addition, listings provide important information about each psychiatrist’s credentials, fees, payment options, and insurance affiliations. Directory users can select psychiatrists who meet an array of personally-desired criteria, such as familiarity with a specific community or condition.

What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?

Psychiatrists are medical specialists who focus on understanding, diagnosing, and treating diseases of the brain and disorders of the mind and behavior. As physicians, psychiatrists are trained to recognize the often-subtle biological causes of mental disorders and to monitor the effects of mental disturbances on physical conditions, such as heart disease. Psychologists are especially attuned to the influence of early experience on development and behavior, emotional and cognitive processes, the nature of personality, and social functioning. They are also trained to deploy an array of psychological tests—IQ tests, personality tests, behavioral assessments—to gauge a person’s functioning.

What is a psychiatric nurse practitioner?

A psychiatric nurse practitioner, also known as a mental health nurse practitioner, is a registered nurse who completes advanced training in psychiatric care, earning either a master’s or doctoral degree in psychiatric nursing, and in the U.S., passes a national certification exam. Like psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners are trained to assess, diagnose, and treat mental health conditions. In some locales, psychiatric nurse practitioners can offer the full range of psychiatric care, including prescribing and managing medication. In other places, they must work in collaboration with a physician.

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed psychiatrist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and counselors. All psychiatrists listed in the directory have a valid license issued by the state(s) in which they practice and are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some individuals or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

Can a psychiatrist prescribe medication?

Psychiatrists are licensed medical doctors who are trained to recognize the many ways body processes affect the functioning of the brain and mind. As physicians, they can prescribe medication. Patients who are prescribed medications will typically need to continue to see a psychiatrist so that the effects of the medication can be monitored. For many psychiatric conditions, including common disorders such as anxiety and depression, the preferred treatment is combination therapy—medication accompanied by psychotherapy.

Do psychiatrists offer therapy?

Psychiatrists are generally trained in a number of treatment modalities, including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and, increasingly, somatic therapies. Typically, psychiatrists make a diagnosis and determine a course of treatment based on chemical or biological factors, using lab tests, brain scans and physical and psychological evaluations. While psychotherapy may be used in the first session to aid in diagnosis, it is not typically utilized in subsequent visits. In fact, after the introductory session, most sessions with a psychiatrist may only be 15-20 minutes in length and are largely focused on medication management. Many psychiatrists who do not offer psychotherapy work collaboratively with psychologists and other mental health clinicians and can refer clients seeking talk therapy to those providers.

How do I know if I need a psychiatrist or a therapist?

It is not always easy to know which type of mental health practitioner to choose. Many people are unaware of the root of their mental or behavioral problem. One way many people learn which type of care is best for them is by seeing their primary care provider first. Depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms, the physician may review their medical history or perform medical tests to determine whether biological factors are involved before making a referral. It is not necessary for a person to know precisely what type of care they need in order to seek help. Many psychiatrists and psychologists refer clients to each other depending on client needs.

Do I need a referral to see a psychiatrist?

A referral to a psychiatrist is often not required. However, seeing your primary care physician first can be helpful and actually prove to be a shortcut to getting what you need. Your PCP may have a clear idea whether psychiatric help is needed and/or which kind of mental health care would be most beneficial and refer you to the right type of practitioner. For that reason alone, some psychiatrists require a referral. Further, many insurance plans require a referral from a PCP if they cover all of part of the cost of seeing a specialist; if, however, you are paying out of pocket, you may not need a referral. In any case, a referral may speed the process of securing an appointment with a psychiatrist, especially in areas where there is a shortage of mental health specialists and new patients face long waits for appointments.