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Dyspraxia is a neurological disorder that affects fine and gross motor skills, memory, judgment, perception, information processing, and other cognitive abilities. The most common form of dyspraxia is developmental coordination disorder, and the terms are often used interchangeably. Because it can affect so many different areas of the brain and body, dyspraxia takes different forms in different people.

Dyspraxia is recognized in early childhood, continues into adulthood, and though it can be a singular condition, it often coexists with other disorders, such as ADHD, dyslexia, and autism. Although dyspraxia is not a learning disorder, it affects the ability to learn and to participate fully in routine academic, social, and professional activities.


Symptoms of dyspraxia usually appear early in life and may change as a child ages and is challenged with the need to learn new life skills. Early on, babies with dyspraxia are overly irritable and have problems with feeding. In toddlerhood, the child may continue to have problems with normal feeding and display other developmental delays, such as difficulty with toilet training, refusing to play with puzzles or toys that require construction, and inability to throw and catch a ball.

Children with dyspraxia may frequently drop things and have trouble with activities that involve hand-eye coordination. For instance, they often have trouble managing buttons, zippers, and snaps. Weak muscle tone can result in difficulty in sports and gym classes and even standing for any length of time. These children frequently have speech and writing delays, may be forgetful and often lose things, and have trouble picking up on nonverbal social cues.

Problems with motor coordination, memory, perception, speech and language skills, following directions, and emotional control usually persist into adulthood, causing difficulties with planning, organization, concentration, and accuracy. The result is often erratic or impulsive behavior, or a tendency to avoid new or unpredictable situations or those that require teamwork. These ongoing problems can result in a variety of emotional and behavioral issues, including depression, anxiety, stress disorders, low self-esteem, fears and phobias, and addictions.

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The cause of dyspraxia is unknown, but risk factors for the condition include premature birth, low birth weight, a family history of the condition, and exposure to alcohol or drug use during pregnancy, according to the National Health Service in the U.K.


Dyspraxia cannot be cured, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve muscle tone and coordination. A diagnosis of dyspraxia can allow a child to qualify for occupational therapy, speech therapy, and other special services and accommodations through the school system. At home, children can be encouraged to participate in physical activities and active play to strengthen muscle tone and improve physical coordination, and to work on puzzle skills and activities such as tossing a beanbag to improve eye-hand coordination. Simple interventions, like the use of pencil grips or learning to type, can help with communication skills.

Dyspraxia USA Foundation
Patino, E. Understanding Dyspraxia. Reviewed by R. Goldberg MD.
Leonard HC, Hill EL. Executive difficulties in development coordination disorder: Methodological issues and future directions. Current Developmental Disorders Reports. June 2015;2(2):141-149.  
National Health Service (U.K.)
Last updated: 10/05/2017