Communication disorders involve persistent problems related to language and speech. It is estimated that nearly one in 10 American children has some type of communication disorder.
Language competence involves two main elements, according to the book Speech and Language Disorders in Children—production, or "the ability to encode one's ideas into language forms and symbols," and comprehension, "the ability to understand the meanings that others have expressed using language." Speech refers specifically to sound produced orally.
The DSM-5 organizes communication disorders into the following categories: