Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by a combination of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Symptoms include difficulty sitting still, problems maintaining attention on school or homework, and responding before thinking. Hyperactivity symptoms can include being fidgety, restless, and talking or interrupting others excessively.
ADHD is generally identified early in life and manifests through behavioral problems in school, with difficulty understanding material, completing tasks, or being easily distracted by others. Around 5 percent of school-age children are diagnosed with ADHD, and boys are diagnosed twice as often as girls, according to the DSM-5. Girls are more likely to present with inattentive features.
Kids may experience learning problems, engage in rebellious or defiant behavior, and have difficulties with mood including anxiety and depression. More than half of children diagnosed with ADHD continue to have symptoms during adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be treated effectively with a combination of medication and therapy. When left untreated, however, ADHD can have long-term adverse effects on academic performance, vocational success, relationships, and social-emotional development.