"This pattern of results lends credence to some trainers' assertions that hearing [non-reward markers] might cause certain dogs to abandon training, rather than attempting to work past their errors to perform the behavior correctly…"

I don't know either that this conclusion is justified. The dogs who got the NRM. would not have learned to think for themselves. "She'll tell me when I right!" I would like to have seen just how this experiment was carried out and all the extra cues the dogs were getting from their handler's subconscious signals.

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