Domestic Violence: Why You Won't “Know It When You See It”
How intimate partner violence flies under the radar.
Posted Apr 06, 2018
Your coworker has just begun dating a new love interest. She fills you in almost daily about her latest adventures, and how impressed she is with her new paramour. Two months into their relationship, you actually get to meet him when she brings him to a company happy hour after work. He seems polite enough, although a bit on the quiet side.
Within three months, your colleague has become withdrawn, and no longer gushes about her new beau. In fact she does not bring him up at all, and seems downright nervous when her phone rings. When you ask if she is ok, she quickly says that everything is fine. Yet clearly, there has been a dramatic change. Although you witnessed her boyfriend treating her well in public, should you be concerned that in private, he has a dark side?
Despite enhanced awareness, domestic violence continues to be an insidious, invisible epidemic. Contrary to stereotype, domestic violence victims range from codependent spouses, to independent entrepreneurs. In many cases, just as we cannot spot a domestic abuser by looking; nor can we spot a victim. Perpetrators can be either men or women; so can victims.
Although no two domestic violence cases are alike, and they involve many different fact patterns and relational dynamics, many times we fail to recognized victims because we are looking for physical injuries, which may not be visible.
Recognizing Signs of Abuse
Not every domestic violence victim shows up to work with a black eye or covered with cigarette burns, or wearing long sleeves in the summertime to hide cuts and bruises. In fact, many victims do not show up at all. Although certainly not dispositive, a frequent red flag signaling potential domestic abuse is missed work. Absenteeism affords a victim the opportunity to stay home while injuries heal, instead of fabricating accidents or excuses.
On the other hand, many victims do not miss any work because their abusers do not inflict visible injuries. They are strategic in their methods of inflicting physical pain so as not to leave marks anywhere they would be visible, or at all. Other abusers prefer inflicting mental pain and suffering, controlling their victims through emotional trauma.
In every case, however, whether a victim is suffering physically or emotionally (often both), there are often clues.
Spotting Subtle Injuries
Medical professionals have identified subtle signs of domestic violence and abuse. Some guidance is provided by “AKT answer relating to domestic violence and abuse” (2016) regarding what to look for during a consultation.[i] They advise to be on the lookout for the following red flags:
- Presentation of vague or psycho-somatic symptoms
- Complaint of depression
- Instance of self-harm
- Visiting a hospital in an emergency, but failing to show up for appointments scheduled in advance
- Injuries that are concealed or minimized (abdominal or breast injuries for example)
- Presence of dominant family member who does all of the talking for the victim.
These indications are valuable clues, because even some incredibly serious injuries leave no marks at all.
Strangulation: Invisible But Potentially Fatal
Strangulation is a dangerous, potentially life-threatening injury suffered by domestic violence victims that is often undetected due to the absence of visible marks. This requires first responders, both law enforcement and medical personnel, to be trained to detect signs and symptoms of this serious form of physical abuse. But in many cases, that is easier said than done.
Detecting signs of strangulation is one area where researchers continue to explore methods of detecting injury.[ii] Pritchard et al. in “Improving Identification of Strangulation Injuries in Domestic Violence” (2016) sought to explore exactly that: ways in which such injuries can be detected.
They discuss strangulation as a highly gendered method through which abusers control and intimidate their victims. They recognize strangulation as a process through which a male abuser demonstrates absolute control over whether a female victim lives or dies.
They also recognize the association between strangulation and femicide. They cite research linking strangulation with a high risk of future violence, including deadly violence, making non-fatal strangulation a major risk factor for homicide, particularly femicide.
Perception Provides Protection
Because so much domestic violence flies under the radar, professionals continue to focus on enhancing methods of detecting injuries and abuse, in order to direct intervention efforts. Wherever we live, work, or spend our time, educating ourselves on what to look for and where to look in terms of spotting signs of domestic violence is critically important, as we continue to fight to cure this insidious, widespread epidemic.
[i]“AKT answer relating to domestic violence and abuse,” InnovAiT Vol 9, Issue 7, 2016, pp. e92 - e92, https://doi-org.libproxy.sdsu.edu/10.1177/1755738016653311.
[ii]Adam J. Pritchard, Amy Reckdenwald, Chelsea Nordham, and Jessie Holton, “Improving Identification of Strangulation Injuries in Domestic Violence: Pilot Data From a Researcher–Practitioner Collaboration,” Feminist Criminology Vol 13, Issue 2, 2016, pp. 160 – 181.