A few years ago, researchers from UCLA and UPenn's Wharton School published a paper (Dai, Milkman, & Riis, 2014) that explored why something they call the "fresh start effect" motivates people to make aspirational behavior changes via New Year's resolutions.
The gist of their "fresh start effect" theory is that temporal landmarks like New Year's Day, birthdays, back-to-school season—which serve as delineating signposts for the passage of time on a calendar—seem to facilitate "new mental accounting periods each year, which relegate past imperfections to a previous period, induce people to take a big-picture view of their lives, and thus motivate aspirational behaviors."
Despite the centuries-old tradition of making New Year's resolutions in the month of December, surprisingly few modern-day, large-scale studies have investigated this "temporal landmark" goal-setting phenomenon until recently.
This week, researchers from Stockholm University and Linköping University in Sweden published a study they describe as "probably the largest and most comprehensive study on New Year's resolutions conducted thus far." These findings (Oscarsson, Carlbring, Andersson, & Rozental, 2020) were published on December 9 in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE.
This year-long study involved over a thousand people (N = 1,066) who said they'd made New Year's resolutions and were recruited via multiple channels in the last week of December 2016. Participants agreed to follow-up interviews once a month from New Year's Eve through December 2017.
In addition to investigating if online support could increase people's odds of sticking with their New Year's resolutions over the course of 12 months, the researchers examined how "approach" vs. "avoidance" goal-setting affected the likelihood of long-term success.
What's the difference between "approach goals" and "avoidance goals"? An approach-oriented goal focuses on actively doing something (e.g., "I will start going for daily walks"), whereas avoidance-oriented goals center around not doing something (e.g., "I will stop sitting too much.") In general, avoidance goals are about stopping, quitting, and forbidding behaviors. On the flip side, approach goals are about seeking a fresh start, new beginnings, and proactively getting out of a rut.
New Year's Resolutions: Approach-Oriented Goals vs. Avoidance-Oriented Goals
As this "Keeping Resolutions" graph by corresponding author Per Carlbring of Stockholm University illustrates, study participants who made approach-oriented New Year's resolutions had a higher success rate (59 percent) than those who made avoidance-oriented resolutions (47 percent).
This research suggests that flipping the script from an avoidance-oriented resolution that uses language such as "I will stop _______" to an approach-oriented script that states "I will start _______," may increase one's odds of sticking to a New Year's resolution.
"In many cases, rephrasing your resolution could definitely work. For example, if your goal is to stop eating sweets in order to lose weight, you will most likely be more successful if you say 'I will eat fruit several times a day' instead," Carlbring said in a news release. "You then replace sweets with something healthier, which probably means you will lose weight and also keep your resolution. You cannot erase a behavior, but you can replace it with something else."
To the researchers' surprise, providing study participants with extensive online support in the form of "emails with information and exercises regarding motivation, thought patterns, and negative spirals in relation to New Year's resolutions" didn't significantly boost someone's odds of success.
After randomly dividing study participants into three groups that received no support, some support, or extended support, a one-year follow-up showed that providing people with "some support" seemed to be a sweet spot.
"Participants receiving some support reported greater success than those receiving extended support, and those receiving no support," the authors explain. "This suggests that information, instructions, and exercises regarding effective goal setting, administered via the Internet, could affect the likelihood of success—another question to study further."
"[We] found that the support given to the participants did not make much of a difference when it came down to how well participants kept their resolutions throughout the year. What surprised us were the results on how to phrase your resolution," Carlbring concluded.
Are you making any New Year's resolutions for 2021? If so, try to think of ways to frame your personal goals and resolutions for the upcoming year using approach-oriented language.
Martin Oscarsson, Per Carlbring ,Gerhard Andersson, Alexander Rozental. "A Large-Scale Experiment on New Year’s Resolutions: Approach-Oriented Goals Are More Successful Than Avoidance-Oriented Goals." PLOS ONE (First published: December 09, 2020) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234097
Hengchen Dai, Katherine L. Milkman, Jason Riis. "The Fresh Start Effect: Temporal Landmarks Motivate Aspirational Behavior." Management Science (First published online: June 23, 2014) DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.2014.1901