Triggers and relapse, a craving connection for addicts
When memories trigger behavior, what is an addict to do?
Posted March 17, 2010
I've already written about one reason why cravings make quitting difficult (find it here). However, cravings and triggers are not just abstract concepts; they are well known, important players in addiction research and I think they deserve some more attention.
What are triggers?
A trigger can be thought of as anything that brings back thoughts, feelings, and memories that have to do with addiction (like a computer reminding a sex addict of porn). In addiction research, these are often simply called cues. The word comes from learning research in which a reward (or punishment) is paired with something (the cue). For instance, in Pavlov's classic experiment, a dog heard a bell ring right before it would get served its daily portion of meat. The dog quickly learned to associate the bell with food, and would begin salivating as soon as the bell would ring, even before the food was presented. In this case, the bell was the cue, and food the reward it was paired with. The story in drug addiction is similar. I'm sure many of you can relate to the overwhelming memories and emotions that seem to come out of nowhere when you hear music you used to get high to or pass a street where you used to buy drugs (or sex). Each of those examples is a trigger that is simply bringing about a similar reaction to Pavlov's dog's salivation. Seeing these things, or hearing them, creates an immediate response to the reward that it was paired with, the drug!
Triggers, cravings, drugs, and relapse
As if matters needed to be made worse, triggers not only bring about responses that make you think about the drug. In fact, over and over in learning and addiction research, it's been shown that triggers actually bring back drug seeking, and drug wanting, behavior. As soon as a cue (or trigger) is presented, both animals and humans who have been exposed to drugs for an extended period of time, will go right back to the activity that used to bring them drugs even after months of being without it. In fact, their levels of drug seeking will bounce back as if no time has passed. Sound familiar?! Given these findings, is it any wonder that cravings bring about relapse in so many addicts who are trying to quit? If simply thinking about, or hearing, something that was always tied to drugs can bring about such a strong response, what is an addict to do?
Is there a solution for addicts??
For now, the simplest way to break the trigger-response connection is simply repeated exposure without the reward. As bizarre as this may seem, staying away from the triggers can make their ability to bring back the old drug-behavior stronger. Obviously, this isn't something that should be undertaken lightly. I'm currently working on putting together a drug treatment system that specifically addresses these issues so that with help, users can eventually release the hold that triggers have over them. In the meantime, be honest with those around you, and if you're seeing a therapist, or a good case manager, tell them about your triggers so that you can hopefully start talking about them, and re-triggering them in a safe environment.
© 2010 Adi Jaffe, All Rights Reserved