Sociopathy refers to a pattern of antisocial behaviors and attitudes, including manipulation, deceit, aggression, and a lack of empathy for others. Sociopathy is a non-diagnostic term, and it is not synonymous with "psychopathy," though the overlap leads to frequent confusion. Sociopaths may or may not break the law, but by exploiting and manipulating others, they violate the trust that the human enterprise runs on.
The defining characteristic of the sociopath is a profound lack of conscience—a flaw in the moral compass that typically steers people away from breaking common rules and toward treating others decently. This disconnect, however, may be hidden by a charming demeanor. There is both art and science to spotting sociopathy.
No. It is therefore important to tune into your own sense of discomfort in the company of other people. Be prepared to trust your own instinct, rather than their assurances. If a statement or action feels “off,” investigate further.
A study conducted in the early 2000s found that 6.2% of the general population would meet the criteria for narcissistic personality disorder and 3.7% would meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. These conditions officially capture the maladaptive behavior we refer to as sociopathy.
The terms “sociopath” and “psychopath” are confusing because they are often used interchangeably, but they are not synonyms. However, there is a difference: Sociopaths are individuals whose callous, deceitful behavior is shaped primarily by environmental factors, such as child abuse or exposure to expedient behavior in others. Psychopathy is inborn and immutable. Psychopaths are more likely to commit acts of violence. Still, because both conditions lie on a spectrum, it can be difficult to know which terms best apply.
Perhaps the most fundamental difference is the fact that sociopaths are able to form an attachment to a particular individual or group, even if limited in number. In contrast, psychopaths are unable to form or maintain genuine bonds.
Sociopathy (like psychopathy) is not a diagnostic term, whereas antisocial personality disorder is. The confusion likely arose when the terms were conflated by mental health professionals in the mid-20th century. The fact that confusion endures reflects the need to better study all facets and subtypes of psychopathic behavior.
Both sociopaths and narcissists can be charming, manipulative, and deceptive. However, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a clinical diagnostic term, as is antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). When people refer to sociopaths, they are referring to people whom mental health professionals would characterize as NPD or ASPD.