Skip to main content

Verified by Psychology Today

Rationalization is a defense mechanism in which people justify difficult or unacceptable feelings with seemingly logical reasons and explanations.

For example, a student who is rejected from her dream college may explain that she’s happy to be attending a school that’s less competitive and more welcoming. Or after a divorce, a man may convince himself that his ex-wife wasn’t up to his standards or that the split is a blessing in disguise so he can travel more. These explanations guard against difficult emotions—feeling unworthy or unloved—that challenge one’s sense of self.

The concept of defense mechanisms originated from Sigmund Freud and his daughter Anna Freud; defenses function to unconsciously protect the ego from discomfort or distress. Although many Freudian theories have been disproven over time, defense mechanisms like rationalization have endured.

Rationalization in Therapy and Mental Health
By Prostock-studio/Shutterstock

Many instances of rationalization can be relatively harmless. Producing a rationale that makes yourself feel better, even if it’s not completely honest, is sometimes a helpful coping strategy.

But rationalization can harm mental health if it becomes a frequent pattern or prevents someone from moving forward in life, personally or professionally. In these instances, it can be valuable to make the unconscious conscious, often with the help of a therapist.

A therapist can help a patient acknowledge and accept difficult truths, overcome patterns that hold them back, take responsibility for past mistakes so they don’t happen again, and forge stronger relationships. Accepting the truth leads to the possibility of change and growth.

Why do people rationalize?

People strive to preserve a positive view of themselves. One component of this motivation is the desire to reduce cognitive dissonance, the discomfort of holding contradictory beliefs. Let’s say a young man isn't hired after a job interview. This leads to cognitive dissonance due to the opposing thoughts that 1) he is smart and experienced 2) he failed to land the job.

Rationalizing that contradiction with thoughts such as, “This company is just really close-minded,” or, “Taking time off will be a great opportunity” reduces that psychological discomfort.

What are the different types of rationalization?

Rationalization can take two forms: “Sour grapes” refers to an explanation that avoids difficult information and “sweet lemons” is an explanation that makes the situation seem more palatable.

The idea of sour grapes is said to derive from one of Aesop’s fables, The Fox and the Grapes, in which a fox repeatedly jumps toward a branch on a tree, trying to eat a bunch of grapes just out of reach. He eventually gives up and says, “I am sure the grapes are sour.” A “sweet lemons” rationalization in that situation would be something like, “There will be juicer grapes in the next orchard.”

article continues after advertisement
Rationalization in Everyday Life
Suwit Rattiwan/Shutterstock

In the world of defense mechanisms, rationalization is fairly common. People may not realize when they offer a small excuse or justification. Although this is natural, confronting reality, even when it’s difficult, can be an important step to changing harmful habits in realms such as relationships, finances, and more.

How can you tell if someone is rationalizing?

A few common patterns signal that rationalization may be at play, especially when people receive negative feedback. Common responses include blaming (“The problem is the people around me. I hire badly.”), minimizing (“It’s really not such a big deal”), deflecting (“That’s not the real issue”), and attacking (“I may have done X but you did Y”). 

However, it’s important to note that not everyone who uses these phrases may be rationalizing. They may be valid or necessary points to discuss, so it’s best to go into a conversation assuming honesty.

Can rationalization affect relationships?

It can be difficult for people to notice when they rationalize, because it feels better to believe their excuses than admit they caused a problem. Maybe an individual didn’t follow through on a commitment, so instead points out what he did do: “I didn’t get to the dishes, but I worked hard at the office.” Maybe he claims his behavior could have been worse: “I don’t babysit our daughter, but I am better than my dad, who was never around.”

Rationalization can weaken relationships, but sincerely apologizing and taking responsibility can strengthen them.

Essential Reads