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Altruism is acting out of concern for another’s well-being. Often, people behave altruistically when they see others in desperate circumstances and feel empathy and a desire to help. Altruism doesn’t always come naturally, since by definition, it requires people to disregard their own concerns to help others without any expectation of reward, though "reciprocal altruism" is a term used by evolutionary biologists and psychologists to characterize the decision to help with an expectation that one will receive some benefit or pay-off to oneself.
The pioneering identity researcher Erik Erikson first proposed the term “ego identity,” which he conceived as an enduring and continuous sense of who we are. The ego identity allows a person to merge all the different versions of oneself (the parent self, the career self, the sexual self) into one cohesive whole, so that when unexpected disaster strikes, there's a stable sense of self.
Conscientiousness is not just about getting to a job interview or board meeting on time in a freshly ironed suit and polished shoes. It's a fundamental personality trait—one of the Big Five—that influences whether people set and keep long-range goals, deliberate over choices, behave cautiously or impulsively, and take obligations to others seriously.
Gender—or the different characteristics that begin to define a person as masculine or feminine—consists of several categories apart from the traditional binary ends of the male/female spectrum. It’s possible for someone to identify as transgender, for instance—with a gender identity that does not correspond to their biological sex—or cisgender, with a gender identity that does match up with their biological sex.