When we think of the word “psychopath,” what usually comes to mind are media portrayals of crazed killers, the kind you see in Psycho, Silence of the Lambs, and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre. But these depictions are a far cry from what actual psychopaths are like. Most psychopaths, first of all, are not murderers. That’s the good news.
The bad news is that this truth makes psychopaths harder to spot in a crowd than you might think. (Hint: He's probably not the crazy-eyed guy in the black trench coat walking down the abandoned street.) Research suggests that 1 percent of the population meets the criteria for psychopathy. That may not sound like a lot, but it means that 1 in every 100 people you know is a psychopath. That could include your neighbor, your co-worker, your friend, or maybe even your favorite blogger. Perhaps there’s one sitting next to you as you read this. To make things worse, the percentage doubles or even quadruples when we talk about people in high-power positions, like business leaders, lawyers, and surgeons.
With all these psychopaths running around, how do you spot one? After all, the quicker you can identify a psychopath in your midst, the less likely you are to become their victim. Fortunately, psychologists have been conducting research on psychopathic traits for years, and although theories vary, most researchers tend to agree that real-world psychopaths demonstrate a cluster of three personality characteristics. This cluster is referred to as the “Dark Triad,” because people who possess the traits often exhibit malevolent behaviors (e.g., crime, ethical violations, etc.).
People high in Machiavellianism are duplicitous, cunning, and manipulative. They place a higher priority than most on power, money, and winning. They easily disregard moral and social rules, and as a result, lie to others and manipulate them with little to no guilt. Think Gordon Gekko from Wall Street or Frank and Claire Underwood from House of Cards.
For people high in this trait, manipulating others is an impulse, like an alcoholic's impulse to drink. Sometimes this manipulation is done to achieve personal gain (e.g., to get a promotion), but other times it is just done for fun, or because they can’t stop themselves (e.g., internet trolling). Depending on type, these people’s tools of the trade are deception, guilt, bullying, feigned weakness, or flattery. Whichever they choose, they regularly wield these tools in an attempt to twist the emotions and behaviors of those around them.
Because such people are master manipulators, they are often charming and well-liked, at least on a superficial level. They may feign interest and compassion for a short time, but that façade wears off quickly, and it becomes clear that they only really care about themselves.
A perfect literary example of this trait is Amy Dunne from Gone Girl, who (spoiler alert) goes to extreme lengths to victimize the men in her life, even if their only sin was not giving her the attention she thought she deserved. Her particular tools of manipulation are sex, lies, guilt, fame, and her well-crafted diary. Even readers get duped by Amy’s lies, and it isn’t until midway through the book that we see her for what she really is — a master manipulator.
You know that little voice in your head that tells you to return a found wallet or treat others as you want to be treated? People high in psychopathy don’t have that voice, or if they do, its volume is turned down very low. As a result, they lack many of the social emotions that other people take for granted, including guilt, remorse, sympathy, and pity.
It is this lack of a conscience that enables psychopaths to engage in behaviors others may secretly fantasize about, but never actually do. When someone hurts us or makes us mad, we may think, “I want to punch him!” or “I could kill him!” but we would never actually do it. Psychopaths don’t have that brake pedal: If they want to do it, they may actually do it.
This hints at another quality associated with psychopathy — low impulse control. People high in psychopathy can be quick to violence and aggression; may have many casual sex partners; and tend to engage in more risky or dangerous behaviors than others. One of their mantras is “Act first, think later.”
Once again, Flynn crafted an excellent representation of this trait with Amy Dunne. Amy is cold and calculating — almost reptilian in her lack of compassion. She seems to lack any sense of right and wrong, or empathy for what she puts others through. Instead, she has a calculating, pragmatic nature, whether lying to the police or getting rid of a human obstacle. Through her actions and lack of emotions, the reader finally sees Amy as a glacial beauty who lacks even a hint of warmth or humanity under the surface.
People high in narcissism are self-centered and have an inflated sense of their qualities and achievements. Any flaws they may have, they refuse to see in themselves and instead may project them onto those around them. For example, a narcissist who secretly worries she isn’t smart enough will accuse those around her of being dumb as a way to boost her own ego.
Narcissists love compliments and lavishly praise anyone who admires or affirms them. The flip side of this coin means that they are extremely sensitive to insults and often respond to criticism with seething rage and retribution. They have what psychologists refer to as “unstable self-esteem.” This means they put themselves on a very high pedestal, but it doesn’t take much to topple them to the ground. What others would perceive as constructive criticism, narcissists see as a declaration of war.
Because of their self-focus, they don’t get along well with others. They have problems sustaining healthy, satisfying relationships, so they tend to seek positions of authority where they can work over, rather than beside, colleagues. Such authority also helps, because narcissists never blame themselves for their problems. It is always someone else’s fault.
There are lots of examples of narcissists in popular literature (and in historical literature), but in my opinion, one that holds true to this description, in a non-obvious and non-stereotypical way, is the character of Annie Wilkes from Misery. Annie doesn’t immediately come off as arrogant or boastful (although her claim to be Paul Sheldon’s “Number One fan” is a hint of her inflated sense of self). But as the book unfolds, we are subjected to her constant complaining about the world and those in it. These rants demonstrate that she does see herself as superior. Everyone else is a “lying ol’ dirty birdy,” and anyone who falls into this category is not worthy of sympathy or even basic human dignity. Annie is an excellent example of how to incorporate narcissism (or any of these three traits) in a character in a way that is subtle and unique, but still clearly present.
Keep in mind: Being high in one of these traits doesn’t mean a person is a psychopath. People can be risk-seekers, or arrogant, and not engage in malevolent behavior. In fact, some research suggests that real-world heroes share some, but not all, of these traits. What matters is the combination of the three: Real-world psychopaths are the perfect storm of egotism, manipulation, and a lack of conscience.
[To learn more about psychopaths, read this excellent book by Dr. Robert Hare]