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All Eyes on Us: The Spotlight Effect

How a psychological bias causes us to overestimate how much people notice us.

Key points

  • The spotlight effect is a manifestation of the egocentric bias, or our tendency to view things from our own perspective.
  • The spotlight effect can be crippling for people with social anxiety.
  • Having an accurate understanding of our importance in other people's eyes can be liberating as well as humbling.

Think back to the last time something embarrassing happened to you—perhaps you had a large juice stain down the front of your shirt or made a gaffe when asked a question in front of the entire classroom. Or maybe you felt you stood out in some way, either positively (Did you score a perfect goal in a game of soccer?) or negatively (Were you wearing a piece of clothing that made you look entirely out of place?).

Each of these situations might seem wildly different from each other, but I can all but guarantee you one thing—in none of those situations did people notice you to the extent that you might have thought they did. I’m not dissing you when I say you are neither as noticed or as important as you think you are. This is merely fact. We estimate our own importance from our perspective, which is colored by the fact that we are all the center of our own universes—this is the famed “egocentric bias.”

A manifestation of this bias is the spotlight effect. That time you had a juice stain on your shirt or said something embarrassing in class—you most likely felt like there was a spotlight shining right at you with everyone’s eyes on you. While this might have technically been true in the classroom scenario, I’d guess that you might have greatly overestimated for how long people thought about that gaffe or how harshly they judged you for it.

What the Research Says

You don’t have to take my word for all this—a research study conducted by Tom Gilovich and colleagues found that study participants greatly overestimated the number of people who might have noticed an embarrassing t-shirt that they were wearing. But here’s where it gets interesting— When people were asked to view a recording of a third person wearing an embarrassing t-shirt, they got the estimate of the number of people who noticed the shirt nearly right. What seems to alter the memorability of the t-shirt in our eyes, then, is us. We are special, it seems, but only in our own eyes.

The spotlight effect does not apply merely to appearance. It applies to our actions as well. In another part of the same study by Gilovich and colleagues, people tended to overestimate how much prominence their colleagues in a group discussion gave to their positive or negative performance. Whether we perform well or not, we tend to think people notice our performance more than they really do. Having an accurate idea of how much our performance matters to other people is important in two ways—overestimating how impressed our colleagues are with our positive performance can cause us to have a little bit of an inflated sense of self-importance. The flip side of this, understanding that fewer people than we realize actually care about or notice our negative performance or our errors, can be incredibly freeing.

Think of it this way—do you actually recall the face of any stranger you came across in the past few days? If we didn’t notice them at all, would they have noticed us? The comforting truth is that people are just too busy thinking about their own problems or being too worried about what we think of them to devote any mind space to what a random stranger is wearing or what they look like. Even if someone were to notice these superficial features and judge you for them, how much weight should that opinion carry?

When the Spotlight Effect Turns Pathological

People who suffer from social anxiety can sometimes be crippled by the spotlight effect—it can be harder for them to recognize the fact that they are not as much the center of attention as they think they are and to overcome this feeling.

In its more pathological form, the spotlight effect can also be tied to delusions of reference that many patients with psychosis have. A person with a delusion of reference might feel like everyone in a local train they are travelling in is talking about them or that an advertisement on television is sending them a special message.

Psychological Phenomena Related to the Spotlight Effect

The spotlight effect is related to many different psychological biases. There is the false-uniqueness effect, where we underestimate the extent to which others share our positive attributes (remember that spectacular goal that you scored that nobody else seemed to notice, which caused you to think of yourself as a striker par none?).

There is also a blurring of self and others in another related psychological phenomenon, the illusion of transparency, which refers to our tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people understand or perceive our personal mental state. I remember the time I had to give a speech in front of a large audience, and I was convinced my anxiety, and my resulting slip-ups, were apparent to everyone in the crowd. I spoke to my friends in the audience about it later, and they genuinely thought I did just fine.

The spotlight effect can be uncomfortable and even crippling, but understanding that we are hardly as important or as much the center of attention as we think we are can be liberating as well as humbling.


Gilovich, T., Medvec, V. H., & Savitsky, K. (2000). The spotlight effect in social judgment: An egocentric bias in estimates of the salience of one's own actions and appearance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 211–222.

More from Aditi Subramaniam, Ph.D.
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