Skip to main content

Verified by Psychology Today


Rethinking Groupthink

There are times when groupthink can positively impact project success.

The concept of "groupthink," first identified by Irving Janis, refers to the phenomenon in which group members quickly align on certain decisions without critically evaluating or suppressing alternative ideas, often resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Prominent catastrophes attributed to groupthink include the space shuttle Challenger disaster, U.S. unpreparedness before the attack on Pearl Harbor, President John F. Kennedy’s failed Bay of Pigs invasion, the disastrous U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the Great Recession of 2008 when the U.S. economy was on the edge of collapse. In each of these instances, conformity and the silencing of dissenting views led to disastrous consequences. For example, in the Challenger disaster, despite initial warnings about the shuttle's faulty O-ring by engineers, the overwhelming pressure to proceed with the launch prevailed, culminating in a catastrophe witnessed live by millions, including me.

Despite its negative connotations, groupthink can have beneficial aspects, particularly in complex, urgent, and high-stakes project environments. In these high-pressure project environments, timing is of the essence, and the time required for groups to deliberate on options properly may be infeasible. Let's explore the potential positive applications of groupthink in project management and emphasize the need for a more balanced understanding and practice of groupthink.

  1. Building a Unified Vision. Groupthink can be instrumental during the early stages of a project, such as the creation and dissemination of project charters or initial kickoff meetings. These steps are crucial for establishing a shared understanding and enthusiasm about a project's objectives and procedures. A healthy level of groupthink helps cultivate solidarity among team members, enhancing their commitment and productivity, ultimately leading to more efficient and effective execution. This can be particularly important under time duress, whether the project is in a race to be the first in a market or to meet challenging deadlines.
  2. Enhancing Group Cohesion. In projects characterized by urgency and high importance, where time is a critical factor, the rapid formation of consensus is essential. Groupthink facilitates swift decision-making, which is particularly valuable in scenarios where teams face tight schedules or need to address immediate crises. In such situations, taking prompt, unified action is preferable to inaction, and the resulting group cohesion can contribute to build high-performing teams.
  3. Strengthening Decision Confidence. For project leaders, groupthink can bolster confidence in their decisions. The consensus achieved through groupthink not only lends apparent legitimacy to decisions but also boosts team morale. This increased confidence can be crucial during a project's initiation phase, when direction is often unclear and the risk of "analysis paralysis" is high due to the ambiguous and innovative nature of the tasks at hand.
  4. Quick Response to External Pressures. Groupthink enables project teams to unite swiftly in response to external threats or opportunities. This unity is particularly beneficial in complex projects involving significant changes, like the implementation of enterprise resource planning systems such as SAP, which can be challenging due to the behavioral changes they require from users. When these projects are executed under the pressure of competing against external threats, crisis-induced groupthink can help galvanize a team toward collective action, thereby enhancing the likelihood of successful adoption.
  5. Reinforcing Team Culture and Values. Groupthink can also play a role in reinforcing the culture and values within a team. By promoting consistent decision-making processes and approaches to problem-solving, project managers can foster a more cohesive and efficient working environment. Well-documented project management plans, which outline procedures for handling project changes, escalating issues, and making tough decisions, help in establishing these consistent practices.

While groupthink has been historically associated with poor decision-making and infamous failures, its potential benefits in a project management context, particularly under specific circumstances, can be significant. These benefits include fostering unity, expediting decision-making, and reinforcing team values, all of which are crucial for the success of complex and high-pressure projects.

Clearly all the potential upside of groupthink comes with warning labels: For example, the cost of achieving seemingly unified visions should not be at the expense of demotivating team members or attaining a false sense of confidence by listening to only like-minded people. The key lies in balancing the positive aspects of groupthink with critical thinking and open dialogue. Project managers should cultivate an environment that values diverse perspectives and dissenting voices, especially in making mission-critical decisions. This balanced approach will not only mitigate the risks associated with groupthink but also enhance project outcomes. As demonstrated by historical figures such as General Dwight Eisenhower, who on D-Day famously had two speeches prepared — one for success and another for defeat — leveraging groupthink effectively requires a nuanced understanding of when and how to encourage collective agreement without stifling alternative insight and creativity.

More from Te Wu DPS
More from Psychology Today