Photo of Alison Cowpar, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Alison Cowpar
Counsellor, MSc
Verified Verified
Adare, County Limerick V94
I work on a one-to-one basis in a non-judgmental, collaborative, emphatic way, encouraging and empowering my clients to develop their self-awareness, self-belief, self-esteem, and self-confidence for my clients to become less anxious, happier, more self-fulfilled, and to reach their full potential. I treat a variety of common mental health difficulties and life challenges, such as mood disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, PTSD, complex trauma, and much more.
I work on a one-to-one basis in a non-judgmental, collaborative, emphatic way, encouraging and empowering my clients to develop their self-awareness, self-belief, self-esteem, and self-confidence for my clients to become less anxious, happier, more self-fulfilled, and to reach their full potential. I treat a variety of common mental health difficulties and life challenges, such as mood disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, PTSD, complex trauma, and much more.
(01) 267 6552 x51 View (01) 267 6552 x51
Photo of Lloyd Horgan, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Lloyd Horgan
Counsellor, APCP
Verified Verified
Adare, County Limerick V94
Are you currently struggling and need support? Maybe you feel right now that things can’t get better? I give you my word that they can and they will and I am here to help you. Before making an appointment I am happy to answer any questions you may have and ease your mind about how therapy works. In terms of qualifications, I have a Bachelors degree in Counselling & Psychotherapy and a Masters degree in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Additionally, I have qualifications in Applied Social Studies & Mental Health Nursing. Prior to starting my own private practice clinic, I worked as a clinician for a number of years with MyMind.
Are you currently struggling and need support? Maybe you feel right now that things can’t get better? I give you my word that they can and they will and I am here to help you. Before making an appointment I am happy to answer any questions you may have and ease your mind about how therapy works. In terms of qualifications, I have a Bachelors degree in Counselling & Psychotherapy and a Masters degree in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Additionally, I have qualifications in Applied Social Studies & Mental Health Nursing. Prior to starting my own private practice clinic, I worked as a clinician for a number of years with MyMind.
089 411 7392 View 089 411 7392
Photo of Shane O'Hara, Psychologist in Adare, County Limerick
Shane O'Hara
Psychologist, MPSI
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Adare, County Limerick V94
www.shaneoharatherapy.com
www.shaneoharatherapy.com
086 398 6437 View 086 398 6437

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Noelle Fahy, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Noelle Fahy
Counsellor, MA, NAPCP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94  (Online Only)
There are times when life can seem overwhelming in particular if we are experiencing stress, anxiety or low mood. Daily life stressors of work and family responsibilities can contribute to these feelings. At other times we may be going through life changes such as a bereavement, issues in our relationships or periods of extended stress at work. Therapy offers a space to notice and explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours and to be curious about how your past experiences may be impacting your present day life and your thoughts about the future. Coping skills and strategies are taught to allow you be more present.
There are times when life can seem overwhelming in particular if we are experiencing stress, anxiety or low mood. Daily life stressors of work and family responsibilities can contribute to these feelings. At other times we may be going through life changes such as a bereavement, issues in our relationships or periods of extended stress at work. Therapy offers a space to notice and explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours and to be curious about how your past experiences may be impacting your present day life and your thoughts about the future. Coping skills and strategies are taught to allow you be more present.
(01) 267 6517 x93 View (01) 267 6517 x93
Photo of Martin Meyler, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Martin Meyler
Psychotherapist, MA, MIAHIP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
Waitlist for new clients
As an ongoing practice, the process of psychotherapy is an intimate journey towards inner discovery and awareness leading to increased well-being, balance, insight and clarity. There are many reasons which may lead you to initiate this sustained exploration of self—aspects of your life which are painful, frustrating or holding you back from achieving your potential for happiness and growth. I offer a safe, accepting and supportive therapeutic space to explore whatever you need to discuss, from your past or in the here-and-now.
As an ongoing practice, the process of psychotherapy is an intimate journey towards inner discovery and awareness leading to increased well-being, balance, insight and clarity. There are many reasons which may lead you to initiate this sustained exploration of self—aspects of your life which are painful, frustrating or holding you back from achieving your potential for happiness and growth. I offer a safe, accepting and supportive therapeutic space to explore whatever you need to discuss, from your past or in the here-and-now.
(01) 267 6692 x64 View (01) 267 6692 x64
Photo of Michele Farrell, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Michele Farrell
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
I am a qualified Psychotherapist with a BSc (Hons) in Integrative Counselling and Psychotherapy. I work with individuals aged 18 years and over, providing a professional, confidential service. I believe that the unique relationship between the therapist and client is key to the success of therapy as the relationship facilitates the trusting environment within which a client's concerns can be shared, explored, and addressed. My approach is Humanistic and Integrative, Person-Centred with elements of Gestalt, CBT, Family Systems, Expressive Art and Mindfulness.
I am a qualified Psychotherapist with a BSc (Hons) in Integrative Counselling and Psychotherapy. I work with individuals aged 18 years and over, providing a professional, confidential service. I believe that the unique relationship between the therapist and client is key to the success of therapy as the relationship facilitates the trusting environment within which a client's concerns can be shared, explored, and addressed. My approach is Humanistic and Integrative, Person-Centred with elements of Gestalt, CBT, Family Systems, Expressive Art and Mindfulness.
086 349 1697 View 086 349 1697
Photo of Patrick Cyril Fitzgerald, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Patrick Cyril Fitzgerald
Counsellor, MBBS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Castletroy, County Limerick V94
Having worked as a CBT therapist for the last number of years, Patrick is equipped and knowledgeable in delivering CBT focused psychotherapeutic support. Patrick holds a BA (Hons) in Counselling and Psychotherapy and is currently completing his masters in CBT.
Having worked as a CBT therapist for the last number of years, Patrick is equipped and knowledgeable in delivering CBT focused psychotherapeutic support. Patrick holds a BA (Hons) in Counselling and Psychotherapy and is currently completing his masters in CBT.
087 756 9853 View 087 756 9853
Photo of Jonathan Monahan Mapcp, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Jonathan Monahan Mapcp
Counsellor, APCP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
It is my vision to support people, to work with them to find their purpose and talents in order to fulfil their potential in life. When a problem presents itself, I will help you in the search for solutions to the current impasse to allow movement forward. We can seek out the source of the problem to see if it can be prevented in the future, or at least its effects reduced, should it reoccur. I feel that by working like this, together you can learn how to overcome the difficulties life sends your way. In this way, you can become empowered. Using your own strengths you already possess to build a future you want to live in
It is my vision to support people, to work with them to find their purpose and talents in order to fulfil their potential in life. When a problem presents itself, I will help you in the search for solutions to the current impasse to allow movement forward. We can seek out the source of the problem to see if it can be prevented in the future, or at least its effects reduced, should it reoccur. I feel that by working like this, together you can learn how to overcome the difficulties life sends your way. In this way, you can become empowered. Using your own strengths you already possess to build a future you want to live in
089 451 3053 View 089 451 3053
Photo of Therapy With Sasha in Adare, County Limerick
Therapy With Sasha
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94  (Online Only)
There are many reasons why people may seek out a psychotherapist - specific mental health issues, such as depression or anxiety, or addressing more general feelings of unhappiness, dissatisfaction, or lack of purpose. Some may be looking to improve their relationships, to cope with major life changes or transitions, or to gain a deeper understanding of themselves and their experiences. Self-help can be successful for some, whilst for others the change is short-lived or their desired outcomes still feel unreachable. This is where therapy can help.
There are many reasons why people may seek out a psychotherapist - specific mental health issues, such as depression or anxiety, or addressing more general feelings of unhappiness, dissatisfaction, or lack of purpose. Some may be looking to improve their relationships, to cope with major life changes or transitions, or to gain a deeper understanding of themselves and their experiences. Self-help can be successful for some, whilst for others the change is short-lived or their desired outcomes still feel unreachable. This is where therapy can help.
(01) 267 6517 x49 View (01) 267 6517 x49
Photo of Mike O'Halloran, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Mike O'Halloran
Psychotherapist, MA, IAHIP Supervisor
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
I have 33 years experience working with a wide range of clients, coming to see me with many different issues, including anxiety, loss, and stress. In addition hundreds of professionals in the area of psychotherapy, counselling and coaching have attended workshops which I have led. My orientation is humanistic. What this means is that my work with you is non-judgemental and non-prescriptive. Our work together aims to help you to gain greater self-awareness, and with this comes release from internal conflict, less anxiety, a greater sense of freedom, and greater ability to make choices that suit you.
I have 33 years experience working with a wide range of clients, coming to see me with many different issues, including anxiety, loss, and stress. In addition hundreds of professionals in the area of psychotherapy, counselling and coaching have attended workshops which I have led. My orientation is humanistic. What this means is that my work with you is non-judgemental and non-prescriptive. Our work together aims to help you to gain greater self-awareness, and with this comes release from internal conflict, less anxiety, a greater sense of freedom, and greater ability to make choices that suit you.
(01) 267 6681 x68 View (01) 267 6681 x68
Photo of Lucy Greene, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Lucy Greene
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
I work with aspects of your mental health affected on becoming a mother or father eg.., anxiety, depression, Infertility, pregnancy loss, artificial reproductive technology, pre-natal crisis pregnancy, child bereavement, parenting styles, relationships, separation,domestic violence, and how adverse childhood experiences and trauma are affecting your experience of parenthood. I have a special interest in Peri-Natal Mental Health and am currently undertaking practice-based research in this field. This includes understanding issues arising for mothers and fathers from the time of conception up until the child is 5 years old.
I work with aspects of your mental health affected on becoming a mother or father eg.., anxiety, depression, Infertility, pregnancy loss, artificial reproductive technology, pre-natal crisis pregnancy, child bereavement, parenting styles, relationships, separation,domestic violence, and how adverse childhood experiences and trauma are affecting your experience of parenthood. I have a special interest in Peri-Natal Mental Health and am currently undertaking practice-based research in this field. This includes understanding issues arising for mothers and fathers from the time of conception up until the child is 5 years old.
(01) 267 6675 x49 View (01) 267 6675 x49
Photo of Cara Gibbons - Emotional And Binge Eating Specialist, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Cara Gibbons - Emotional And Binge Eating Specialist
Psychotherapist, MSc, APCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Limerick, County Limerick V94  (Online Only)
Do you feel like food is ruling your life? Are you overcome with stress or painful life experiences and find yourself eating all your emotions? Are you fed up with the struggle with the binge/restrict cycle of various diets? Are you worried that your relationship with food is affecting your health? What would it mean for you to feel free from secrecy, guilt, and shame around food? Would you like to start caring for yourself and appreciating your body? To feel more present and at ease around eating and not have food on your mind constantly. If you answered yes to any of these questions, then perhaps I can help you.
Do you feel like food is ruling your life? Are you overcome with stress or painful life experiences and find yourself eating all your emotions? Are you fed up with the struggle with the binge/restrict cycle of various diets? Are you worried that your relationship with food is affecting your health? What would it mean for you to feel free from secrecy, guilt, and shame around food? Would you like to start caring for yourself and appreciating your body? To feel more present and at ease around eating and not have food on your mind constantly. If you answered yes to any of these questions, then perhaps I can help you.
(01) 263 0697 x33 View (01) 263 0697 x33
Photo of Evolve Mental Health, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Evolve Mental Health
Counsellor, MA, APCP
Not Verified Not Verified
Castletroy, County Limerick V94
At Evolve, our therapists are fully trained, qualified and experienced mental health professionals who are passionate about helping our clients overcome what they are currently facing. Here at Evolve our motto is "making your well-being our priority" and this is not only our mission statement but our primary goal. Whatever you may be facing - anxiety, depression, panic attacks, relationship issues, low self-esteem amongst much more - Evolve is the place for you. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is an evidence based, results focused approach to therapy and can help you overcome whatever it is you are facing.
At Evolve, our therapists are fully trained, qualified and experienced mental health professionals who are passionate about helping our clients overcome what they are currently facing. Here at Evolve our motto is "making your well-being our priority" and this is not only our mission statement but our primary goal. Whatever you may be facing - anxiety, depression, panic attacks, relationship issues, low self-esteem amongst much more - Evolve is the place for you. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is an evidence based, results focused approach to therapy and can help you overcome whatever it is you are facing.
089 411 7392 View 089 411 7392
Photo of Pierpaolo Paparo, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Pierpaolo Paparo
Psychotherapist, MA, MIAHIP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94  (Online Only)
My interest in psychotherapy, spirituality and meditation began after the end of my marriage several years ago, which like many other types of losses, triggered a lot of suffering. ​Life transition, family and friends losses, the breakup of long-term relationships, stress, anxiety and depression are all part of human suffering. However, we have an innate capability, which we can strengthen, that allows us to navigate and, more importantly, learn from our most difficult life experiences.
My interest in psychotherapy, spirituality and meditation began after the end of my marriage several years ago, which like many other types of losses, triggered a lot of suffering. ​Life transition, family and friends losses, the breakup of long-term relationships, stress, anxiety and depression are all part of human suffering. However, we have an innate capability, which we can strengthen, that allows us to navigate and, more importantly, learn from our most difficult life experiences.
(01) 267 6622 x34 View (01) 267 6622 x34
Photo of Robert Patterson Listowel County Kerry And Online, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Robert Patterson Listowel County Kerry And Online
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
Not accepting new clients
Are you struggling with an issue in your life and need some professional help? Perhaps you are experiencing low moods or have lost your motivation. You may be suffering from anxiety and find everyday situations hard to manage. Do you want to change how you feel, but have no idea how to do this? You might not want to talk to friends or family, as the issue is a deeply personal one. I provide face-to-face services from my practice here in county Kerry to adults over the age of 18 years. I also work online, providing the same professional service anywhere in Ireland, or the rest of the world!
Are you struggling with an issue in your life and need some professional help? Perhaps you are experiencing low moods or have lost your motivation. You may be suffering from anxiety and find everyday situations hard to manage. Do you want to change how you feel, but have no idea how to do this? You might not want to talk to friends or family, as the issue is a deeply personal one. I provide face-to-face services from my practice here in county Kerry to adults over the age of 18 years. I also work online, providing the same professional service anywhere in Ireland, or the rest of the world!
087 607 3893 View 087 607 3893
Photo of Danika Hoare, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Danika Hoare
Psychotherapist, MSc, Pre-Accredited Member IACP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
I am an Irish psychotherapist working with clients on either a short term or long-term basis depending on their needs. My approach to treatment is very much guided by the client. I don't believe there is a one-size-fits-all form of therapy. I am here to assist whether you are feeling the need for a journey of transformation, for balance in the middle of chaos, or for a connection between your body, mind, and soul. I believe that healing is always possible. Let's work together to rewrite your story, overcome obstacles, and bring about long-lasting, beneficial change. Take the first step toward positive change and get in touch.
I am an Irish psychotherapist working with clients on either a short term or long-term basis depending on their needs. My approach to treatment is very much guided by the client. I don't believe there is a one-size-fits-all form of therapy. I am here to assist whether you are feeling the need for a journey of transformation, for balance in the middle of chaos, or for a connection between your body, mind, and soul. I believe that healing is always possible. Let's work together to rewrite your story, overcome obstacles, and bring about long-lasting, beneficial change. Take the first step toward positive change and get in touch.
087 103 0233 View 087 103 0233
Photo of Elisabeth Swan, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Elisabeth Swan
Psychotherapist, MA, MIACP
Verified Verified
Abbeyfeale, County Limerick V94
Counselling and Psychotherapy can help with a variety of challenges - addressing difficulties in the present as well as overcoming experiences that belong to the past. A respectful and attuned therapeutic relationship I believe to be the foundation for all therapeutic work. Beside talk therapy we may use art materials to help you express yourself. Often people find that they want more life quality or that important relationships in their lives are impacted by their difficulties and want to find a way forward that feels right for them.
Counselling and Psychotherapy can help with a variety of challenges - addressing difficulties in the present as well as overcoming experiences that belong to the past. A respectful and attuned therapeutic relationship I believe to be the foundation for all therapeutic work. Beside talk therapy we may use art materials to help you express yourself. Often people find that they want more life quality or that important relationships in their lives are impacted by their difficulties and want to find a way forward that feels right for them.
087 335 1567 View 087 335 1567
Photo of Helen Griffin, Psychotherapist in Adare, County Limerick
Helen Griffin
Psychotherapist, MA, MIACP
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
I am a fully accredited Art Therapist with a Master’s Degree in Art Therapy from Crawford College of Art and Design, and ​I have also completed my clinical training as a Humanistic and Integrative Psychotherapist with the Tivoli Institute in Dublin. I work with adults, adolescents and children in individual sessions with an integrative and creative approach to therapy.​ I respond to each client’s individual needs and this may be through talk therapy or creative arts therapy approaches to promote healing, generate growth and insight to their situation, help develop their resources and strengths, and to resolve personal issues.
I am a fully accredited Art Therapist with a Master’s Degree in Art Therapy from Crawford College of Art and Design, and ​I have also completed my clinical training as a Humanistic and Integrative Psychotherapist with the Tivoli Institute in Dublin. I work with adults, adolescents and children in individual sessions with an integrative and creative approach to therapy.​ I respond to each client’s individual needs and this may be through talk therapy or creative arts therapy approaches to promote healing, generate growth and insight to their situation, help develop their resources and strengths, and to resolve personal issues.
(01) 267 6641 x57 View (01) 267 6641 x57
Photo of Sharon Ward, Counsellor in Adare, County Limerick
Sharon Ward
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Castletroy, County Limerick V94
Sharon is a passionate and experienced counsellor, who supports people with a variety of mental health, emotional and behavioural difficulties, those who experience a loss of meaning in their lives, or those who are seeking a greater sense of fulfilment. Sharon has completed a BA degree in Counselling and Psychotherapy with Youth Studies, holds a BA (Hons) degree in Counselling and Psychotherapy and is currently pursuing a MA degree in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
Sharon is a passionate and experienced counsellor, who supports people with a variety of mental health, emotional and behavioural difficulties, those who experience a loss of meaning in their lives, or those who are seeking a greater sense of fulfilment. Sharon has completed a BA degree in Counselling and Psychotherapy with Youth Studies, holds a BA (Hons) degree in Counselling and Psychotherapy and is currently pursuing a MA degree in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
(01) 267 6570 x11 View (01) 267 6570 x11
Photo of Dr Kevin Lambe, Psychologist in Adare, County Limerick
Dr Kevin Lambe
Psychologist, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Limerick, County Limerick V94
Clinical & Forensic Psychologist educated at University College Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Queen's University Belfast, University of Hartford, and King's College London.
Clinical & Forensic Psychologist educated at University College Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Queen's University Belfast, University of Hartford, and King's College London.
(01) 267 6675 x56 View (01) 267 6675 x56

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Adare

< 10

Counsellors in Adare who prioritize treating:

100% Relationship Issues
100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Self Esteem
100% Stress
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% School Issues

Average years in practice

15 Years

Gender breakdown

66% Male
34% Female

How Counsellors in Adare see their clients

100% In Person and Online
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Adare?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, eircode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or eircode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are accredited members of the main professional associations, mainly the Irish Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (IACP) and the Irish Council for Psychotherapy (ICP). Most Psychologists are accredited members of the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement in Ireland, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Ireland. Psychologists have earned a doctoral degree in psychology and many are accredited members of the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI). Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a doctoral degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the IACP or ICP, they must complete a minimum of an NFQ Level 7 programme with 100 hours of clinical experience and a minimum of 450 hours of post-training clinical experience under clinical supervision.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in Ireland could cost between €50 – €90 when seeing a counsellor and €75 - €120 or more when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The National Counselling Service (NCS) is a government-funded service that provides short to medium term counselling and psychotherapy for free to individuals who have experienced trauma or abuse. The service can be accessed by GP referral or self-referral.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your eircode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the IACP, the ICP, or PSI are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a child is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.