Counselling in Carmarthen

Photo of Karina Varrie-Lawrence, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Karina Varrie-Lawrence
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I understand that contemplating counselling can be a daunting experience, but I want to reassure you that I can offer a confidential and non-judgemental space for you to be listened to. Each session is led by you and at a pace that feels comfortable. I firmly believe the therapeutic relationship is a collaborative one, and we can work together to explore your feelings and emotions within a safe and supportive setting, and take the first steps towards healing and growth. I previously worked as a teacher, so I am fully aware of how stress and anxiety can have a fundamental impact on securing a manageable work-life balance.
I understand that contemplating counselling can be a daunting experience, but I want to reassure you that I can offer a confidential and non-judgemental space for you to be listened to. Each session is led by you and at a pace that feels comfortable. I firmly believe the therapeutic relationship is a collaborative one, and we can work together to explore your feelings and emotions within a safe and supportive setting, and take the first steps towards healing and growth. I previously worked as a teacher, so I am fully aware of how stress and anxiety can have a fundamental impact on securing a manageable work-life balance.
07723 505739 View 07723 505739
Photo of Roots&Wings Counselling, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Roots&Wings Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
The Counselling that I offer will be built around your needs, desires and areas of interest. I am looking to build a safe and trusting relationship where you can bring your whole self including the parts of you that possibly you hide away from others.
The Counselling that I offer will be built around your needs, desires and areas of interest. I am looking to build a safe and trusting relationship where you can bring your whole self including the parts of you that possibly you hide away from others.
01267 610938 View 01267 610938
Photo of Zoe Prosser, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Zoe Prosser
Counsellor
Verified
Carmarthen SA33  (Online Only)
Fully insured, DBS Disclosure, Honors & Awards, completed CPD Certified Certificates:- Relationship Counselling, Mental Wellbeing in Children & Young People, Play Therapy, Level 3 Child Psychology Diploma, First Aid For Mental Health, Professional Addiction Counselling, Psychotherapy, Health & Social Care, Child Counselling, Counselling, Anxiety Awareness Diploma, Child Protection, Safeguarding Diploma, Depression Awareness Diploma, Self Harm awareness m, Selective Mutism Awareness, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, Suicide Prevention Certificate, Nursing Assistant Diploma, Accessing Mental Capacity, Art Therapy,
Fully insured, DBS Disclosure, Honors & Awards, completed CPD Certified Certificates:- Relationship Counselling, Mental Wellbeing in Children & Young People, Play Therapy, Level 3 Child Psychology Diploma, First Aid For Mental Health, Professional Addiction Counselling, Psychotherapy, Health & Social Care, Child Counselling, Counselling, Anxiety Awareness Diploma, Child Protection, Safeguarding Diploma, Depression Awareness Diploma, Self Harm awareness m, Selective Mutism Awareness, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, Suicide Prevention Certificate, Nursing Assistant Diploma, Accessing Mental Capacity, Art Therapy,
01267 611048 View 01267 611048
Photo of Jacqueline Ann Turner, Psychotherapist in Carmarthen, Wales
Jacqueline Ann Turner
Psychotherapist
Carmarthen SA31
As a Psychotherapist Traumatologist I specialise in the treatment of Trauma, PTSD, and C-PTSD. Following the NICE guidelines, for the safe and effective treatment of all trauma related issues and related co-morbid symptoms. Collaboratively formulating a treatment plan in a three phase approach to recovery. Harnessing the tools and resources necessary to face and move beyond current difficulties, specifically addressing the problems that are causing distress and holding you back in life, improving your psychological, physical and emotional wellbeing. Accessing safe authentic connection to your self, others and the world around you.
As a Psychotherapist Traumatologist I specialise in the treatment of Trauma, PTSD, and C-PTSD. Following the NICE guidelines, for the safe and effective treatment of all trauma related issues and related co-morbid symptoms. Collaboratively formulating a treatment plan in a three phase approach to recovery. Harnessing the tools and resources necessary to face and move beyond current difficulties, specifically addressing the problems that are causing distress and holding you back in life, improving your psychological, physical and emotional wellbeing. Accessing safe authentic connection to your self, others and the world around you.
01267 616775 View 01267 616775
Photo of Susie Bates, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Susie Bates
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Carmarthen SA31
We all have struggles in our lives, there may be present day issues or difficulties arising from your past which are causing you distress or leaving you feeling stuck. You may have low mood, anxiety, struggling in relationships or be experiencing symptoms of trauma. Together we can explore ways to ease your difficulties that best suit you as an individual. We will work at your own pace in a way which feels safe and comfortable for you.
We all have struggles in our lives, there may be present day issues or difficulties arising from your past which are causing you distress or leaving you feeling stuck. You may have low mood, anxiety, struggling in relationships or be experiencing symptoms of trauma. Together we can explore ways to ease your difficulties that best suit you as an individual. We will work at your own pace in a way which feels safe and comfortable for you.
01267 611598 View 01267 611598
Photo of John Priestley, Psychotherapist in Carmarthen, Wales
John Priestley
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
Carmarthen SA32  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My initial training was as a Jungian analyst with the British Association of Psychotherapy, now the British Psychotherapy Foundation. I have subsequently trained as a Schema Therapist with Jeff Young in New York. I am registered with the UKCP, the BCP, the ISST and I am a fellow of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy.
My initial training was as a Jungian analyst with the British Association of Psychotherapy, now the British Psychotherapy Foundation. I have subsequently trained as a Schema Therapist with Jeff Young in New York. I am registered with the UKCP, the BCP, the ISST and I am a fellow of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy.
020 3828 7650 View 020 3828 7650
Photo of Karen Rowe, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Karen Rowe
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I offer a safe, caring and supportive space where, working at a pace set by you and using a variety of tools and approaches that reflect you as a unique individual, I will work along side you in exploring and understanding the difficulties that may have brought you to seek therapy and helping you towards any changes you would like to make. I believe that you are the expert on you and so our sessions are guided by what you bring to each meeting, I will give you time to be heard, perhaps making observations and reflections or sharing tools or techniques that I feel may bring understanding or support you in moving forward.
I offer a safe, caring and supportive space where, working at a pace set by you and using a variety of tools and approaches that reflect you as a unique individual, I will work along side you in exploring and understanding the difficulties that may have brought you to seek therapy and helping you towards any changes you would like to make. I believe that you are the expert on you and so our sessions are guided by what you bring to each meeting, I will give you time to be heard, perhaps making observations and reflections or sharing tools or techniques that I feel may bring understanding or support you in moving forward.
01267 611587 View 01267 611587
Photo of John Dray, Psychotherapist in Carmarthen, Wales
John Dray
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified
3 Endorsed
Carmarthen SA31
I work mainly with people who identify as LGBTQ+. Typically I work with people who are exploring identity, depression, anxiety, trauma and how this affects relationships. I work alongside people to help them identify the way they work and help them come to a better understanding of themselves and how they relate to others.
I work mainly with people who identify as LGBTQ+. Typically I work with people who are exploring identity, depression, anxiety, trauma and how this affects relationships. I work alongside people to help them identify the way they work and help them come to a better understanding of themselves and how they relate to others.
01269 508064 View 01269 508064
Photo of Sarah Louise Langstaff, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Sarah Louise Langstaff
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I am a qualified Counsellor and a Psychotherapist in clinical training. I have experience supporting people suffering from anxiety, work-related stress, depression, panic attacks, OCD and PTSD. I work with clients who want more confidence and wish to make different life choices. I also offer counselling to couples who are having difficulties or who simply want more insight into their relationship dynamics. I have experience working with clients who experience anxiety and teach my clients simple and effective grounding and mindful tools.
I am a qualified Counsellor and a Psychotherapist in clinical training. I have experience supporting people suffering from anxiety, work-related stress, depression, panic attacks, OCD and PTSD. I work with clients who want more confidence and wish to make different life choices. I also offer counselling to couples who are having difficulties or who simply want more insight into their relationship dynamics. I have experience working with clients who experience anxiety and teach my clients simple and effective grounding and mindful tools.
01239 803035 View 01239 803035
Photo of Samantha Davies Silver Linings Counselling - ADHD, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Samantha Davies Silver Linings Counselling - ADHD
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
Making this choice is difficult. Let me tell you a little about me. A professional accredited counsellor, I specialise in counselling for ADHD. I have 2 children with ADHD. If ADHD is affecting you or someone you care for I can help. I also work with all areas of mental health, depression, anxiety, trauma, sexual abuse, self-esteem & PTSD. I am qualified in REWIND therapy for trauma. Life can get hard, money or job worries, relationship issues or problems with friends or co-workers, can all cause anxiety and depression. I can help you work through these problems if times get tough. NCS Profesional Accredited/MBACP Acc equivalent.
Making this choice is difficult. Let me tell you a little about me. A professional accredited counsellor, I specialise in counselling for ADHD. I have 2 children with ADHD. If ADHD is affecting you or someone you care for I can help. I also work with all areas of mental health, depression, anxiety, trauma, sexual abuse, self-esteem & PTSD. I am qualified in REWIND therapy for trauma. Life can get hard, money or job worries, relationship issues or problems with friends or co-workers, can all cause anxiety and depression. I can help you work through these problems if times get tough. NCS Profesional Accredited/MBACP Acc equivalent.
07480 485870 View 07480 485870
Photo of TALK Therapies and Lifestyle Counselling, Psychologist in Carmarthen, Wales
TALK Therapies and Lifestyle Counselling
Psychologist, MSc, CPsychol
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I’m a Chartered Health Psychologist, EMDR therapist and Medical Hypnotherapist. Prior to opening my own practice I worked for the NHS within medical hospital settings. I am a member of the British Psychological Society and HCPC registered.
I’m a Chartered Health Psychologist, EMDR therapist and Medical Hypnotherapist. Prior to opening my own practice I worked for the NHS within medical hospital settings. I am a member of the British Psychological Society and HCPC registered.
01269 502028 View 01269 502028
Photo of Georgina Gray, Psychotherapist in Carmarthen, Wales
Georgina Gray
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA32
The reasons that people may seek therapy are very individual and personal - it may be due to emotional problems, anxiety, depression, substance use, early life experiences, trauma, or because of a feeling that life has somehow lost its balance. Yet many issues and problems are embedded within our wider social and cultural context. Adverse childhood experiences and other difficult or traumatic experiences later in life can have a profound effect on how we view ourselves, our relationship with others and the wider world, usually leading to a mixture of vulnerability as well as resilience. Therapies such as EMDR or CBT can help.
The reasons that people may seek therapy are very individual and personal - it may be due to emotional problems, anxiety, depression, substance use, early life experiences, trauma, or because of a feeling that life has somehow lost its balance. Yet many issues and problems are embedded within our wider social and cultural context. Adverse childhood experiences and other difficult or traumatic experiences later in life can have a profound effect on how we view ourselves, our relationship with others and the wider world, usually leading to a mixture of vulnerability as well as resilience. Therapies such as EMDR or CBT can help.
01570 940257 View 01570 940257
Photo of Clear Conscience Counselling Ltd, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Clear Conscience Counselling Ltd
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I'm a certified and registered counsellor/psychotherapist (holding FDA in counselling and Dip. psysextherapy) affiliated with BACP accredited with the NCPS and a member of FSTR and HPAI. My approach is integrative, designed to empower clients to identify, comprehend, and navigate their challenges. This, coupled with psychoeducation, fosters profound self-awareness and healing. Together, we'll unearth strategies to conquer the demands of today's world, delve into intimate concerns, and enhance your communication prowess. I blend conventional and holistic counselling methods to create a safe, confidential, and welcoming space .
I'm a certified and registered counsellor/psychotherapist (holding FDA in counselling and Dip. psysextherapy) affiliated with BACP accredited with the NCPS and a member of FSTR and HPAI. My approach is integrative, designed to empower clients to identify, comprehend, and navigate their challenges. This, coupled with psychoeducation, fosters profound self-awareness and healing. Together, we'll unearth strategies to conquer the demands of today's world, delve into intimate concerns, and enhance your communication prowess. I blend conventional and holistic counselling methods to create a safe, confidential, and welcoming space .
01269 505889 View 01269 505889
Photo of Calm Waters Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in Carmarthen, Wales
Calm Waters Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
My ideal client is someone who has decided that they need help with their particular issues. They have been struggling with these for some time and now have decided that they are prepared to engage with me and overcome or come to terms with their issues.
My ideal client is someone who has decided that they need help with their particular issues. They have been struggling with these for some time and now have decided that they are prepared to engage with me and overcome or come to terms with their issues.
01656 334562 View 01656 334562
Photo of Stuart Forbes, Psychologist in Carmarthen, Wales
Stuart Forbes
Psychologist, MSc, HCPC - Ed. Psych.
Verified
Carmarthen SA31  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a highly experienced Psychologist and have worked in many areas, schools and homes across Wales and the UK during my career. During this time I have trained in and used a wide range of therapuetic techniques to help make a real difference in the lives of children, families and teachers I have worked with. I am an EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and specialise in helping people with PTSD, fear, anxiety, anger or panic to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress that are the result of disturbing life experiences.
I am a highly experienced Psychologist and have worked in many areas, schools and homes across Wales and the UK during my career. During this time I have trained in and used a wide range of therapuetic techniques to help make a real difference in the lives of children, families and teachers I have worked with. I am an EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and specialise in helping people with PTSD, fear, anxiety, anger or panic to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress that are the result of disturbing life experiences.
01792 986173 View 01792 986173
Photo of Nikki Catto, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Nikki Catto
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
With twenty years experience and constant study for personal and professional development , I can offer a safe and effective therapeutic space for you to explore and heal from a wide range of life issues . We discuss your objectives for therapy and use a range of therapeutic tools including simple psychoeducation so you understand the process,which I believe enables personal understanding and clarity . My goal for every client is long term sustainable change in the most effective way possible , and I keep that in mind for every individual with whom I am privileged to work with. I also offer supervision
With twenty years experience and constant study for personal and professional development , I can offer a safe and effective therapeutic space for you to explore and heal from a wide range of life issues . We discuss your objectives for therapy and use a range of therapeutic tools including simple psychoeducation so you understand the process,which I believe enables personal understanding and clarity . My goal for every client is long term sustainable change in the most effective way possible , and I keep that in mind for every individual with whom I am privileged to work with. I also offer supervision
01994 227983 View 01994 227983
Photo of Sutton Psychology Practice, Psychologist in Carmarthen, Wales
Sutton Psychology Practice
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Forensic Psych.
Verified
Carmarthen SA31  (Online Only)
Are your emotions out of control? Do you want to get off the rollercoaster of highs and lows? Are your thoughts and feelings sometimes so overwhelming you’d do anything to escape from them? Are you struggling to get on with other people? Are difficult experiences replaying over and over in your mind; maybe feeling as though they're happening all over again? Many people experience these kinds of difficulties. Perhaps you've had very difficult experiences in life - maybe they've been long-lasting experiences over many years, or maybe they've been one-off events that you're struggling to overcome. Either way, therapy can help you!
Are your emotions out of control? Do you want to get off the rollercoaster of highs and lows? Are your thoughts and feelings sometimes so overwhelming you’d do anything to escape from them? Are you struggling to get on with other people? Are difficult experiences replaying over and over in your mind; maybe feeling as though they're happening all over again? Many people experience these kinds of difficulties. Perhaps you've had very difficult experiences in life - maybe they've been long-lasting experiences over many years, or maybe they've been one-off events that you're struggling to overcome. Either way, therapy can help you!
01269 508069 View 01269 508069
Photo of Henk Smit, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Henk Smit
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
Hello, my name is Henk. I provide individual and couples counselling. As a fully qualified Person-Centred Counsellor, I offer non-judgmental acceptance, empathic understanding and sincerity. This helps build a trusting relationship in which you feel comfortable exploring anything that is on your mind, but also helps you find your own answers by helping you get a deeper understanding of what is going on for you. You may feel low, anxious, worthless, lost, easily overwhelmed, not knowing which direction to take, or how to cope with what life has thrown your way.
Hello, my name is Henk. I provide individual and couples counselling. As a fully qualified Person-Centred Counsellor, I offer non-judgmental acceptance, empathic understanding and sincerity. This helps build a trusting relationship in which you feel comfortable exploring anything that is on your mind, but also helps you find your own answers by helping you get a deeper understanding of what is going on for you. You may feel low, anxious, worthless, lost, easily overwhelmed, not knowing which direction to take, or how to cope with what life has thrown your way.
01550 912280 View 01550 912280
Photo of Julie Gravelle, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Julie Gravelle
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Carmarthen SA31
I have 15 years of experience as a Counsellor and Hypnotherapist and I know that the reason you are even reading this is because you or someone you know needs help. How do we start? A simple chat, either over the phone or online. We will discuss your worries or issues and together work out the best way forward. This may be just one method or a combination of therapies. You will be in control of this and it can be changed as we progress, I offer this in a safe, confidential and non judgemental environment. Many of my clients choose to split sessions into 1/2hr Counselling and 1/2hr Hypnotherapy.
I have 15 years of experience as a Counsellor and Hypnotherapist and I know that the reason you are even reading this is because you or someone you know needs help. How do we start? A simple chat, either over the phone or online. We will discuss your worries or issues and together work out the best way forward. This may be just one method or a combination of therapies. You will be in control of this and it can be changed as we progress, I offer this in a safe, confidential and non judgemental environment. Many of my clients choose to split sessions into 1/2hr Counselling and 1/2hr Hypnotherapy.
01792 989364 View 01792 989364
Photo of Cathrin Wildwood, Counsellor in Carmarthen, Wales
Cathrin Wildwood
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Carmarthen SA31
I am a qualified and experienced therapist, offering individual and couple counselling. I work with clients of all ages, children, young people and adults. If you are feeling low, sad, worried, confused, overwhelmed by life, unable to cope, alone, empty, hurt by past experiences, experiencing painful emotions or if you are dissatisfied with life and longing for something to be different then counselling can be immensely helpful. I have helped people with a range of difficulties including anxiety, low mood, abuse, sexual assault, addictions, eating difficulties, grief, relationship challenges, emotions and stress.
I am a qualified and experienced therapist, offering individual and couple counselling. I work with clients of all ages, children, young people and adults. If you are feeling low, sad, worried, confused, overwhelmed by life, unable to cope, alone, empty, hurt by past experiences, experiencing painful emotions or if you are dissatisfied with life and longing for something to be different then counselling can be immensely helpful. I have helped people with a range of difficulties including anxiety, low mood, abuse, sexual assault, addictions, eating difficulties, grief, relationship challenges, emotions and stress.
01550 919698 View 01550 919698

See more therapy options for Carmarthen

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Carmarthen

20+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Carmarthen who prioritize treating:

82% Anxiety
79% Depression
75% Self Esteem
71% Stress
68% Trauma and PTSD
64% Relationship Issues
61% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

How Counsellors in Carmarthen see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
26% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Carmarthen?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.