Photo of Joanne Robertson, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Joanne Robertson
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Hi, I'm Joanne, I'm a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and EMDR practitioner based in Knutsford, Cheshire. I specialise in working with adults who are struggling with anxiety problems, low confidence, depression and trauma-related difficulties.
Hi, I'm Joanne, I'm a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and EMDR practitioner based in Knutsford, Cheshire. I specialise in working with adults who are struggling with anxiety problems, low confidence, depression and trauma-related difficulties.
01565 743735 View 01565 743735
Photo of Dr Lucy Helena Doherty, Psychologist in WA16, England
Dr Lucy Helena Doherty
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
As a registered health psychologist who’s experienced first-hand what it feels like to be stressed, anxious and burnt out, I’m here to help. I’m friendly and open-minded with an optimistic outlook and a holistic approach. I’m passionate about what I do and am fascinated by the mind-body connection; it really is a magical system and as humans, we need to understand and appreciate it better. No one teaches us how to understand the mind – it certainly doesn’t come with a ready-made manual – but I love knowing that my work makes a huge difference to others.
As a registered health psychologist who’s experienced first-hand what it feels like to be stressed, anxious and burnt out, I’m here to help. I’m friendly and open-minded with an optimistic outlook and a holistic approach. I’m passionate about what I do and am fascinated by the mind-body connection; it really is a magical system and as humans, we need to understand and appreciate it better. No one teaches us how to understand the mind – it certainly doesn’t come with a ready-made manual – but I love knowing that my work makes a huge difference to others.
01625 464156 View 01625 464156
Photo of Ailish Oliver, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Ailish Oliver
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Knutsford WA16  (Online Only)
I am a friendly CBT therapist with five years total experience of psychological practice in voluntary and private sector. I offer unconditional positive regard and empathy as we work together. You can expect to feel attentively listened to as we discuss and address the difficulties you are facing. My therapeutic style is compassion focused; we could all benefit from being a little kinder to ourselves. My goal is for you to build healthier coping tools, emotional resilience and start living the life you want to live.
I am a friendly CBT therapist with five years total experience of psychological practice in voluntary and private sector. I offer unconditional positive regard and empathy as we work together. You can expect to feel attentively listened to as we discuss and address the difficulties you are facing. My therapeutic style is compassion focused; we could all benefit from being a little kinder to ourselves. My goal is for you to build healthier coping tools, emotional resilience and start living the life you want to live.
01565 743906 View 01565 743906
Photo of Lisa Woolfenden, Counsellor in WA16, England
Lisa Woolfenden
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Hello, my name is Lisa, I’m an accredited, experienced counsellor based in Knutsford, Cheshire. We have all faced times in our lives where we have encountered struggles, felt overwhelmed and maybe experiencing problems such as anxiety, depression, relationship issues or losing sense of who we are. You may have support from people around you and gain comfort from this, although sometimes what you may want to talk about may not be simply shared. This is when a talking to a professional counsellor may help to explore coping strategies and work together towards the results you may desire.
Hello, my name is Lisa, I’m an accredited, experienced counsellor based in Knutsford, Cheshire. We have all faced times in our lives where we have encountered struggles, felt overwhelmed and maybe experiencing problems such as anxiety, depression, relationship issues or losing sense of who we are. You may have support from people around you and gain comfort from this, although sometimes what you may want to talk about may not be simply shared. This is when a talking to a professional counsellor may help to explore coping strategies and work together towards the results you may desire.
01565 748954 View 01565 748954
Photo of Neil Gaw, Counsellor in WA16, England
Neil Gaw
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Are you feeling overwhelmed and struggling to deal with life's daily challenges? Are you wanting something different for yourself but are not quite able to understand what it is you need? Have you been surviving for too long and not being living your life to the fullest? Feeling drained and the stresses of each day are getting to you but nobody seems to understand what you are going through? We all feel a little lost sometimes, don't know what decisions are the best ones for us and let the stress of our lives get us down. Together, we can confront your issues and find ways to make your life more manageable.
Are you feeling overwhelmed and struggling to deal with life's daily challenges? Are you wanting something different for yourself but are not quite able to understand what it is you need? Have you been surviving for too long and not being living your life to the fullest? Feeling drained and the stresses of each day are getting to you but nobody seems to understand what you are going through? We all feel a little lost sometimes, don't know what decisions are the best ones for us and let the stress of our lives get us down. Together, we can confront your issues and find ways to make your life more manageable.
01663 790335 View 01663 790335
Photo of Deborah Anne Spencer, Counsellor in WA16, England
Deborah Anne Spencer
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hello, my name is Debbie. Thank you for taking this time to read my profile. This means that you have already taken the first step to improve your Well-being, to be happy & positive, plan & focus on 'your' future. I provide therapy to CYP, Adults & families. Working with presenting issues, such as; anxiety, abuse, bereavement, exploitation, low mood, loss, Parenting & family dynamics, relationship concerns, self harm and many others. I also provide Clinical Supervision to therapists and practitioners.
Hello, my name is Debbie. Thank you for taking this time to read my profile. This means that you have already taken the first step to improve your Well-being, to be happy & positive, plan & focus on 'your' future. I provide therapy to CYP, Adults & families. Working with presenting issues, such as; anxiety, abuse, bereavement, exploitation, low mood, loss, Parenting & family dynamics, relationship concerns, self harm and many others. I also provide Clinical Supervision to therapists and practitioners.
01928 244569 View 01928 244569
Photo of Louise Mackintosh, Counsellor in WA16, England
Louise Mackintosh
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
People decide to look for therapy for many reasons; stress, anxiety or depression, difficulties in relationships; anything that's stopping them living the life they want. I place importance on helping clients understand the causes, not simply focusing on the symptoms. Ultimately, knowing yourself better is the key to a more fulfilling life, with improved relationships and feeling better within yourself on a day to day basis.
People decide to look for therapy for many reasons; stress, anxiety or depression, difficulties in relationships; anything that's stopping them living the life they want. I place importance on helping clients understand the causes, not simply focusing on the symptoms. Ultimately, knowing yourself better is the key to a more fulfilling life, with improved relationships and feeling better within yourself on a day to day basis.
0161 524 0086 View 0161 524 0086
Photo of Janine Lee Norris, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Janine Lee Norris
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Hello, I'm Janine, a dedicated and compassionate trauma-informed therapist. I am a BABCP Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist with over 9 years of experience helping teenagers, and adults overcome a wide range of psychological challenges. I can successfully treat; anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, phobias, and other mental health problems so that you can enjoy life again as you once did.
Hello, I'm Janine, a dedicated and compassionate trauma-informed therapist. I am a BABCP Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist with over 9 years of experience helping teenagers, and adults overcome a wide range of psychological challenges. I can successfully treat; anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, phobias, and other mental health problems so that you can enjoy life again as you once did.
01925 598713 View 01925 598713
Photo of Pippa Brindle, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Pippa Brindle
Psychotherapist, PsychD, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Thank you for finding out more about how I can help you. I understand this is the first step is supporting your emotional well being and can be a daunting one... I am an integrative person-centred psychotherapist working with a variety of issues including bereavement, anxiety, depression, stress and relationships, anger, coping with change, and self-esteem issues with a person centred approach.
Thank you for finding out more about how I can help you. I understand this is the first step is supporting your emotional well being and can be a daunting one... I am an integrative person-centred psychotherapist working with a variety of issues including bereavement, anxiety, depression, stress and relationships, anger, coping with change, and self-esteem issues with a person centred approach.
01606 668815 View 01606 668815
Photo of Julia Summers Psychotherapist & Supervisor, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Julia Summers Psychotherapist & Supervisor
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Are you having problems with your relationship, family or friends? Maybe you are feeling dissatisfied, overwhelmed, guilty, upset or angry? Whatever feelings you have, it usually means pain for you in some way. Counselling isn’t just something people do when they are in crisis or at rock bottom, attending before problems snowball or get too overwhelming can help and save more pain in the long run.
Are you having problems with your relationship, family or friends? Maybe you are feeling dissatisfied, overwhelmed, guilty, upset or angry? Whatever feelings you have, it usually means pain for you in some way. Counselling isn’t just something people do when they are in crisis or at rock bottom, attending before problems snowball or get too overwhelming can help and save more pain in the long run.
0161 524 4816 View 0161 524 4816
Photo of Alison Paul, Counsellor in WA16, England
Alison Paul
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hi. My name is Alison. I am an adult and children and young person's counsellor. During our counselling sessions I will provide you with a non-judgemental and empathic space where we can work together to explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours. I will offer empathy and be there as a listening ear to help you open up and discuss any issues and worries you wish to talk about. We will work at a suitable pace for you to help to understand and talk through the underlying reasons you may be feeling stuck or struggling in life. We’ll explore the past and present to help you to heal and become more self aware so you can move forward.
Hi. My name is Alison. I am an adult and children and young person's counsellor. During our counselling sessions I will provide you with a non-judgemental and empathic space where we can work together to explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours. I will offer empathy and be there as a listening ear to help you open up and discuss any issues and worries you wish to talk about. We will work at a suitable pace for you to help to understand and talk through the underlying reasons you may be feeling stuck or struggling in life. We’ll explore the past and present to help you to heal and become more self aware so you can move forward.
0161 524 1823 View 0161 524 1823
Photo of Hannah Paskin, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Hannah Paskin
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
OCD is constantly changing. Just as you find a way to shut it down, it finds a loophole to come at you - a new variation of an intrusive thought, a new behaviour it convinces you to do, a new topic completely it jumps to. It's a slippery so and so, which is why working with an experienced therapist is so important. Effective treatment isn't just about whatever intrusive thought is at the front of your mind right now, it's about tackling any cycle where you are acting as if your intrusive thoughts are true when they absolutely are not. Treatment isn't easy, most people have had OCD for years before therapy. But it is possible to win
OCD is constantly changing. Just as you find a way to shut it down, it finds a loophole to come at you - a new variation of an intrusive thought, a new behaviour it convinces you to do, a new topic completely it jumps to. It's a slippery so and so, which is why working with an experienced therapist is so important. Effective treatment isn't just about whatever intrusive thought is at the front of your mind right now, it's about tackling any cycle where you are acting as if your intrusive thoughts are true when they absolutely are not. Treatment isn't easy, most people have had OCD for years before therapy. But it is possible to win
01606 531271 View 01606 531271
Photo of Caroline Mallika Tresman, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Caroline Mallika Tresman
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Work with me to quickly and efficiently clear whatever is holding you back. Or maybe you just need someone you feel safe to talk with. How would you feel if you didn’t have those difficult feelings or traumatic memories? Those feelings that can seem impossible or overwhelming really can feel different. Or perhaps you have a current situation to deal with and do not want to dive into the past - I will not make you start from the "beginning". We can work through your experiences in a gentle way, and it could even be fun! Well done on getting this far and considering some support at this time - I would be pleased to work with you.
Work with me to quickly and efficiently clear whatever is holding you back. Or maybe you just need someone you feel safe to talk with. How would you feel if you didn’t have those difficult feelings or traumatic memories? Those feelings that can seem impossible or overwhelming really can feel different. Or perhaps you have a current situation to deal with and do not want to dive into the past - I will not make you start from the "beginning". We can work through your experiences in a gentle way, and it could even be fun! Well done on getting this far and considering some support at this time - I would be pleased to work with you.
01270 447551 View 01270 447551
Photo of Dr Graham Simpson-Adkins, Psychologist in WA16, England
Dr Graham Simpson-Adkins
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
I aim to support any adult, child, young person, family or organisation to maximise their potential and effectively manage the difficulties that life often brings. I believe that by building an understanding of your social, emotional, psychological and physical needs, you can be supported to feel safe, ready to cope and able to achieve the goals that matter to you. My aim will be to help you to explore your needs, to better understand the difficulties you face and to provide tailored psychological support, based on a wide range of evidence based interventions to help develop solutions that work for you.
I aim to support any adult, child, young person, family or organisation to maximise their potential and effectively manage the difficulties that life often brings. I believe that by building an understanding of your social, emotional, psychological and physical needs, you can be supported to feel safe, ready to cope and able to achieve the goals that matter to you. My aim will be to help you to explore your needs, to better understand the difficulties you face and to provide tailored psychological support, based on a wide range of evidence based interventions to help develop solutions that work for you.
01925 931591 View 01925 931591
Photo of Liz Johnson Counselling, Counsellor in WA16, England
Liz Johnson Counselling
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Knutsford WA16  (Online Only)
Practicing since 2013 with individuals and since 2019 with couples, I create a safe space for clients to work through a variety of issues. These include depression, self-esteem, relationships, parental issues, past trauma and communication. With couples I also work with a sexual focus. I work with clients on issues they want to focus on, offering a supportive space, I build a relationship with my clients, exploring their backgrounds to help support their future. I ensure my clients feel heard and safe in order for them to flourish.
Practicing since 2013 with individuals and since 2019 with couples, I create a safe space for clients to work through a variety of issues. These include depression, self-esteem, relationships, parental issues, past trauma and communication. With couples I also work with a sexual focus. I work with clients on issues they want to focus on, offering a supportive space, I build a relationship with my clients, exploring their backgrounds to help support their future. I ensure my clients feel heard and safe in order for them to flourish.
0161 524 4914 View 0161 524 4914
Photo of Sarah Savage, Counsellor in WA16, England
Sarah Savage
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
I am passionate in helping clients to take the right steps for them. I support you, to make a difference or find an acceptance in everyday life. I work with my clients in exploring the difficulties fears re experiencing and we work to gain an understanding of thoughts and feelings. Their emotional disturbance can be discussed and put in to perspective to help make changes to the unhealthy thought or behavioural patterns. Sometimes, addressing where the negative beliefs have originated from, helps to find the positive changes and overcomes the difficulties. Giving my clients a new awareness, growth and belief.
I am passionate in helping clients to take the right steps for them. I support you, to make a difference or find an acceptance in everyday life. I work with my clients in exploring the difficulties fears re experiencing and we work to gain an understanding of thoughts and feelings. Their emotional disturbance can be discussed and put in to perspective to help make changes to the unhealthy thought or behavioural patterns. Sometimes, addressing where the negative beliefs have originated from, helps to find the positive changes and overcomes the difficulties. Giving my clients a new awareness, growth and belief.
01625 380490 View 01625 380490
Photo of Beyond Barriers Therapy Services, Psychologist in WA16, England
Beyond Barriers Therapy Services
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
If you have been struggling with anxiety, self-criticism, shame, low mood, difficult emotions & relationships, it may be the right time to find a trusted therapist; someone to help you understand & grow from the effects of adversity, stress & trauma. Our wellbeing can be affected by many things - work stress, early adversity, significant trauma or relationships, and we do our best to find helpful coping strategies. When our ways of coping don't work so well, we can feel stuck and isolated - psychological therapy can help us move beyond those barriers. I focus on you as an individual, without using labels or diagnoses.
If you have been struggling with anxiety, self-criticism, shame, low mood, difficult emotions & relationships, it may be the right time to find a trusted therapist; someone to help you understand & grow from the effects of adversity, stress & trauma. Our wellbeing can be affected by many things - work stress, early adversity, significant trauma or relationships, and we do our best to find helpful coping strategies. When our ways of coping don't work so well, we can feel stuck and isolated - psychological therapy can help us move beyond those barriers. I focus on you as an individual, without using labels or diagnoses.
07723 490322 View 07723 490322
Photo of Jo Barritt, Counsellor in WA16, England
Jo Barritt
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Knutsford WA16  (Online Only)
Hi, I'm Jo, I'm a qualified counsellor and have many years of experience. I currently work for the NHS as well as in private practice.  I understand that sometimes we all need someone to talk to, life can become overwhelming, confusing, or distressing for anyone, for many different reasons.  This is where counselling, and I, can be useful.  Counselling can be just the place to untangle your thoughts and make sense of what is going on for you, and how you might like it to change. I recognise that everyone is different. We are all individuals, and I therefore believe that therapy should also be unique to you, and your experience.
Hi, I'm Jo, I'm a qualified counsellor and have many years of experience. I currently work for the NHS as well as in private practice.  I understand that sometimes we all need someone to talk to, life can become overwhelming, confusing, or distressing for anyone, for many different reasons.  This is where counselling, and I, can be useful.  Counselling can be just the place to untangle your thoughts and make sense of what is going on for you, and how you might like it to change. I recognise that everyone is different. We are all individuals, and I therefore believe that therapy should also be unique to you, and your experience.
07447 986856 View 07447 986856
Photo of Sallyann Meadowcroft, Counsellor in WA16, England
Sallyann Meadowcroft
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Welcome I’m Sally, life is a roller coaster, we ride the highs and struggle with the painful lows. I understand taking the step to seek help and share your experiences is hard and scary, it takes courage, so trust is paramount within the therapeutic relationship. I offer a safe, supportive, non judgmental and empathetic environment, taking your direction to walk along side you. Time is precious, our own needs are usually low on our list. Focusing on ourselves and investing in our well-being enables growth and clarity. Self love is core in all of our relationships. Finding our own inner happiness and taking power back, creates peace
Welcome I’m Sally, life is a roller coaster, we ride the highs and struggle with the painful lows. I understand taking the step to seek help and share your experiences is hard and scary, it takes courage, so trust is paramount within the therapeutic relationship. I offer a safe, supportive, non judgmental and empathetic environment, taking your direction to walk along side you. Time is precious, our own needs are usually low on our list. Focusing on ourselves and investing in our well-being enables growth and clarity. Self love is core in all of our relationships. Finding our own inner happiness and taking power back, creates peace
01925 986804 View 01925 986804
Photo of Daniel Quinn, Psychotherapist in WA16, England
Daniel Quinn
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a structured, psychological approach recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for the treatment of a number of common difficulties including: Depression, Panic Disorder, GAD (Worry) Social Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Health Anxiety and specific phobias. Additionally, I can offer support with issues such as low self esteem, anger, stress, poor sleep etc. You do not need a formal diagnosis, together we can collaboratively explore your thoughts and feelings.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a structured, psychological approach recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for the treatment of a number of common difficulties including: Depression, Panic Disorder, GAD (Worry) Social Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Health Anxiety and specific phobias. Additionally, I can offer support with issues such as low self esteem, anger, stress, poor sleep etc. You do not need a formal diagnosis, together we can collaboratively explore your thoughts and feelings.
0161 524 7167 View 0161 524 7167

See more therapy options for WA16

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in WA16

30+

Average cost per session

£72

Counsellors in WA16 who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
97% Stress
89% Self Esteem
86% Depression
74% Relationship Issues
74% Trauma and PTSD
74% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% AXA PPP
73% Aviva
67% Vitality

How Counsellors in WA16 see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
17% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in WA16?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.